Abstract

The capability of the Malvern spray analyzer is extended to include particle size measurements in systems containing time varying index of refraction gradients. This is accomplished by adding conditional sampling optical hardware and electronic circuitry to determine when the Malvern laser beam is aligned and to allow particle size data to be collected only when alignment occurs. The accuracy of the extended instrument is demonstrated by comparing particle size distribution measurements made in the presence of time varying index of refraction gradients with measurements made under static conditions. The limitations of the extended instrument are also discussed.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Malvern Instruments, Spring Lane, Malvern, Worcestershire, England.
  2. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).
  3. J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, C. G. McCreath, “A Laser Diagnostic Technique for the Measurement of Droplet and Particle Size Distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. and Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).
  4. A. Postan, “Laser Spot Dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 26, 850–854 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. J. Yule, C. Ah Seng, P. G. Felton, A. Ungut, N. A. Chigier, “A Study of Vaporizing Fuel Sprays by Laser Techniques,” Combust. and Flame 44, 71–84 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. G. Dodge, S. A. Cerwin, “Extending the Applicability of Diffraction Based Drop Sizing Instruments,” (ASTM STP 848, J. M. Tishkoff, R. D. Ingebo, J. B. Kennedy, Eds., 1984).
  7. T. C. Roesler, A. H. Lefebvre, P. E. Sojka, “Fuel Atomization at High Ambient Temperatures,” Central States Section/Combustion Institute paper 86–6D1, NASA-LeRC, Cleveland (1986).
  8. B. H. Miles, G. B. King, P. E. Sojka, “A Conditional Sampling Controlled Diffraction-Based Particle Sizing Instrument,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Methods in Flow & Particle Diagnostics (Laser Institute of America, Toledo, OH, 1988).
  9. J. O. Hinze, Turbulence (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).
  10. B. H. Miles, “Optical Particle Sizing in a High Temperature Environment,” M.S. Thesis, Purdue University (1988).
  11. P. N. Wild, J. Swithenbank, “Beam Stop and Vignetting Effects in Particle Size Measurements by Laser Diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3520–3526 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Hecht, A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1979).
  13. S. Grafstrom, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neuman, S. Noehte, “Fast Laser Beam Position Control with Submicroradian Precision,” Opt. Commun. 65, 121–126 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Grafstrom, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neuman, S. Noehte, “Fast Laser Beam Position Control with Submicroradian Precision,” Opt. Commun. 65, 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

A. J. Yule, C. Ah Seng, P. G. Felton, A. Ungut, N. A. Chigier, “A Study of Vaporizing Fuel Sprays by Laser Techniques,” Combust. and Flame 44, 71–84 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, C. G. McCreath, “A Laser Diagnostic Technique for the Measurement of Droplet and Particle Size Distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. and Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Abbott, D.

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, C. G. McCreath, “A Laser Diagnostic Technique for the Measurement of Droplet and Particle Size Distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. and Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Ah Seng, C.

A. J. Yule, C. Ah Seng, P. G. Felton, A. Ungut, N. A. Chigier, “A Study of Vaporizing Fuel Sprays by Laser Techniques,” Combust. and Flame 44, 71–84 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Beer, J. M.

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, C. G. McCreath, “A Laser Diagnostic Technique for the Measurement of Droplet and Particle Size Distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. and Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Cerwin, S. A.

L. G. Dodge, S. A. Cerwin, “Extending the Applicability of Diffraction Based Drop Sizing Instruments,” (ASTM STP 848, J. M. Tishkoff, R. D. Ingebo, J. B. Kennedy, Eds., 1984).

Chigier, N. A.

A. J. Yule, C. Ah Seng, P. G. Felton, A. Ungut, N. A. Chigier, “A Study of Vaporizing Fuel Sprays by Laser Techniques,” Combust. and Flame 44, 71–84 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dodge, L. G.

L. G. Dodge, S. A. Cerwin, “Extending the Applicability of Diffraction Based Drop Sizing Instruments,” (ASTM STP 848, J. M. Tishkoff, R. D. Ingebo, J. B. Kennedy, Eds., 1984).

Felton, P. G.

A. J. Yule, C. Ah Seng, P. G. Felton, A. Ungut, N. A. Chigier, “A Study of Vaporizing Fuel Sprays by Laser Techniques,” Combust. and Flame 44, 71–84 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Grafstrom, S.

S. Grafstrom, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neuman, S. Noehte, “Fast Laser Beam Position Control with Submicroradian Precision,” Opt. Commun. 65, 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Harbarth, U.

S. Grafstrom, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neuman, S. Noehte, “Fast Laser Beam Position Control with Submicroradian Precision,” Opt. Commun. 65, 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1979).

Hinze, J. O.

J. O. Hinze, Turbulence (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).

King, G. B.

B. H. Miles, G. B. King, P. E. Sojka, “A Conditional Sampling Controlled Diffraction-Based Particle Sizing Instrument,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Methods in Flow & Particle Diagnostics (Laser Institute of America, Toledo, OH, 1988).

Kowalski, J.

S. Grafstrom, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neuman, S. Noehte, “Fast Laser Beam Position Control with Submicroradian Precision,” Opt. Commun. 65, 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, A. H.

T. C. Roesler, A. H. Lefebvre, P. E. Sojka, “Fuel Atomization at High Ambient Temperatures,” Central States Section/Combustion Institute paper 86–6D1, NASA-LeRC, Cleveland (1986).

McCreath, C. G.

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, C. G. McCreath, “A Laser Diagnostic Technique for the Measurement of Droplet and Particle Size Distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. and Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Miles, B. H.

B. H. Miles, “Optical Particle Sizing in a High Temperature Environment,” M.S. Thesis, Purdue University (1988).

B. H. Miles, G. B. King, P. E. Sojka, “A Conditional Sampling Controlled Diffraction-Based Particle Sizing Instrument,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Methods in Flow & Particle Diagnostics (Laser Institute of America, Toledo, OH, 1988).

Neuman, R.

S. Grafstrom, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neuman, S. Noehte, “Fast Laser Beam Position Control with Submicroradian Precision,” Opt. Commun. 65, 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Noehte, S.

S. Grafstrom, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neuman, S. Noehte, “Fast Laser Beam Position Control with Submicroradian Precision,” Opt. Commun. 65, 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Postan, A.

Roesler, T. C.

T. C. Roesler, A. H. Lefebvre, P. E. Sojka, “Fuel Atomization at High Ambient Temperatures,” Central States Section/Combustion Institute paper 86–6D1, NASA-LeRC, Cleveland (1986).

Sojka, P. E.

T. C. Roesler, A. H. Lefebvre, P. E. Sojka, “Fuel Atomization at High Ambient Temperatures,” Central States Section/Combustion Institute paper 86–6D1, NASA-LeRC, Cleveland (1986).

B. H. Miles, G. B. King, P. E. Sojka, “A Conditional Sampling Controlled Diffraction-Based Particle Sizing Instrument,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Methods in Flow & Particle Diagnostics (Laser Institute of America, Toledo, OH, 1988).

Swithenbank, J.

P. N. Wild, J. Swithenbank, “Beam Stop and Vignetting Effects in Particle Size Measurements by Laser Diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3520–3526 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, C. G. McCreath, “A Laser Diagnostic Technique for the Measurement of Droplet and Particle Size Distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. and Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Taylor, D. S.

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, C. G. McCreath, “A Laser Diagnostic Technique for the Measurement of Droplet and Particle Size Distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. and Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Ungut, A.

A. J. Yule, C. Ah Seng, P. G. Felton, A. Ungut, N. A. Chigier, “A Study of Vaporizing Fuel Sprays by Laser Techniques,” Combust. and Flame 44, 71–84 (1982).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Wild, P. N.

Yule, A. J.

A. J. Yule, C. Ah Seng, P. G. Felton, A. Ungut, N. A. Chigier, “A Study of Vaporizing Fuel Sprays by Laser Techniques,” Combust. and Flame 44, 71–84 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zajac, A.

E. Hecht, A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1979).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Combust. and Flame (1)

A. J. Yule, C. Ah Seng, P. G. Felton, A. Ungut, N. A. Chigier, “A Study of Vaporizing Fuel Sprays by Laser Techniques,” Combust. and Flame 44, 71–84 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Grafstrom, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neuman, S. Noehte, “Fast Laser Beam Position Control with Submicroradian Precision,” Opt. Commun. 65, 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Astronaut. and Aeronaut. (1)

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, C. G. McCreath, “A Laser Diagnostic Technique for the Measurement of Droplet and Particle Size Distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. and Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Other (8)

L. G. Dodge, S. A. Cerwin, “Extending the Applicability of Diffraction Based Drop Sizing Instruments,” (ASTM STP 848, J. M. Tishkoff, R. D. Ingebo, J. B. Kennedy, Eds., 1984).

T. C. Roesler, A. H. Lefebvre, P. E. Sojka, “Fuel Atomization at High Ambient Temperatures,” Central States Section/Combustion Institute paper 86–6D1, NASA-LeRC, Cleveland (1986).

B. H. Miles, G. B. King, P. E. Sojka, “A Conditional Sampling Controlled Diffraction-Based Particle Sizing Instrument,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Methods in Flow & Particle Diagnostics (Laser Institute of America, Toledo, OH, 1988).

J. O. Hinze, Turbulence (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).

B. H. Miles, “Optical Particle Sizing in a High Temperature Environment,” M.S. Thesis, Purdue University (1988).

E. Hecht, A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1979).

Malvern Instruments, Spring Lane, Malvern, Worcestershire, England.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Malvern instrument major components.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Standard Malvern instrument with added conditional sampling hardware and electronic circuitry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quadrant photodetector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High temperature flow system and particle sizing apparatus.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Malvern light energy profiles for particle size distribution 4: (a) conditionally sampled; (b) unconditionally sampled.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Malvern light energy profiles for particle size distribution 2 in front of the heated section: (a) conditionally sampled; (b) unconditionally sampled.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Malvern light energy profiles for particle size distribution 2 behind the heated section: (a) conditionally sampled; (b) unconditionally sampled.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Malvern light energy profiles for particle size distribution 3: (a) conditionally sampled; (b) unconditionally sampled.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Apparatus for Young’s double slit experiments.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Static Particle Size Distribution Parameters as Reported By Malvern 2600HSD

Tables Icon

Table II Particle Size Distribution Parameters for Synthetic Turbulence Tests

Tables Icon

Table III Particle Size Distribution Parameters for High Temperature Turbulence Tests

Tables Icon

Table IV Young’s Double Slit Visibilities for 1-mm Slit Separation

Tables Icon

Table V Young’s Double Slit Visibilities for 2-mm Slit Separation

Equations (3)

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V I max - I min I max + I min .

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