Abstract

Computations of Mie scattering by marine particles indicate that the ratios between the backward scattering coefficient and the scatterance at 120° are ~6.9 ± 0.4, 7.2 ± 0.6, and 7.1 ± 0.5 for Junge, normal and log-normal particle size distributions, respectively. In situ observations of the scattering confirm this result.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. K. Hojerslev, “Optical Properties of Sea Water,” Landolt-Bornstein Encyclopedia Vol. 3a, J. Sundermann, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
  2. E. Aas, “Two Stream Irradiance Model for Deep Waters,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2095–2101 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).
  4. N. G. Jerlov, “Particle Distribution in the Ocean,” Rep. Swedish Deep Sea Expedition, Vol. 3, (Hans Pettersson, Swedish Natural Science Research Council, Stockholm, 71–98 (1953).
  5. J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Method for the Determination of the Index of Refraction of Particles Suspended in the Ocean,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 321–323 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution in Oceanic Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Kullenberg, “Observed and Computed Scattering Function,” Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 25.
  8. A. Morel, “Diffusion de la lumiere par les eaux de mer. Resultats experimentaux et approche theorique,” Optics of the Sea (AGARD Lecture Series, No. 61, 3.1-1-71, 1973).
  9. R. Reuter, “Characterization of Marine Particle Suspensions by Light Scattering. I: Numerical Predictions from Mie Theory,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 317–324 (1980).
  10. T. Oishi, “Light Scattering and Polarization by Suspended Particle Matter in Sea Water,” Rep. Inst. Fysisk. Oceanografi,No. 49, U. Copenhagen (1987).
  11. R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, Tables of Light Scattering Function for Spherical Particles, Special Publication, Eng. Res. Inst., U. Michigan (1951).
  12. R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, “Scattering of Light by Large Spherical Particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 90–94 (1953).
  13. L. E. Ashley, C. M. Cobb, “Single Particle Scattering Function for Latex Spheres in Water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 261–268 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. C. Van De Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  15. C. E. Junge, Atmospheric Chemistry and Radioactivity (Academic, London, 1963).
  16. H. Barder, “The Hyperbolic Distribution of Particle Sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822–2830 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, H. Pak, “Particle Size Distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070–5077 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A Theoretical Model of Light Scattering by Sargasso Sea Particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–832 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Haardt, P. Diehland, “Measurement of the Spectral Attenuation to Support Biological Research in a ‘Plankton Tube’ Experiment,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).
  20. A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Specific Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 1375–1393 (1981).
  21. M. Jonasz, “Particle-Size Distributions in the Baltic,” Tellus 35B, 346–358 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. U. Kronfeld, “Die Optischen Eigenschaften der ozeanischen Schwebstoff und ihre Bedeutung fur die Fernerkundung von Phytoplankton,” Rep. GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht, (GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, ESA Contract No. RFQ 3-5059/84/NG/MD.) (1988).
  23. R. Reuter, “Investigations of Marine Hydrosols by Light Scattering,” Deutsche Physikalische Gesellshaft Workshop, (Physik-Verlag, Weinheim) (1984), p. 1475.
  24. E. Aas, “The Refractive Index of Phytoplankton,” Rep. Inst. Geofysikk, No. 46, U. Oslo (1981).
  25. K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlison, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Charney, F. S. Brackett, “The Spectral Dependence of Scattering from a Spherical Alga and Its Implications for the State of Organization of the Light-Accepting Pigments,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 92, 1–12 (1961).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. Kullenberg, “Observation of Light Scattering Functions in Two Oceanic Areas,” Deep Sea Res. 31, 295–315 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. W. Austin, “Transmittance, Scattering, and Ocean Color,” S.C.O.R. Discoverer ExpeditionMay1970, pp. J1–J132; “Data Report S.C.O.R. Expedition May 1970: Measurements of Photosynthesis, Available Radiant Flux and Supporting Oceanographic Data,” J. E. Tyler, Ed. Scripps Institution of Oceanography (U. California, 1973), Reference No. 73–16.
  29. G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of Light by Sargasso Sea Water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).
  30. G. Kullenberg, “Light Scattering in the Central Baltic,” Rep. Inst. Fysisk Oceanografi, No. 5 (U. Copenhagen, 1969).
  31. G. Kullenberg, N. Berg Olsen, “A Comparison Between Observed and Computed Light Scattering Functions—II,” Rep. Inst. Fysisk. Oceanografi, No. 19 (U. Copenhagen, 1972).
  32. T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).
  33. T. J. Petzold, “Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters,” Rep. Visibility Lab. (Scripps Oceanogr. Inst., U. California, 1972), Refs. 72–78.
  34. S. P. Tucker, “Measurements of the Absolute Volume Scattering Function for Green Light in Southern California Coastal Waters,” thesis, Oregon State U. (1973).
  35. J. E. Tyler, “Scattering Properties of Distilled and Natural Waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 451–456 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. H. Whitlock, L. R. Poole, J. W. Usry, W. M. Houghton, W. G. Witte, W. D. Morris, A. E. Gurganus, “Comparison of Reflectance with Backscatter and Absorption Parameters for Turbid Waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 517–522 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. G. N. Plass, G. Kattawar, T. Humphreys, “Influence of the Oceanic Scattering Phase Function on the Radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 90/C2, 3347–3351 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. J. Gibbs, “Light Scattering from Particles of Different Shapes,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 501–502 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Morel, “Optical Properties of Pure Water and Pure Sea Water,” Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 1.

1987

1985

G. N. Plass, G. Kattawar, T. Humphreys, “Influence of the Oceanic Scattering Phase Function on the Radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 90/C2, 3347–3351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

G. Kullenberg, “Observation of Light Scattering Functions in Two Oceanic Areas,” Deep Sea Res. 31, 295–315 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

M. Jonasz, “Particle-Size Distributions in the Baltic,” Tellus 35B, 346–358 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Specific Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 1375–1393 (1981).

C. H. Whitlock, L. R. Poole, J. W. Usry, W. M. Houghton, W. G. Witte, W. D. Morris, A. E. Gurganus, “Comparison of Reflectance with Backscatter and Absorption Parameters for Turbid Waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 517–522 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

H. Haardt, P. Diehland, “Measurement of the Spectral Attenuation to Support Biological Research in a ‘Plankton Tube’ Experiment,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

R. Reuter, “Characterization of Marine Particle Suspensions by Light Scattering. I: Numerical Predictions from Mie Theory,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 317–324 (1980).

1978

R. J. Gibbs, “Light Scattering from Particles of Different Shapes,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 501–502 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution in Oceanic Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

1972

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A Theoretical Model of Light Scattering by Sargasso Sea Particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlison, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, H. Pak, “Particle Size Distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070–5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

H. Barder, “The Hyperbolic Distribution of Particle Sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822–2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin, “Transmittance, Scattering, and Ocean Color,” S.C.O.R. Discoverer ExpeditionMay1970, pp. J1–J132; “Data Report S.C.O.R. Expedition May 1970: Measurements of Photosynthesis, Available Radiant Flux and Supporting Oceanographic Data,” J. E. Tyler, Ed. Scripps Institution of Oceanography (U. California, 1973), Reference No. 73–16.

1968

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of Light by Sargasso Sea Water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

1961

J. E. Tyler, “Scattering Properties of Distilled and Natural Waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 451–456 (1961).
[CrossRef]

E. Charney, F. S. Brackett, “The Spectral Dependence of Scattering from a Spherical Alga and Its Implications for the State of Organization of the Light-Accepting Pigments,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 92, 1–12 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1958

1953

Aas, E.

E. Aas, “Two Stream Irradiance Model for Deep Waters,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2095–2101 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Aas, “The Refractive Index of Phytoplankton,” Rep. Inst. Geofysikk, No. 46, U. Oslo (1981).

Ashley, L. E.

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, “Transmittance, Scattering, and Ocean Color,” S.C.O.R. Discoverer ExpeditionMay1970, pp. J1–J132; “Data Report S.C.O.R. Expedition May 1970: Measurements of Photosynthesis, Available Radiant Flux and Supporting Oceanographic Data,” J. E. Tyler, Ed. Scripps Institution of Oceanography (U. California, 1973), Reference No. 73–16.

Barder, H.

H. Barder, “The Hyperbolic Distribution of Particle Sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822–2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Beardsley, G. F.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlison, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, H. Pak, “Particle Size Distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070–5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Berg Olsen, N.

G. Kullenberg, N. Berg Olsen, “A Comparison Between Observed and Computed Light Scattering Functions—II,” Rep. Inst. Fysisk. Oceanografi, No. 19 (U. Copenhagen, 1972).

Brackett, F. S.

E. Charney, F. S. Brackett, “The Spectral Dependence of Scattering from a Spherical Alga and Its Implications for the State of Organization of the Light-Accepting Pigments,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 92, 1–12 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bricaud, A.

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Specific Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 1375–1393 (1981).

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A Theoretical Model of Light Scattering by Sargasso Sea Particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlison, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, H. Pak, “Particle Size Distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070–5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Charney, E.

E. Charney, F. S. Brackett, “The Spectral Dependence of Scattering from a Spherical Alga and Its Implications for the State of Organization of the Light-Accepting Pigments,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 92, 1–12 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobb, C. M.

Dahm, C.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Dean, J.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Diehland, P.

H. Haardt, P. Diehland, “Measurement of the Spectral Attenuation to Support Biological Research in a ‘Plankton Tube’ Experiment,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

Georgi, D.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Gibbs, R. J.

R. J. Gibbs, “Light Scattering from Particles of Different Shapes,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 501–502 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A Theoretical Model of Light Scattering by Sargasso Sea Particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gumprecht, R. O.

R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, “Scattering of Light by Large Spherical Particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 90–94 (1953).

R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, Tables of Light Scattering Function for Spherical Particles, Special Publication, Eng. Res. Inst., U. Michigan (1951).

Gurganus, A. E.

Haardt, H.

H. Haardt, P. Diehland, “Measurement of the Spectral Attenuation to Support Biological Research in a ‘Plankton Tube’ Experiment,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

Hojerslev, N. K.

N. K. Hojerslev, “Optical Properties of Sea Water,” Landolt-Bornstein Encyclopedia Vol. 3a, J. Sundermann, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

Houghton, W. M.

Humphreys, T.

G. N. Plass, G. Kattawar, T. Humphreys, “Influence of the Oceanic Scattering Phase Function on the Radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 90/C2, 3347–3351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

N. G. Jerlov, “Particle Distribution in the Ocean,” Rep. Swedish Deep Sea Expedition, Vol. 3, (Hans Pettersson, Swedish Natural Science Research Council, Stockholm, 71–98 (1953).

Jonasz, M.

M. Jonasz, “Particle-Size Distributions in the Baltic,” Tellus 35B, 346–358 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, T.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Junge, C. E.

C. E. Junge, Atmospheric Chemistry and Radioactivity (Academic, London, 1963).

Kattawar, G.

G. N. Plass, G. Kattawar, T. Humphreys, “Influence of the Oceanic Scattering Phase Function on the Radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 90/C2, 3347–3351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kronfeld, U.

U. Kronfeld, “Die Optischen Eigenschaften der ozeanischen Schwebstoff und ihre Bedeutung fur die Fernerkundung von Phytoplankton,” Rep. GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht, (GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, ESA Contract No. RFQ 3-5059/84/NG/MD.) (1988).

Kullenberg, G.

G. Kullenberg, “Observation of Light Scattering Functions in Two Oceanic Areas,” Deep Sea Res. 31, 295–315 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of Light by Sargasso Sea Water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

G. Kullenberg, “Light Scattering in the Central Baltic,” Rep. Inst. Fysisk Oceanografi, No. 5 (U. Copenhagen, 1969).

G. Kullenberg, N. Berg Olsen, “A Comparison Between Observed and Computed Light Scattering Functions—II,” Rep. Inst. Fysisk. Oceanografi, No. 19 (U. Copenhagen, 1972).

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

G. Kullenberg, “Observed and Computed Scattering Function,” Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 25.

McCartney, M.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Millard, R.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Moller, D.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Specific Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 1375–1393 (1981).

A. Morel, “Diffusion de la lumiere par les eaux de mer. Resultats experimentaux et approche theorique,” Optics of the Sea (AGARD Lecture Series, No. 61, 3.1-1-71, 1973).

A. Morel, “Optical Properties of Pure Water and Pure Sea Water,” Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 1.

Morris, W. D.

Oishi, T.

T. Oishi, “Light Scattering and Polarization by Suspended Particle Matter in Sea Water,” Rep. Inst. Fysisk. Oceanografi,No. 49, U. Copenhagen (1987).

Pak, H.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution in Oceanic Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Method for the Determination of the Index of Refraction of Particles Suspended in the Ocean,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 321–323 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, H. Pak, “Particle Size Distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070–5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters,” Rep. Visibility Lab. (Scripps Oceanogr. Inst., U. California, 1972), Refs. 72–78.

Plass, G. N.

G. N. Plass, G. Kattawar, T. Humphreys, “Influence of the Oceanic Scattering Phase Function on the Radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 90/C2, 3347–3351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

Reuter, R.

R. Reuter, “Characterization of Marine Particle Suspensions by Light Scattering. I: Numerical Predictions from Mie Theory,” Oceanol. Acta 3, 317–324 (1980).

R. Reuter, “Investigations of Marine Hydrosols by Light Scattering,” Deutsche Physikalische Gesellshaft Workshop, (Physik-Verlag, Weinheim) (1984), p. 1475.

Roach, D. M.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution in Oceanic Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sliepcevich, C. M.

R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, “Scattering of Light by Large Spherical Particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 90–94 (1953).

R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, Tables of Light Scattering Function for Spherical Particles, Special Publication, Eng. Res. Inst., U. Michigan (1951).

Tomlison, R. D.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlison, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Toole, J.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Tucker, S. P.

S. P. Tucker, “Measurements of the Absolute Volume Scattering Function for Green Light in Southern California Coastal Waters,” thesis, Oregon State U. (1973).

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler, “Scattering Properties of Distilled and Natural Waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 451–456 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Usry, J. W.

Van De Hulst, H. C.

H. C. Van De Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Voorhis, A.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Whitlock, C. H.

Witte, W. G.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution in Oceanic Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Method for the Determination of the Index of Refraction of Particles Suspended in the Ocean,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 321–323 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zenk, W.

T. Joyce, J. Dean, M. McCartney, R. Millard, D. Moller, A. Voorhis, C. Dahm, D. Georgi, G. Kullenberg, J. Toole, W. Zenk, “Observation of Antarctic Polar Front during FDRAKE 76: A Cruise Report,” in Technical Report (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, 1976).

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Biochem. Biophys.

E. Charney, F. S. Brackett, “The Spectral Dependence of Scattering from a Spherical Alga and Its Implications for the State of Organization of the Light-Accepting Pigments,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 92, 1–12 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep Sea Res.

G. Kullenberg, “Observation of Light Scattering Functions in Two Oceanic Areas,” Deep Sea Res. 31, 295–315 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Specific Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 1375–1393 (1981).

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of Light by Sargasso Sea Water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

J. Geophys. Res.

G. N. Plass, G. Kattawar, T. Humphreys, “Influence of the Oceanic Scattering Phase Function on the Radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 90/C2, 3347–3351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gibbs, “Light Scattering from Particles of Different Shapes,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 501–502 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution in Oceanic Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. Barder, “The Hyperbolic Distribution of Particle Sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822–2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, H. Pak, “Particle Size Distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070–5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Limnol. Oceanogr.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A Theoretical Model of Light Scattering by Sargasso Sea Particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlison, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Oceanol. Acta

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio between the backward scattering coefficient and the scatterance in backward angles as a function of the characteristic parameter ξ. Refractive index: 1.05 and 1.15.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as in Fig. 1, but now with the imaginary component. Refractive index: 1.05–0.01i and 1.15–0.01i.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio between the backward scattering coefficient and the scatterance at 120° as a function of the characateristic parameter, ξ, for different refractive indices. (a) without imaginary component, (b) with imaginary component (0.01).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratio between the backward scattering coefficient and the scatterance at 120° as a function of the standard deviation (normal size distribution). The broken line shows the average value of the ratio through all mean sizes and the refractive indices at the same standard deviation (σ). The horizontal bars show the range of one standard deviation. (a) without imaginary component, (b) with imaginary component (0.01).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scattering function normalized at 90° for three typical water types. After Petzold (1972).33

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Observed relationship between the scatterance at 120° and the backward scattering coefficient. The linear line shows Eq. (8) and the broken line the regression line.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6, but samples with high concentration of suspended matter (estuary). The same symbols represent the same sample observed at eight different wavelengths. The linear line shows Eq. (8) and the broken line the regression line obtained by oceanic water. After Whitlock et al. (1981).36

Tables (5)

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Table I Ratios Between the Backward Scattering Coefficient and the scatterance at 120° for Various Characteristic Parameters and Various Refractive Indices

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Table II Data Bank of Phytoplankton Bloom Model

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Table III Data Sources of the Observed Volume Scattering Functions

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Table IV Relationship Between the Backward Scattering Coefficient and the Scatterance In Backward Angles for the Observed Scattering Functions

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Table V Relationship Between the Backward Scattering Coefficient and the Scatterance In Backward Angles for the Observed Scattering Functions

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β ( θ ) = d I ( θ ) / EdV ,
β ( θ ) = β w ( θ ) + β p ( θ ) ,
b b = 2 π π / 2 π β ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ .
b b = b b w + b b p .
β p ( θ ) = λ 2 8 π 2 α l α u [ i 1 ( θ , α ) + i 2 ( θ , α ) ] J ( α ) d α ,
α = π · D / λ .
J ( α ) = const * α - ξ ,
b b p = ( 6.9 ± 0.4 ) × β p ( 120 ) .
d N d α = 1 σ ( 2 π ) exp [ - ( α - α i ) 2 2 * σ 2 ] ,
d N d ( log α ) = 1 ( log σ ) * ( 2 π ) exp { - [ log ( α ) - log ( α i ) ] 2 2 * ( log σ ) 2 } ,
b b = 2 π π / 2 π β ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ = 2 π β ( θ m ) π / 2 π sin ( θ ) d θ = 2 π β ( θ m ) ,

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