Abstract

We present measurements of the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of rubidium bromide opaque photocathodes over the 44–1560-Å wavelength range. We achieved QDEs of >60% at λ = 68 Å, and >40% at λ ≈ 920 Å, for RbBr photocathode layers applied to the surface of microchannel plates (MCPs). The photoelectric threshold is observed at λ ≈ 1560 Å, and there is a broad (≈100-Å) QDE minimum centered at λ ≈ 775 Å which correlates with 2× the band gap energy for RbBr. The QDE is characterized by four peaks centered at λ ≈ 68 Å, λ ≈ 400 Å, λ ≈ 600 Å, and ≈1050 Å. The QDE peaks at λ ≈ 400 Å, ≈600 Å, and ≈1050 Å correspond with emission of 3, 2, and 1 photoelectrons, respectively. The QDE at the λ ≈ 68-Å peak is associated with a d-f resonant absorption feature of RbBr. QDE contributions of the photocathode material inside the channels, and on the interchannel web, have been determined. Measurements of the angular variation of the QDE from 0° to 35° to the channel axis are also presented. We describe a simple QDE model and show that its predictions are in accord with the QDE measurements. Preliminary assessment of the stability of RbBr indicates that no QDE degradation occurs after limited exposure (20 h) to air at low humidity (<30%). Examination of the photocathode structure with an electron microscope reveals a rough surface with a scale of the order of 0.5 μm.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206–4207 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, A. E. Unzicker, N. Swanson, “Quantum Efficiency of Cesium Iodide Photocathodes at Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2440–2446 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117–124 (1986).
  5. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 256, 401–405 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Efficiency of Opaque Alkali Halide Photocathodes on Microchannel Plates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 868, 18–24 (1987).
  8. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide Photocathode Layers on Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1568–1573 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Hull, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Chloride Photocathode Layers on Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4323–4330 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. W. Fraser, “The Characterisation of Soft X-Ray Photocathodes in the Wavelength Band 1–300 Å, (B) Caesium Iodide and Other Insulators of High Photoelectric Yield,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 265–279 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. B. Lapson, J. G. Timothy, “Use of MgF2 and LiF Photocathodes in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 12, 388–393 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. B. Lapson, J. G. Timothy, “Channel Electron Multipliers: Detection Efficiencies with Opaque MgF2 Photocathodes at XUV Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1218–1221 (1976).
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  14. G. W. Fraser, “The Characterisation of Soft X-Ray Photocathodes in the Wavelength Band 1–300 Å, (A) Lead Glass, Lithium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 251–263 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiences of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879–1887 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated Microchannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The Stability of Cesium Iodide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–467 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Onuki, “Photoelectric Emission from Alkali Halides,” Sci. Light Tokyo 23, 54–71 (1974).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Teegarden, G. Baldini, “Optical Absorption Spectra of the Alkali Halides at 10°K,” Phys. Rev. 155, 896–907 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Saito et al., “Absorption Spectra of KCl and RbCl in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1861–1864 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, “Fotoionisation Absorption in Ionenkristallen,” Rontgenspektren und chemische bindung, Karl-Marx Univ., Leipzig187–193 (1966).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117–1131 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776–779 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004–3021 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, “0.1–10 keV X-Ray Induced Electron Emissions from Solids—Model and Secondary Electron Measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1852–1866 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. L. Henke, “Low Energy X-Ray Interactions: Photoionization, Scattering, Specular and Bragg Reflection,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 146–155 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766–2775 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. II. Transmission Secondary Emission from Alkali Halides,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2776–2792 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239–5242 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. J. Peimann, M. Skibowski, “Dielectric Properties of the Rubidium Halide Crystals in the Extreme Ultraviolet up to 30 eV,” Phys. Status Solidi 46, 655–665 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  34. G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863–870 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  35. V. Saile, N. Schwentner, M. Skibowski, W. Steinmann, W. Zierau, “Optical Excitation of the Rb+4p Level in Rubidium Halides at 8K°,” Phys. Lett. A 46, 245–246 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445–449 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. S. Inouye, W. Pong, “Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectra of Rubidium Halides,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 2265–2272 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1988

1987

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 256, 401–405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Efficiency of Opaque Alkali Halide Photocathodes on Microchannel Plates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 868, 18–24 (1987).

1986

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117–124 (1986).

M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, A. E. Unzicker, N. Swanson, “Quantum Efficiency of Cesium Iodide Photocathodes at Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2440–2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated Microchannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The Stability of Cesium Iodide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Characterisation of Soft X-Ray Photocathodes in the Wavelength Band 1–300 Å, (A) Lead Glass, Lithium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 251–263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Characterisation of Soft X-Ray Photocathodes in the Wavelength Band 1–300 Å, (B) Caesium Iodide and Other Insulators of High Photoelectric Yield,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 265–279 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445–449 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

1981

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, “Low Energy X-Ray Interactions: Photoionization, Scattering, Specular and Bragg Reflection,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 146–155 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004–3021 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, “0.1–10 keV X-Ray Induced Electron Emissions from Solids—Model and Secondary Electron Measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1852–1866 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Inouye, W. Pong, “Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectra of Rubidium Halides,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 2265–2272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1974

H. Onuki, “Photoelectric Emission from Alkali Halides,” Sci. Light Tokyo 23, 54–71 (1974).

1973

V. Saile, N. Schwentner, M. Skibowski, W. Steinmann, W. Zierau, “Optical Excitation of the Rb+4p Level in Rubidium Halides at 8K°,” Phys. Lett. A 46, 245–246 (1973).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Lapson, J. G. Timothy, “Use of MgF2 and LiF Photocathodes in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 12, 388–393 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239–5242 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

C. J. Peimann, M. Skibowski, “Dielectric Properties of the Rubidium Halide Crystals in the Extreme Ultraviolet up to 30 eV,” Phys. Status Solidi 46, 655–665 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

H. Saito et al., “Absorption Spectra of KCl and RbCl in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1861–1864 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117–1131 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766–2775 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. II. Transmission Secondary Emission from Alkali Halides,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2776–2792 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863–870 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. Saito, S. Saito, R. Onaka, B. Ikeo, “Extreme Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 1095–1098 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

K. Teegarden, G. Baldini, “Optical Absorption Spectra of the Alkali Halides at 10°K,” Phys. Rev. 155, 896–907 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965

P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiences of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879–1887 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1959

J. E. Eby, K. J. Teegarden, D. B. Dutton, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 116, 1099–1105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Anger, H. O.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baldini, G.

G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863–870 (1968).
[CrossRef]

K. Teegarden, G. Baldini, “Optical Absorption Spectra of the Alkali Halides at 10°K,” Phys. Rev. 155, 896–907 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Barstow, M. A.

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated Microchannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bastawros, A. M.

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239–5242 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bixler, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117–124 (1986).

Bosacchi, B.

G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863–870 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117–1131 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Coburn, K.

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Dietz, E. R.

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The Stability of Cesium Iodide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, D. B.

J. E. Eby, K. J. Teegarden, D. B. Dutton, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 116, 1099–1105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Eby, J. E.

J. E. Eby, K. J. Teegarden, D. B. Dutton, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 116, 1099–1105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Everman, E.

Fraser, G. W.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 256, 401–405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated Microchannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Characterisation of Soft X-Ray Photocathodes in the Wavelength Band 1–300 Å, (B) Caesium Iodide and Other Insulators of High Photoelectric Yield,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 265–279 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Characterisation of Soft X-Ray Photocathodes in the Wavelength Band 1–300 Å, (A) Lead Glass, Lithium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 251–263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445–449 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, G. G.

Garwin, E. L.

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. II. Transmission Secondary Emission from Alkali Halides,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2776–2792 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766–2775 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Grais, K. I.

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239–5242 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Haensel, R.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117–1131 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The Stability of Cesium Iodide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, “Low Energy X-Ray Interactions: Photoionization, Scattering, Specular and Bragg Reflection,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 146–155 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004–3021 (1979).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, “0.1–10 keV X-Ray Induced Electron Emissions from Solids—Model and Secondary Electron Measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1852–1866 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hull, J.

Ikeo, B.

H. Saito, S. Saito, R. Onaka, B. Ikeo, “Extreme Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 1095–1098 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, C. S.

C. S. Inouye, W. Pong, “Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectra of Rubidium Halides,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 2265–2272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, P.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, J. P.

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Labov, S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117–124 (1986).

Lampton, M.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide Photocathode Layers on Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1568–1573 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Hull, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Chloride Photocathode Layers on Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4323–4330 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Efficiency of Opaque Alkali Halide Photocathodes on Microchannel Plates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 868, 18–24 (1987).

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117–124 (1986).

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lapson, L. B.

Lees, J. E.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 256, 401–405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liesegang, J.

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004–3021 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Llacer, J.

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766–2775 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. II. Transmission Secondary Emission from Alkali Halides,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2776–2792 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lukirskii, A. P.

A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, “Fotoionisation Absorption in Ionenkristallen,” Rontgenspektren und chemische bindung, Karl-Marx Univ., Leipzig187–193 (1966).

Lynch, D. W.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117–1131 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Malina, R. F.

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Martin, C.

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206–4207 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, P.

P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiences of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879–1887 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, R.

H. Saito, S. Saito, R. Onaka, B. Ikeo, “Extreme Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 1095–1098 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Onuki, H.

H. Onuki, “Photoelectric Emission from Alkali Halides,” Sci. Light Tokyo 23, 54–71 (1974).

Pearson, J. F.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 256, 401–405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated Microchannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Peimann, C. J.

C. J. Peimann, M. Skibowski, “Dielectric Properties of the Rubidium Halide Crystals in the Extreme Ultraviolet up to 30 eV,” Phys. Status Solidi 46, 655–665 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Pong, W.

C. S. Inouye, W. Pong, “Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectra of Rubidium Halides,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 2265–2272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Premaratne, K.

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The Stability of Cesium Iodide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Saile, V.

V. Saile, N. Schwentner, M. Skibowski, W. Steinmann, W. Zierau, “Optical Excitation of the Rb+4p Level in Rubidium Halides at 8K°,” Phys. Lett. A 46, 245–246 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

H. Saito et al., “Absorption Spectra of KCl and RbCl in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1861–1864 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Saito, S. Saito, R. Onaka, B. Ikeo, “Extreme Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 1095–1098 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

H. Saito, S. Saito, R. Onaka, B. Ikeo, “Extreme Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 1095–1098 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Schwentner, N.

V. Saile, N. Schwentner, M. Skibowski, W. Steinmann, W. Zierau, “Optical Excitation of the Rb+4p Level in Rubidium Halides at 8K°,” Phys. Lett. A 46, 245–246 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, O. H. W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Hull, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Chloride Photocathode Layers on Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4323–4330 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide Photocathode Layers on Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1568–1573 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Efficiency of Opaque Alkali Halide Photocathodes on Microchannel Plates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 868, 18–24 (1987).

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117–124 (1986).

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Skibowski, M.

V. Saile, N. Schwentner, M. Skibowski, W. Steinmann, W. Zierau, “Optical Excitation of the Rb+4p Level in Rubidium Halides at 8K°,” Phys. Lett. A 46, 245–246 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Peimann, M. Skibowski, “Dielectric Properties of the Rubidium Halide Crystals in the Extreme Ultraviolet up to 30 eV,” Phys. Status Solidi 46, 655–665 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. A.

B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, “0.1–10 keV X-Ray Induced Electron Emissions from Solids—Model and Secondary Electron Measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1852–1866 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004–3021 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski, J.

Sonntag, B.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117–1131 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Steinmann, W.

V. Saile, N. Schwentner, M. Skibowski, W. Steinmann, W. Zierau, “Optical Excitation of the Rb+4p Level in Rubidium Halides at 8K°,” Phys. Lett. A 46, 245–246 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, N.

Teegarden, K.

K. Teegarden, G. Baldini, “Optical Absorption Spectra of the Alkali Halides at 10°K,” Phys. Rev. 155, 896–907 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Teegarden, K. J.

J. E. Eby, K. J. Teegarden, D. B. Dutton, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 116, 1099–1105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Timothy, J. G.

Unzicker, A. E.

Vallerga, J. V.

Werthiemer, D.

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Whiteley, M. J.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated Microchannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zierau, W.

V. Saile, N. Schwentner, M. Skibowski, W. Steinmann, W. Zierau, “Optical Excitation of the Rb+4p Level in Rubidium Halides at 8K°,” Phys. Lett. A 46, 245–246 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zimkina, T. M.

A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, “Fotoionisation Absorption in Ionenkristallen,” Rontgenspektren und chemische bindung, Karl-Marx Univ., Leipzig187–193 (1966).

AIP Conf. Proc.

B. L. Henke, “Low Energy X-Ray Interactions: Photoionization, Scattering, Specular and Bragg Reflection,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 146–155 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

L. B. Lapson, J. G. Timothy, “Channel Electron Multipliers: Detection Efficiencies with Opaque MgF2 Photocathodes at XUV Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1218–1221 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206–4207 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, A. E. Unzicker, N. Swanson, “Quantum Efficiency of Cesium Iodide Photocathodes at Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2440–2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide as an Opaque Photocathode Applied to Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Bromide Photocathode Layers on Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1568–1573 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Hull, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Detection Efficiency of Potassium Chloride Photocathode Layers on Microchannel Plates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4323–4330 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Lapson, J. G. Timothy, “Use of MgF2 and LiF Photocathodes in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 12, 388–393 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766–2775 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. II. Transmission Secondary Emission from Alkali Halides,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2776–2792 (1969).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239–5242 (1972).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, “0.1–10 keV X-Ray Induced Electron Emissions from Solids—Model and Secondary Electron Measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1852–1866 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiences of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879–1887 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

H. Saito, S. Saito, R. Onaka, B. Ikeo, “Extreme Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 1095–1098 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated Microchannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Premaratne, E. R. Dietz, B. L. Henke, “The Stability of Cesium Iodide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 207, 465–467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Characterisation of Soft X-Ray Photocathodes in the Wavelength Band 1–300 Å, (A) Lead Glass, Lithium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 251–263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445–449 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-Ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, J. E. Lees, “Caesium Bromide X-Ray Photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 256, 401–405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Characterisation of Soft X-Ray Photocathodes in the Wavelength Band 1–300 Å, (B) Caesium Iodide and Other Insulators of High Photoelectric Yield,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 265–279 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A

V. Saile, N. Schwentner, M. Skibowski, W. Steinmann, W. Zierau, “Optical Excitation of the Rb+4p Level in Rubidium Halides at 8K°,” Phys. Lett. A 46, 245–246 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863–870 (1968).
[CrossRef]

K. Teegarden, G. Baldini, “Optical Absorption Spectra of the Alkali Halides at 10°K,” Phys. Rev. 155, 896–907 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Eby, K. J. Teegarden, D. B. Dutton, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 116, 1099–1105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117–1131 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-Ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004–3021 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Inouye, W. Pong, “Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectra of Rubidium Halides,” Phys. Rev. B 15, 2265–2272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi

C. J. Peimann, M. Skibowski, “Dielectric Properties of the Rubidium Halide Crystals in the Extreme Ultraviolet up to 30 eV,” Phys. Status Solidi 46, 655–665 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117–124 (1986).

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Extreme Ultraviolet Quantum Efficiency of Opaque Alkali Halide Photocathodes on Microchannel Plates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 868, 18–24 (1987).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Light Tokyo

H. Onuki, “Photoelectric Emission from Alkali Halides,” Sci. Light Tokyo 23, 54–71 (1974).

Solid State Commun.

H. Saito et al., “Absorption Spectra of KCl and RbCl in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1861–1864 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, “Fotoionisation Absorption in Ionenkristallen,” Rontgenspektren und chemische bindung, Karl-Marx Univ., Leipzig187–193 (1966).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the photocathode test configuration showing the photocathode layer on the top MCP, the retarding grid, and possible photon interaction geometries.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quantum detection efficiency vs wavelength for RbBr test photocathode 1 at a 17.9° graze angle to the channel axis using a 118-V/mm retarding field. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantum detection efficiency vs wavelength for RbBr test photocathode 2 at a 17.9° graze angle to the channel axis using a 118-V/mm retarding field. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantum detection efficiency vs wavelength for RbBr test photocathode 3 at a 17.9° graze angle to the channel axis using a 118-V/mm retarding field. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum detection efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for RbBr test photocathode 3 at λ = 68 Å using a 118-V/mm retarding field. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Quantum detection efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for RbBr test photocathode 3 at λ = 171 Å using a 118-V/mm retarding field. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Quantum detection efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for RbBr test photocathode 3 at λ = 462 Å using a 118-V/mm retarding field. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Quantum detection efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for RbBr test photocathode 3 at λ = 616 Å using a 118-V/mm retarding field. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Quantum detection efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for RbBr test photocathode 3 at λ = 736 Å using a 118-V/mm retarding field. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Quantum detection efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for RbBr test photocathode 3 at λ = 988 Å using a 118-V/mm retarding field. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Characteristic photon attenuation length as a function of wavelength for RbBr: λ = 41–70 Å,22 λ = 70–177 Å,24 λ = 413–1560 Å.33

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Model predictions of the quantum detection efficiency for the MCP channel areas as a function of wavelength for a 17.9° graze angle to the channel axis, compared to the measured quantum detection efficiency for RbBr test photocathode 1. Errors are described in Table II.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Scanning electron micrograph of the microchannel plate coated with the RbBr three-test photocathode layer showing a granularity of ~0.5 μm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Deposition Characteristics of RbBr Test Photocathodes

Tables Icon

Table II Errors for the Absolute QDE Measurements

Tables Icon

Table III Photoelectron Surface Escape Probability (po) and Characteristic Diffusion Length (le) vs Wavelength

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P = p c p o l e ( l e + d c sin θ ) - 1 ,
QDE = ( 1 - R m ) r = 1 n n ! ( n - r ) ! r ! ( - 1 ) r + 1 ρ r ,

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