Abstract

Simple, diffusive optical fiber end light distributors for photodynamic therapy were manufactured and analyzed. The scattering properties were experimentally studied with respect to various design parameters. Computer simulations confirmed the measured parameter dependence, displaying the strength of the model. The best manufactured fiber end produced an almost uniform irradiance at a radial distance of one-third of the fiber end length.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. D. Spikes, G. Jori, “Photodynamic Therapy of Tumors and Other Diseases Using Porphyrines,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 3–14 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Arnfield, S. Gonzalez, P. Lea, J. Tulip, M. McPhee, “Cylindrical Irradiator Fiber Tip for Photodynamic Therapy,” Lasers Surgery Med. 6, 150–154 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Lenz, “Light Distributor for Endoscopic Photochemotherapy of Tumors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4452–4456 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Accurate calculation of the parameter k is quite complicated and would have to include consideration of particle size distribution, surface roughness/inhomogeneity, multiple scattering, and Fresnel reflection of scattered light.

1987 (2)

J. D. Spikes, G. Jori, “Photodynamic Therapy of Tumors and Other Diseases Using Porphyrines,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 3–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Lenz, “Light Distributor for Endoscopic Photochemotherapy of Tumors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4452–4456 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. Arnfield, S. Gonzalez, P. Lea, J. Tulip, M. McPhee, “Cylindrical Irradiator Fiber Tip for Photodynamic Therapy,” Lasers Surgery Med. 6, 150–154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Arnfield, M.

M. Arnfield, S. Gonzalez, P. Lea, J. Tulip, M. McPhee, “Cylindrical Irradiator Fiber Tip for Photodynamic Therapy,” Lasers Surgery Med. 6, 150–154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, S.

M. Arnfield, S. Gonzalez, P. Lea, J. Tulip, M. McPhee, “Cylindrical Irradiator Fiber Tip for Photodynamic Therapy,” Lasers Surgery Med. 6, 150–154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jori, G.

J. D. Spikes, G. Jori, “Photodynamic Therapy of Tumors and Other Diseases Using Porphyrines,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 3–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lea, P.

M. Arnfield, S. Gonzalez, P. Lea, J. Tulip, M. McPhee, “Cylindrical Irradiator Fiber Tip for Photodynamic Therapy,” Lasers Surgery Med. 6, 150–154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, P.

McPhee, M.

M. Arnfield, S. Gonzalez, P. Lea, J. Tulip, M. McPhee, “Cylindrical Irradiator Fiber Tip for Photodynamic Therapy,” Lasers Surgery Med. 6, 150–154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Spikes, J. D.

J. D. Spikes, G. Jori, “Photodynamic Therapy of Tumors and Other Diseases Using Porphyrines,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 3–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

M. Arnfield, S. Gonzalez, P. Lea, J. Tulip, M. McPhee, “Cylindrical Irradiator Fiber Tip for Photodynamic Therapy,” Lasers Surgery Med. 6, 150–154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

J. D. Spikes, G. Jori, “Photodynamic Therapy of Tumors and Other Diseases Using Porphyrines,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 3–14 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surgery Med. (1)

M. Arnfield, S. Gonzalez, P. Lea, J. Tulip, M. McPhee, “Cylindrical Irradiator Fiber Tip for Photodynamic Therapy,” Lasers Surgery Med. 6, 150–154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Accurate calculation of the parameter k is quite complicated and would have to include consideration of particle size distribution, surface roughness/inhomogeneity, multiple scattering, and Fresnel reflection of scattered light.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of fiber diffusor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Setup for irradiance distribution measurement: D1 and D2 are silicon photo detectors (D1 is for light power reference); BS, beam splitter; L1 and L2, lenses. (b). Setup for radiance distribution measurement: RM, radiance meter. The mask slitwidth is 5 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured irradiance distribution at a distance of 1.0 cm from the fiber axis for three different core diameters d, normalized to the maximum measured value. Fiber end length ℓ = 30 mm, angle of convergence of input beam θ = 11°, TiO2 concentration c = 17.5 mg/ml. Cladding thickness t = 5–20 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured irradiance at a distance of 1.0 cm from the fiber axis for one fiber end at three different angles of convergence of the input beam θ, normalized to the maximum measured value. Fiber end specifications: ℓ = 30 mm, c = 30 mg/ml, d = 1.0 mm, t = 5–20 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured irradiance at a distance of 1.0 cm at three different TiO2 concentrations c, normalized to the maximum measured value. Fiber end specifications: ℓ = 30 mm, θ = 11°, d = 1.0 mm, t = 5–20 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured radiance perpendicular to the fiber axis, φ = 0, vs position along the fiber end (dots). Arrows represent radiance times cosine of angle of observation φ, normalized to the perpendicular radiance. Circles indicate ideal behavior of perfect diffusor, for comparison. The values represent averages over 5-mm fiber segments. Fiber end specifications: d = 1.0 mm, ℓ = 30 mm, θ = 11°, t = 5–20 μm, and c = 30 mg/ml.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated radiance distribution. Fiber end specifications: d = 1.0 mm, ℓ = 30 mm, c = 30 mg/ml, θ = 11°. (a) t = 10 μm. (b) t = 5–20 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Computer simulations of the dependence of the fiber end radiance on (a) TiO2 concentration c, d = 1.0 mm and θ = 11°; (b) angle of convergence of input beam θ, d = 1.0 mm and c = 30 mg/ml; and (c) fiber core diameter d, c = 30 mg/ml and θ = 11°; fiber end specifications: ℓ = 30 mm, t = 5–20 μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated irradiance at a radial distance of 1.0 cm from the fiber for three different angles of convergence θ of the input beam, normalized to the maximum value. Fiber end specifications: c = 30 mg/ml, d = 1.0 mm, ℓ = 30 mm, t = 5–20 μm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diagram showing the fiber end irradiance performance measure β = α + Pt/Po. Radial distance from the fiber axis = 1.0 cm. Fiber specifications: ℓ = 30 mm, d = 1.0 mm, t = 5–20 μm.

Equations (1)

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α = E max - E min E max + E min ,

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