Abstract

To substantiate the NPL primary standard cryogenic radiometer as an absolute instrument it has been compared with the cryogenic radiometer which was successfully used to determine the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The comparison was carried out with an accuracy of better than 0.02% by the independent determination of the spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes with each radiometer. Only a detector comprising a number of silicon photodiodes (a trap device) had the required stability to achieve the desired accuracy. Four trap devices were found to have near unity internal quantum efficiency, being self-consistent to within 0.01%.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. R. Blevin, “Optical Radiometry—One Hundred Years After Stefan and Boltzmann,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 1–9 (1988).
  2. D. C. Ginnings, M. L. Reilly, “Calorimetric Measurement at Thermodynamic Temperatures above 0°C using Total Black Body Radiation,” Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Instrum. Soc. Am. 4, 339–348 (1972).
  3. T. J. Quinn, J. E. Martin, “A Radiometric Determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant and Thermodynamic Temperatures Between −40°C and +100°C,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 316, 85–189 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Martin, T. J. Quinn, B. Chu, “Further Measurements of Thermodynamic Temperature Using a Total Radiation Thermometer: the Range −130°C to +60°C,” Metrologia 25, 107–112 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. N. Taylor, T. J. Witt, “New International Electrical Reference Standards Based on the Josephson and Quantum Hall Effects,” Metrologia 26, 47–62 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, “The 1986 Adjustment of the Fundamental Physical Constants,” CODATA Bull. 63, 11–12 (1986).
  7. J. E. Martin, N. P. Fox, P. J. Key, “A Cryogenic Radiometer for Absolute Radiometric Measurements,” Metrologia 21, 147–155 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. F. Zalewski,a P. J. Key,b J. E. Martin,b J. B. Fowler,a and J. Geist,a (a NIST, Washington;b NPL, Toddington) unpublished results.
  9. N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “The Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 31–37 (1988).
  10. N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “A Further Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1109, 227–235 (1989).
  11. T. J. Quinn, Temperature (Academic, New York, 1983).
  12. J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology; private communication.
  13. E. F. Zalewski, J. Geist, “Silicon Photodiode Absolute Spectral Response Self-Calibration,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1214–1216 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

B. N. Taylor, T. J. Witt, “New International Electrical Reference Standards Based on the Josephson and Quantum Hall Effects,” Metrologia 26, 47–62 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “A Further Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1109, 227–235 (1989).

1988

W. R. Blevin, “Optical Radiometry—One Hundred Years After Stefan and Boltzmann,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 1–9 (1988).

J. E. Martin, T. J. Quinn, B. Chu, “Further Measurements of Thermodynamic Temperature Using a Total Radiation Thermometer: the Range −130°C to +60°C,” Metrologia 25, 107–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “The Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 31–37 (1988).

1986

E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, “The 1986 Adjustment of the Fundamental Physical Constants,” CODATA Bull. 63, 11–12 (1986).

1985

J. E. Martin, N. P. Fox, P. J. Key, “A Cryogenic Radiometer for Absolute Radiometric Measurements,” Metrologia 21, 147–155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, J. E. Martin, “A Radiometric Determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant and Thermodynamic Temperatures Between −40°C and +100°C,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 316, 85–189 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980

1972

D. C. Ginnings, M. L. Reilly, “Calorimetric Measurement at Thermodynamic Temperatures above 0°C using Total Black Body Radiation,” Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Instrum. Soc. Am. 4, 339–348 (1972).

Blevin, W. R.

W. R. Blevin, “Optical Radiometry—One Hundred Years After Stefan and Boltzmann,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 1–9 (1988).

Chu, B.

J. E. Martin, T. J. Quinn, B. Chu, “Further Measurements of Thermodynamic Temperature Using a Total Radiation Thermometer: the Range −130°C to +60°C,” Metrologia 25, 107–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, E. R.

E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, “The 1986 Adjustment of the Fundamental Physical Constants,” CODATA Bull. 63, 11–12 (1986).

Fox, N. P.

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “A Further Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1109, 227–235 (1989).

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “The Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 31–37 (1988).

J. E. Martin, N. P. Fox, P. J. Key, “A Cryogenic Radiometer for Absolute Radiometric Measurements,” Metrologia 21, 147–155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Geist, J.

E. F. Zalewski, J. Geist, “Silicon Photodiode Absolute Spectral Response Self-Calibration,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1214–1216 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology; private communication.

Ginnings, D. C.

D. C. Ginnings, M. L. Reilly, “Calorimetric Measurement at Thermodynamic Temperatures above 0°C using Total Black Body Radiation,” Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Instrum. Soc. Am. 4, 339–348 (1972).

Key, P. J.

J. E. Martin, N. P. Fox, P. J. Key, “A Cryogenic Radiometer for Absolute Radiometric Measurements,” Metrologia 21, 147–155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. E.

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “A Further Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1109, 227–235 (1989).

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “The Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 31–37 (1988).

J. E. Martin, T. J. Quinn, B. Chu, “Further Measurements of Thermodynamic Temperature Using a Total Radiation Thermometer: the Range −130°C to +60°C,” Metrologia 25, 107–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, J. E. Martin, “A Radiometric Determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant and Thermodynamic Temperatures Between −40°C and +100°C,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 316, 85–189 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Martin, N. P. Fox, P. J. Key, “A Cryogenic Radiometer for Absolute Radiometric Measurements,” Metrologia 21, 147–155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

J. E. Martin, T. J. Quinn, B. Chu, “Further Measurements of Thermodynamic Temperature Using a Total Radiation Thermometer: the Range −130°C to +60°C,” Metrologia 25, 107–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, J. E. Martin, “A Radiometric Determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant and Thermodynamic Temperatures Between −40°C and +100°C,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 316, 85–189 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, Temperature (Academic, New York, 1983).

Reilly, M. L.

D. C. Ginnings, M. L. Reilly, “Calorimetric Measurement at Thermodynamic Temperatures above 0°C using Total Black Body Radiation,” Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Instrum. Soc. Am. 4, 339–348 (1972).

Taylor, B. N.

B. N. Taylor, T. J. Witt, “New International Electrical Reference Standards Based on the Josephson and Quantum Hall Effects,” Metrologia 26, 47–62 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, “The 1986 Adjustment of the Fundamental Physical Constants,” CODATA Bull. 63, 11–12 (1986).

Witt, T. J.

B. N. Taylor, T. J. Witt, “New International Electrical Reference Standards Based on the Josephson and Quantum Hall Effects,” Metrologia 26, 47–62 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zalewski, E. F.

E. F. Zalewski, J. Geist, “Silicon Photodiode Absolute Spectral Response Self-Calibration,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1214–1216 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology; private communication.

Appl. Opt.

CODATA Bull.

E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, “The 1986 Adjustment of the Fundamental Physical Constants,” CODATA Bull. 63, 11–12 (1986).

Metrologia

J. E. Martin, N. P. Fox, P. J. Key, “A Cryogenic Radiometer for Absolute Radiometric Measurements,” Metrologia 21, 147–155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Martin, T. J. Quinn, B. Chu, “Further Measurements of Thermodynamic Temperature Using a Total Radiation Thermometer: the Range −130°C to +60°C,” Metrologia 25, 107–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Taylor, T. J. Witt, “New International Electrical Reference Standards Based on the Josephson and Quantum Hall Effects,” Metrologia 26, 47–62 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A

T. J. Quinn, J. E. Martin, “A Radiometric Determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant and Thermodynamic Temperatures Between −40°C and +100°C,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 316, 85–189 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “A Further Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1109, 227–235 (1989).

Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry

N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “The Intercomparison of Two Cryogenic Radiometers,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 31–37 (1988).

W. R. Blevin, “Optical Radiometry—One Hundred Years After Stefan and Boltzmann,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Optical Radiometry, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 1–9 (1988).

Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry

D. C. Ginnings, M. L. Reilly, “Calorimetric Measurement at Thermodynamic Temperatures above 0°C using Total Black Body Radiation,” Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Instrum. Soc. Am. 4, 339–348 (1972).

Other

E. F. Zalewski,a P. J. Key,b J. E. Martin,b J. B. Fowler,a and J. Geist,a (a NIST, Washington;b NPL, Toddington) unpublished results.

T. J. Quinn, Temperature (Academic, New York, 1983).

J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology; private communication.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the modified TRT (Q-M radiometer) with the black body removed so that a laser beam can irradiate the radiometer cavity. A—laser beam, B—Brewster angle window, C—lower vacuum chamber, D—gate valve, E and E′—scatter detectors, F and F′—radiation traps, G—cavity, H and H′—heater, K—heat link, J—germanium resistance thermometer, L—constant temperature heat sink (a superfluid helium bath), M—helium reservoir, N and P—copper tubes/radiation shields, Q—outer vacuum chamber, R—pumping port.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the P.S. radiometer. A—laser beam, B—Brewster angle window, C—lower vacuum chamber, D—gate valve, E and E′—scatter detectors, F and F′—radiation traps, G—cavity, H and H′—heater, K—heat link, J—germanium resistance thermometer, L—constant temperature heat sink (a copper block), M—helium reservoir, N, O, and P—copper tubes/radiation shields, Q—outer vacuum chamber, R—pumping port.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical and electrical system used with the radiometers for measuring the spectral responsivity of the silicon photodiodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral responsivities of two sets of Hamamatsu photodiodes as measured by the two radiometers during the first comparison over a period of 8 days. The responsivities are plotted as the deviation from the mean for each set as measured with the Q-M radiometer. The error bars represent the combination in quadrature of the uncertainty in the laser power measurement (from Table I) and the uncertainty of the photodiode measurement (of the order 4.5 parts in 104).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Changes in the spectral responsivity of sets of photodiodes of different types determined with the P.S. radiometer over a 27-hour period.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic representation of the trap device. The electrical outputs of the photodiodes are connected in parallel to sum the output current. Iin and Iout refer to the total radiation entering and exiting from the device, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral responsivities of six trap devices as measured by the two radiometers during the second comparison over a period of four days. The spectral responsivities are plotted as the deviation from the mean responsivity for each device as measured with the Q-M radiometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral responsivities of trap devices A, C, E, and F as measured by the two radiometers during the second comparison. They are plotted as the deviation from the mean for each device as measured with the Q-M radiometer. The solid lines represent the fit of the linear regression and the error bars represent the combination in quadrature of the uncertainty in the laser power, measurement (Table I), and the uncertainty in the photodiode measurements, 5 parts in 105.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I The Corrections and Uncertainties that Are Applied to the Measurement of the Laser Power for Each Radiometer; Values are Given as Parts In 104

Tables Icon

Table II The Spectral Responsivities of the Trap Devices as Measured by Each Radiometer

Tables Icon

Table III Values of the Measured Spectral Responsivity, the Measured Reflectance and the Corrected Internal Quantum Efficiency for the Six Trap Devices

Equations (3)

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σ = ( 5.66958 ± 0.00076 ) × 10 - 8 W m - 2 K - 4 .
σ = ( 5.67051 ± 0.00019 ) × 10 - 8 W m - 2 K - 4 ,
i = ( R h c ) / [ n e λ ( 1 - ρ ) ] ,

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