Abstract

We present a simple technique to measure the absorption coefficient of molecules which avoids the interference of the distortion of the spatial profile of the laser beam due to self-focusing/self-defocusing.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 129–150 (1976); V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review). II,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 259–276 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. S. Tobin, R. D. Felock, “Fluroform-d Optically Pumped Submillimeter-Wave Laser,” Opt. Lett. 5, 430–432 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. K. Evans, Laser Application in Physical Chemistry (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).
  4. C. F. Meyer, R. L. Woodin, A. Kaldon, “Laser Beam Profiles in SF6: Direct Evidence for Beam Distortion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 26–31 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Oh, S. S. Lee, “Measurement of Nonlinear Refractive Index Coefficients of NH3 Gas for Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser Lines,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 276–280 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. K. Deka, R. S. Joshi, M. A. Rob, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Radiation in NH3,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 1–4 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Beaudoin, P. Galarneau, A. Normandin, S. L. Chin, “An Experimental Study of Self-Focusing and Self-Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Pulse in CDF3,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 225–231 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. P. Judd, “A Quantitative Comparison of Multiple-Photon Absorption in Polyatomic Molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4515–4530 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. K. Sarkar, V. Parthasarathy, K. V. S. Rama Rao, J. P. Mittal, “IR Multiple-Photon Excitation in CDF3 Probed by a Pulsed Optoacoustic Technique,” J. Photochem. 35, 13–21 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Beaudoin, “Études expérimentales des indices dé réfraction complexes et nonlinéaires du CDF3 lors de l’interaction avec un laser CO2 intense,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1989).
    [PubMed]
  11. D. K. Evans, R. D. McAlpine, H. M. Adams, “The Multiphoton Absorption and Decomposition of Fluoroform-d: Laser Isotope Separation of Deuterium,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 3551–3558 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. D. Cantrell, Multiple-Photon Excitation of Polyatomic Molecules (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. H. Oh, S. S. Lee, “Measurement of Nonlinear Refractive Index Coefficients of NH3 Gas for Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser Lines,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 276–280 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

B. K. Deka, R. S. Joshi, M. A. Rob, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Radiation in NH3,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 1–4 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beaudoin, P. Galarneau, A. Normandin, S. L. Chin, “An Experimental Study of Self-Focusing and Self-Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Pulse in CDF3,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 225–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. K. Sarkar, V. Parthasarathy, K. V. S. Rama Rao, J. P. Mittal, “IR Multiple-Photon Excitation in CDF3 Probed by a Pulsed Optoacoustic Technique,” J. Photochem. 35, 13–21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. K. Evans, R. D. McAlpine, H. M. Adams, “The Multiphoton Absorption and Decomposition of Fluoroform-d: Laser Isotope Separation of Deuterium,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 3551–3558 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. F. Meyer, R. L. Woodin, A. Kaldon, “Laser Beam Profiles in SF6: Direct Evidence for Beam Distortion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 26–31 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

O. P. Judd, “A Quantitative Comparison of Multiple-Photon Absorption in Polyatomic Molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4515–4530 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 129–150 (1976); V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review). II,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 259–276 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Adams, H. M.

D. K. Evans, R. D. McAlpine, H. M. Adams, “The Multiphoton Absorption and Decomposition of Fluoroform-d: Laser Isotope Separation of Deuterium,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 3551–3558 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, Y.

Y. Beaudoin, P. Galarneau, A. Normandin, S. L. Chin, “An Experimental Study of Self-Focusing and Self-Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Pulse in CDF3,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 225–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beaudoin, “Études expérimentales des indices dé réfraction complexes et nonlinéaires du CDF3 lors de l’interaction avec un laser CO2 intense,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1989).
[PubMed]

Cantrell, C. D.

C. D. Cantrell, Multiple-Photon Excitation of Polyatomic Molecules (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Y. Beaudoin, P. Galarneau, A. Normandin, S. L. Chin, “An Experimental Study of Self-Focusing and Self-Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Pulse in CDF3,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 225–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Deka, B. K.

B. K. Deka, R. S. Joshi, M. A. Rob, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Radiation in NH3,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 1–4 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. K.

D. K. Evans, R. D. McAlpine, H. M. Adams, “The Multiphoton Absorption and Decomposition of Fluoroform-d: Laser Isotope Separation of Deuterium,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 3551–3558 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Evans, Laser Application in Physical Chemistry (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

Felock, R. D.

Galarneau, P.

Y. Beaudoin, P. Galarneau, A. Normandin, S. L. Chin, “An Experimental Study of Self-Focusing and Self-Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Pulse in CDF3,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 225–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, R. S.

B. K. Deka, R. S. Joshi, M. A. Rob, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Radiation in NH3,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 1–4 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Judd, O. P.

O. P. Judd, “A Quantitative Comparison of Multiple-Photon Absorption in Polyatomic Molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4515–4530 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kaldon, A.

C. F. Meyer, R. L. Woodin, A. Kaldon, “Laser Beam Profiles in SF6: Direct Evidence for Beam Distortion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 26–31 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

C. H. Oh, S. S. Lee, “Measurement of Nonlinear Refractive Index Coefficients of NH3 Gas for Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser Lines,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 276–280 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 129–150 (1976); V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review). II,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 259–276 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McAlpine, R. D.

D. K. Evans, R. D. McAlpine, H. M. Adams, “The Multiphoton Absorption and Decomposition of Fluoroform-d: Laser Isotope Separation of Deuterium,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 3551–3558 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, C. F.

C. F. Meyer, R. L. Woodin, A. Kaldon, “Laser Beam Profiles in SF6: Direct Evidence for Beam Distortion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 26–31 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mittal, J. P.

S. K. Sarkar, V. Parthasarathy, K. V. S. Rama Rao, J. P. Mittal, “IR Multiple-Photon Excitation in CDF3 Probed by a Pulsed Optoacoustic Technique,” J. Photochem. 35, 13–21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. B.

V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 129–150 (1976); V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review). II,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 259–276 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Normandin, A.

Y. Beaudoin, P. Galarneau, A. Normandin, S. L. Chin, “An Experimental Study of Self-Focusing and Self-Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Pulse in CDF3,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 225–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C. H.

C. H. Oh, S. S. Lee, “Measurement of Nonlinear Refractive Index Coefficients of NH3 Gas for Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser Lines,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 276–280 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, V.

S. K. Sarkar, V. Parthasarathy, K. V. S. Rama Rao, J. P. Mittal, “IR Multiple-Photon Excitation in CDF3 Probed by a Pulsed Optoacoustic Technique,” J. Photochem. 35, 13–21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rama Rao, K. V. S.

S. K. Sarkar, V. Parthasarathy, K. V. S. Rama Rao, J. P. Mittal, “IR Multiple-Photon Excitation in CDF3 Probed by a Pulsed Optoacoustic Technique,” J. Photochem. 35, 13–21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rob, M. A.

B. K. Deka, R. S. Joshi, M. A. Rob, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Radiation in NH3,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 1–4 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, S. K.

S. K. Sarkar, V. Parthasarathy, K. V. S. Rama Rao, J. P. Mittal, “IR Multiple-Photon Excitation in CDF3 Probed by a Pulsed Optoacoustic Technique,” J. Photochem. 35, 13–21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, M. S.

Woodin, R. L.

C. F. Meyer, R. L. Woodin, A. Kaldon, “Laser Beam Profiles in SF6: Direct Evidence for Beam Distortion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 26–31 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

B. K. Deka, R. S. Joshi, M. A. Rob, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Radiation in NH3,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 1–4 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beaudoin, P. Galarneau, A. Normandin, S. L. Chin, “An Experimental Study of Self-Focusing and Self-Defocusing of TEA CO2 Laser Pulse in CDF3,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 225–231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. F. Meyer, R. L. Woodin, A. Kaldon, “Laser Beam Profiles in SF6: Direct Evidence for Beam Distortion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 26–31 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. H. Oh, S. S. Lee, “Measurement of Nonlinear Refractive Index Coefficients of NH3 Gas for Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser Lines,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 276–280 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

D. K. Evans, R. D. McAlpine, H. M. Adams, “The Multiphoton Absorption and Decomposition of Fluoroform-d: Laser Isotope Separation of Deuterium,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 3551–3558 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Judd, “A Quantitative Comparison of Multiple-Photon Absorption in Polyatomic Molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4515–4530 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. (1)

S. K. Sarkar, V. Parthasarathy, K. V. S. Rama Rao, J. P. Mittal, “IR Multiple-Photon Excitation in CDF3 Probed by a Pulsed Optoacoustic Technique,” J. Photochem. 35, 13–21 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 129–150 (1976); V. S. Letokhov, C. B. Moore, “Laser Isotope Separation (Review). II,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 259–276 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. K. Evans, Laser Application in Physical Chemistry (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

Y. Beaudoin, “Études expérimentales des indices dé réfraction complexes et nonlinéaires du CDF3 lors de l’interaction avec un laser CO2 intense,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1989).
[PubMed]

C. D. Cantrell, Multiple-Photon Excitation of Polyatomic Molecules (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spatial profiles of the laser beam measured by the array detector after passing through the cell: (a) the energy of the impulsion is 0.8 mJ and the cell is empty; (b) the CDF3 pressure inside the cell is now 50 Torr.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log–log graph of the absorption cross section of the CDF3 as a function of the fluence at ν = 971.9 cm−1: (a) P = 100 Torr inside the 1.5-cm thick cell, and the detector array is at 12 cm from the exit window of the cell; (b) P = 20 Torr inside the 50-cm thick cell, and the detector array is at 39 cm from the exit window of the cell.

Equations (5)

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σ = - 1 N L In ( T ) ,
ϕ ¯ = 0 L ϕ ( z ) d z 0 L d z ,
ϕ ( z + d z ) = ϕ ( z ) exp ( - σ Ndz ) ,
ϕ ¯ = [ 1 - T In ( T ) ] ϕ in ,
σ = K ϕ ¯ b .

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