Abstract

A ground-based, high power differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been implemented to make long term, precise measurements of stratospheric ozone concentration profiles from ~20- to 50-km altitude. This lidar is located at an elevation of 2300 m in the San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California, and has been in operation since January 1988. Evaluation of the results obtained from this system has been provided through an intercomparison campaign, carried out during October/November 1988, and through long term comparison with SAGE II satellite measurements. This paper describes the implementation of the system and its operation, including the procedures for data analysis. Examples of ozone profiles measured and intercomparisons with measurements made by other instruments are presented which show that the lidar is capable of producing high quality ozone measurements up to at least 45-km altitude.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. T. WatsonOzone Trends Panel, M. J. PratherAd Hoc Theory Panel, M. J. KuryloNASA Panel for Data Evaluation, “Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1988: An Assessment Report,” NASA Reference Publication 1208 (1988).
  2. WMO Report No. 16, Atmospheric Ozone 1985, Chapter 13, “Model Predictions of Ozone Changes,” 3, 721–788 (1985) and references therein.
  3. NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program, “Network for the Early Detection of Stratospheric Change,” Report of the Boulder Workshop, CO (5–7 Mar. 1986).
  4. I. S. McDermid, “Ground-Based Lidar and Atmospheric Studies,” Surv. Geophys. 9, 107–122 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).
  6. T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1990).
  7. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, M. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer-Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347–349 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. Uchino, “Ozone DIAL Measurements at MRI,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec.1989).
  11. H. Nakane, “Ozone DIAL Measurements at NIES,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec. 1989).
  12. Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Appl. Opt., submitted.
  13. J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137–139 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Active Optical Sounding of Ozone and Minor Constituents in the Middle Atmosphere: A Review of Ground-Based Lidar Measurements,” in Handbook for MAP, R. A. Vincent, Ed., SCOSTEP13, 69–86 (1984).
  16. J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Geh, H. Claude, “The Ozone DIAL at Hohenpeissenberg: Experimental Setup, Data Analysis and Intercomparisons,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec. 1989).
  19. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984); R. M. Measures, Ed. Laser Remote Chemical Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1988), and references therein.
  20. U.S. Standard Atmosphere, NOAA-S/T 76-1562, (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 1976).
  21. K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnet, B. Edwards, Eds., “Atmospheric Structure and Its Variation in the Region 20 to 120 km: Draft of a New Reference Middle Atmosphere,” in Handbook for MAP, SCOSTEP, 16 (1985).
  22. S. Godin, “Etude Expérimentale par Télédétection Laser et Modélisation de la Distribution Verticale d’Ozone dans la Haute Stratosphère,” Thesis, U. Paris VI (1987).
  23. V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Raman Shifting of Nd:YAG Fourth Harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD, and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 1292–1298 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, H. Shimzu, “Improvement on Lidar Data Processing for Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5299–5306 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. B. Russell, M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8335–8338 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Russell et al., “ATMOS: Measurements of Odd Nitrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere by the ATMOS Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1735 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  30. I. S. McDermid et al., “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Appl. Opt.29, in press.
    [PubMed]
  31. I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, ECC Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Sonde, and SAGE II Satellite Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  32. WMO Report No. 18, Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel—1988, in press (1989).
  33. D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1990

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Raman Shifting of Nd:YAG Fourth Harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD, and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 1292–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, ECC Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Sonde, and SAGE II Satellite Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8335–8338 (1989).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

1988

J. M. Russell et al., “ATMOS: Measurements of Odd Nitrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere by the ATMOS Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1735 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137–139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Barnet, J. J.

K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnet, B. Edwards, Eds., “Atmospheric Structure and Its Variation in the Region 20 to 120 km: Draft of a New Reference Middle Atmosphere,” in Handbook for MAP, SCOSTEP, 16 (1985).

Borisov, V. M.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Buffa, R.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Burris, J. F.

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1990).

Butler, J. J.

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1990).

Chu, W. P.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Claude, H.

B. Geh, H. Claude, “The Ozone DIAL at Hohenpeissenberg: Experimental Setup, Data Analysis and Intercomparisons,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec. 1989).

Cunnold, D. M.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, B.

K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnet, B. Edwards, Eds., “Atmospheric Structure and Its Variation in the Region 20 to 120 km: Draft of a New Reference Middle Atmosphere,” in Handbook for MAP, SCOSTEP, 16 (1985).

Falsini, P.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1990).

Geh, B.

B. Geh, H. Claude, “The Ozone DIAL at Hohenpeissenberg: Experimental Setup, Data Analysis and Intercomparisons,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec. 1989).

Godin, S.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Godin, “Etude Expérimentale par Télédétection Laser et Modélisation de la Distribution Verticale d’Ozone dans la Haute Stratosphère,” Thesis, U. Paris VI (1987).

Godin, S. M.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

Haner, D. A.

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Raman Shifting of Nd:YAG Fourth Harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD, and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 1292–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida-Amano, S.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Appl. Opt., submitted.

Hirono, M.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iikura, Y.

Kiryukhin, Yu. B.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kohno, J.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kurylo, M. J.

R. T. WatsonOzone Trends Panel, M. J. PratherAd Hoc Theory Panel, M. J. KuryloNASA Panel for Data Evaluation, “Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1988: An Assessment Report,” NASA Reference Publication 1208 (1988).

Labitzke, K.

K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnet, B. Edwards, Eds., “Atmospheric Structure and Its Variation in the Region 20 to 120 km: Draft of a New Reference Middle Atmosphere,” in Handbook for MAP, SCOSTEP, 16 (1985).

Maeda, M.

O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, M. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer-Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347–349 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, I.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Appl. Opt., submitted.

McCormick, M. P.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8335–8338 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Raman Shifting of Nd:YAG Fourth Harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD, and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 1292–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, ECC Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Sonde, and SAGE II Satellite Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

I. S. McDermid, “Ground-Based Lidar and Atmospheric Studies,” Surv. Geophys. 9, 107–122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid et al., “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Appl. Opt.29, in press.
[PubMed]

McGee, T. J.

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1990).

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984); R. M. Measures, Ed. Laser Remote Chemical Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1988), and references therein.

Megie, G.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137–139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Active Optical Sounding of Ozone and Minor Constituents in the Middle Atmosphere: A Review of Ground-Based Lidar Measurements,” in Handbook for MAP, R. A. Vincent, Ed., SCOSTEP13, 69–86 (1984).

Minato, A.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Appl. Opt., submitted.

Miyazoe, Y.

Nagasawa, C.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nakane, H.

H. Nakane, “Ozone DIAL Measurements at NIES,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec. 1989).

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Appl. Opt., submitted.

Pelon, J.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137–139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Active Optical Sounding of Ozone and Minor Constituents in the Middle Atmosphere: A Review of Ground-Based Lidar Measurements,” in Handbook for MAP, R. A. Vincent, Ed., SCOSTEP13, 69–86 (1984).

Pini, R.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Prather, M. J.

R. T. WatsonOzone Trends Panel, M. J. PratherAd Hoc Theory Panel, M. J. KuryloNASA Panel for Data Evaluation, “Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1988: An Assessment Report,” NASA Reference Publication 1208 (1988).

Rothe, K. W.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

J. M. Russell et al., “ATMOS: Measurements of Odd Nitrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere by the ATMOS Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1735 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8335–8338 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Salimbeni, R.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, H. Shimzu, “Improvement on Lidar Data Processing for Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5299–5306 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Appl. Opt., submitted.

Shibata, T.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shimzu, H.

Stepanov, Yu.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, H. Shimzu, “Improvement on Lidar Data Processing for Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5299–5306 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Appl. Opt., submitted.

Tokunaga, M.

Uchino, O.

O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, M. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer-Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347–349 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, “Ozone DIAL Measurements at MRI,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec.1989).

Vannini, M.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Veiga, R. E.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vinokhodov, A. Yu.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. H.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Watson, R. T.

R. T. WatsonOzone Trends Panel, M. J. PratherAd Hoc Theory Panel, M. J. KuryloNASA Panel for Data Evaluation, “Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1988: An Assessment Report,” NASA Reference Publication 1208 (1988).

Werner, J.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1990).

Yusuf Haider, A. F. M.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Raman Shifting of Nd:YAG Fourth Harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD, and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 1292–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8335–8338 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell et al., “ATMOS: Measurements of Odd Nitrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere by the ATMOS Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1735 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5605–5612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, ECC Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Sonde, and SAGE II Satellite Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Megie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nature London

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137–139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Surv. Geophys.

I. S. McDermid, “Ground-Based Lidar and Atmospheric Studies,” Surv. Geophys. 9, 107–122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Active Optical Sounding of Ozone and Minor Constituents in the Middle Atmosphere: A Review of Ground-Based Lidar Measurements,” in Handbook for MAP, R. A. Vincent, Ed., SCOSTEP13, 69–86 (1984).

B. Geh, H. Claude, “The Ozone DIAL at Hohenpeissenberg: Experimental Setup, Data Analysis and Intercomparisons,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec. 1989).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984); R. M. Measures, Ed. Laser Remote Chemical Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1988), and references therein.

U.S. Standard Atmosphere, NOAA-S/T 76-1562, (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 1976).

K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnet, B. Edwards, Eds., “Atmospheric Structure and Its Variation in the Region 20 to 120 km: Draft of a New Reference Middle Atmosphere,” in Handbook for MAP, SCOSTEP, 16 (1985).

S. Godin, “Etude Expérimentale par Télédétection Laser et Modélisation de la Distribution Verticale d’Ozone dans la Haute Stratosphère,” Thesis, U. Paris VI (1987).

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1990).

R. T. WatsonOzone Trends Panel, M. J. PratherAd Hoc Theory Panel, M. J. KuryloNASA Panel for Data Evaluation, “Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1988: An Assessment Report,” NASA Reference Publication 1208 (1988).

WMO Report No. 16, Atmospheric Ozone 1985, Chapter 13, “Model Predictions of Ozone Changes,” 3, 721–788 (1985) and references therein.

NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program, “Network for the Early Detection of Stratospheric Change,” Report of the Boulder Workshop, CO (5–7 Mar. 1986).

O. Uchino, “Ozone DIAL Measurements at MRI,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec.1989).

H. Nakane, “Ozone DIAL Measurements at NIES,” in Abstracts, First Tsukuba Workshop on Ozone DIAL, Tsukuba, Japan (Dec. 1989).

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Appl. Opt., submitted.

WMO Report No. 18, Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel—1988, in press (1989).

I. S. McDermid et al., “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Appl. Opt.29, in press.
[PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the excimer laser transmitter system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the receiver system including the wavelength separation optics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the data acquisition electronics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of ozone profiles measured with the high intensity (solid lines) and low intensity (dotted lines) receiver channels. The two sets of lines represent the limits of the statistical error bars.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of individual lidar measurements (crosses) and individual SAGE II measurements made within 1000 km of the lidar (circles) for 35-km altitude.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ozone profiles measured on 31 Oct. 1988 by the instruments indicated in the legend. A numerical comparison of these profiles is given in Table III.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ozone profiles measured on 1 Nov. 1988 by the instruments indicated in the legend. The disparity with the SAGE II measurement is due to the measurement being at a different latitude. A numerical comparison of these profiles is given in Table IV.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Specifications of the Laser Transmitter System

Tables Icon

Table II Efficiencies for the Optical Receiver System

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of Individual Profile Measurements to the Average of All the Measurements Made on 31 Oct. 1988

Tables Icon

Table IV Comparison of Individual Profile Measurements Made on 1 Nov. 1988, to the Average, Excluding SAGE II, of All the Measurements

Tables Icon

Table V Performance Assessment for the Ldar

Equations (3)

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S ( λ , R ) = E ξ ( R ) ξ ( λ ) ( A / R 2 ) [ β R ( R ) + β A ( R ) ] Δ R × exp { - 2 R 0 R [ α R ( R ) + α A ( R ) + α 03 ( R ) + Σ α ι ( R ) ] d R } ,
N ( R ) = 1 2 σ { d d R ln [ S ( λ 0 , R ) - B ( λ 0 , R ) ] - d d R ln [ S ( λ w , R ) - B ( λ w , R ) - d d R ln β ( λ 0 , R ) β ( λ w , R ) - 2 [ α ( λ 0 , R ) - α ( λ w , R ) ] } ,
B ( λ , R ) = a ( λ ) exp [ - b ( λ ) R ] + c ( λ ) ,

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