Abstract

A letter by Mohebi et al. [ Opt. Lett. 13, 649– 651 ( 1988)] claims that the large value of n2 of CS2 at 10 μm (2.2 × 10−10 esu) measured by that group is due to electrostriction as opposed to the Kerr effect-induced n2 of 2.1 × 10−11 esu. We compare contributions of different nonlinear mechanisms to n2 and find that absorption-induced thermal nonlinearity should have been dominant in that experiment.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. C. Jungling, O. L. Caddy, “Self-Focusing of 10.6 μm Radiation in Liquid CS2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 97–98 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. C. Owen, L. W. Coleman, T. J. Burgess, “Ultrafast Optical Kerr Effect in CS2 at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 272–273 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Thomas, A. Jares, B. P. Stoicheff, “Nonlinear Refractive Index and DC Kerr Constant of Liquid CS2 at 10.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 493–494 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Mohebi, P. F. Aiello, G. Reali, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Self-Focusing in CS2 at 10.6 μm,” Opt. Lett. 10, 396–398 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Golub, Y. Beaudoin, S. L. Chin, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2 at 10.6 μm,” Opt. Lett. 13, 488–490 (1988); “Self-Bending of a Spatially Asymmetric Carbon Dioxide Laser Beam in a Nonlinear Medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2490–2493 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Mohebi, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Resolution of Discrepancies in Measured Values of n2 of CS2 at 10 μm,” Opt. Lett. 13, 649–650 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, “High Sensitivity, Single-Beam n2 Measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Yu. P. Raizer, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing, Instability and Stabilisation of Light Beams in Weakly Absorbing Media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 308–316 (1967); “Self-Focusing of a Homogeneous Light Beam in a Transparent Medium due to Weak Absorption,” JETP Lett. 4, 85–88 (1966).
  9. R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase Conjugation by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in Absorbing Media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Bartels et al., Eds., Landolt-Bornstein; Zahlenwerte and Functionen, Vol. II/8 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1962).
  11. R. C. Weast, M. J. Ashe, Eds., CRC Handbook of Chemistry (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1986).
  12. P. E. Dyer, J. S. Legatt, “Phase Conjugation in Liquid CS2 Using Pulsed CO2 Laser,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WM16; Opt. Lett.13, 583–585 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  13. Y. R. Shen, “Electrostriction, Optical Kerr Effect and Self-Focusing of Laser Beams,” Phys. Lett. 20, 378–380 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. A. Akhmanov, R. V. Khokhlov, A. P. Sukhorukov, Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schulz-Dubois, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), p. 1151.
  15. I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-Phase Modulation and Optical Limiting of a Low-Power CO2 Laser with a Nematic Liquid Crystal Film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988); T. F. Bogess, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, A. L. Smirl, “Nonlinear-Optical Energy Regulation by Nonlinear Refraction and Absorption in Silicon,” Opt. Lett. 9, 291–293 (1984); G. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, “Self-Protecting Semiconductor Optical Limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (3)

I. Golub, Y. Beaudoin, S. L. Chin, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2 at 10.6 μm,” Opt. Lett. 13, 488–490 (1988); “Self-Bending of a Spatially Asymmetric Carbon Dioxide Laser Beam in a Nonlinear Medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2490–2493 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mohebi, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Resolution of Discrepancies in Measured Values of n2 of CS2 at 10 μm,” Opt. Lett. 13, 649–650 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-Phase Modulation and Optical Limiting of a Low-Power CO2 Laser with a Nematic Liquid Crystal Film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988); T. F. Bogess, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, A. L. Smirl, “Nonlinear-Optical Energy Regulation by Nonlinear Refraction and Absorption in Silicon,” Opt. Lett. 9, 291–293 (1984); G. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, “Self-Protecting Semiconductor Optical Limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase Conjugation by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in Absorbing Media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. Thomas, A. Jares, B. P. Stoicheff, “Nonlinear Refractive Index and DC Kerr Constant of Liquid CS2 at 10.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 493–494 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

T. C. Owen, L. W. Coleman, T. J. Burgess, “Ultrafast Optical Kerr Effect in CS2 at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 272–273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

K. C. Jungling, O. L. Caddy, “Self-Focusing of 10.6 μm Radiation in Liquid CS2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 97–98 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Yu. P. Raizer, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing, Instability and Stabilisation of Light Beams in Weakly Absorbing Media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 308–316 (1967); “Self-Focusing of a Homogeneous Light Beam in a Transparent Medium due to Weak Absorption,” JETP Lett. 4, 85–88 (1966).

1966 (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Electrostriction, Optical Kerr Effect and Self-Focusing of Laser Beams,” Phys. Lett. 20, 378–380 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, P. F.

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, R. V. Khokhlov, A. P. Sukhorukov, Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schulz-Dubois, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), p. 1151.

Beaudoin, Y.

Burgess, T. J.

T. C. Owen, L. W. Coleman, T. J. Burgess, “Ultrafast Optical Kerr Effect in CS2 at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 272–273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Caddy, O. L.

K. C. Jungling, O. L. Caddy, “Self-Focusing of 10.6 μm Radiation in Liquid CS2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 97–98 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Caro, R. G.

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase Conjugation by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in Absorbing Media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Coleman, L. W.

T. C. Owen, L. W. Coleman, T. J. Burgess, “Ultrafast Optical Kerr Effect in CS2 at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 272–273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, J. S. Legatt, “Phase Conjugation in Liquid CS2 Using Pulsed CO2 Laser,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WM16; Opt. Lett.13, 583–585 (1988).
[PubMed]

Finn, G. M.

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-Phase Modulation and Optical Limiting of a Low-Power CO2 Laser with a Nematic Liquid Crystal Film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988); T. F. Bogess, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, A. L. Smirl, “Nonlinear-Optical Energy Regulation by Nonlinear Refraction and Absorption in Silicon,” Opt. Lett. 9, 291–293 (1984); G. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, “Self-Protecting Semiconductor Optical Limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golub, I.

Gower, M. C.

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase Conjugation by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in Absorbing Media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jares, A.

P. Thomas, A. Jares, B. P. Stoicheff, “Nonlinear Refractive Index and DC Kerr Constant of Liquid CS2 at 10.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 493–494 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jungling, K. C.

K. C. Jungling, O. L. Caddy, “Self-Focusing of 10.6 μm Radiation in Liquid CS2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 97–98 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Khokhlov, R. V.

S. A. Akhmanov, R. V. Khokhlov, A. P. Sukhorukov, Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schulz-Dubois, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), p. 1151.

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-Phase Modulation and Optical Limiting of a Low-Power CO2 Laser with a Nematic Liquid Crystal Film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988); T. F. Bogess, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, A. L. Smirl, “Nonlinear-Optical Energy Regulation by Nonlinear Refraction and Absorption in Silicon,” Opt. Lett. 9, 291–293 (1984); G. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, “Self-Protecting Semiconductor Optical Limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legatt, J. S.

P. E. Dyer, J. S. Legatt, “Phase Conjugation in Liquid CS2 Using Pulsed CO2 Laser,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WM16; Opt. Lett.13, 583–585 (1988).
[PubMed]

Michael, R. R.

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-Phase Modulation and Optical Limiting of a Low-Power CO2 Laser with a Nematic Liquid Crystal Film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988); T. F. Bogess, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, A. L. Smirl, “Nonlinear-Optical Energy Regulation by Nonlinear Refraction and Absorption in Silicon,” Opt. Lett. 9, 291–293 (1984); G. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, “Self-Protecting Semiconductor Optical Limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohebi, M.

Owen, T. C.

T. C. Owen, L. W. Coleman, T. J. Burgess, “Ultrafast Optical Kerr Effect in CS2 at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 272–273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Raizer, Yu. P.

Yu. P. Raizer, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing, Instability and Stabilisation of Light Beams in Weakly Absorbing Media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 308–316 (1967); “Self-Focusing of a Homogeneous Light Beam in a Transparent Medium due to Weak Absorption,” JETP Lett. 4, 85–88 (1966).

Reali, G.

Said, A.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, “Electrostriction, Optical Kerr Effect and Self-Focusing of Laser Beams,” Phys. Lett. 20, 378–380 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

Stoicheff, B. P.

P. Thomas, A. Jares, B. P. Stoicheff, “Nonlinear Refractive Index and DC Kerr Constant of Liquid CS2 at 10.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 493–494 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. P.

S. A. Akhmanov, R. V. Khokhlov, A. P. Sukhorukov, Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schulz-Dubois, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), p. 1151.

Thomas, P.

P. Thomas, A. Jares, B. P. Stoicheff, “Nonlinear Refractive Index and DC Kerr Constant of Liquid CS2 at 10.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 493–494 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. C. Owen, L. W. Coleman, T. J. Burgess, “Ultrafast Optical Kerr Effect in CS2 at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 272–273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, G. M. Finn, “Self-Phase Modulation and Optical Limiting of a Low-Power CO2 Laser with a Nematic Liquid Crystal Film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988); T. F. Bogess, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, A. L. Smirl, “Nonlinear-Optical Energy Regulation by Nonlinear Refraction and Absorption in Silicon,” Opt. Lett. 9, 291–293 (1984); G. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, “Self-Protecting Semiconductor Optical Limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

K. C. Jungling, O. L. Caddy, “Self-Focusing of 10.6 μm Radiation in Liquid CS2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 97–98 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. Thomas, A. Jares, B. P. Stoicheff, “Nonlinear Refractive Index and DC Kerr Constant of Liquid CS2 at 10.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 493–494 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase Conjugation by Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in Absorbing Media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Electrostriction, Optical Kerr Effect and Self-Focusing of Laser Beams,” Phys. Lett. 20, 378–380 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

Yu. P. Raizer, “Self-Focusing and Defocusing, Instability and Stabilisation of Light Beams in Weakly Absorbing Media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 308–316 (1967); “Self-Focusing of a Homogeneous Light Beam in a Transparent Medium due to Weak Absorption,” JETP Lett. 4, 85–88 (1966).

Other (4)

J. Bartels et al., Eds., Landolt-Bornstein; Zahlenwerte and Functionen, Vol. II/8 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1962).

R. C. Weast, M. J. Ashe, Eds., CRC Handbook of Chemistry (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1986).

P. E. Dyer, J. S. Legatt, “Phase Conjugation in Liquid CS2 Using Pulsed CO2 Laser,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1988), paper WM16; Opt. Lett.13, 583–585 (1988).
[PubMed]

S. A. Akhmanov, R. V. Khokhlov, A. P. Sukhorukov, Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schulz-Dubois, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), p. 1151.

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Equations (3)

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Δ th / Δ str = 2 Γ n 0 / ρ / ρ × α c t ,
Δ n th = d n / d T × Φ α τ I / ρ C ρ ,
Δ n str / Δ n K = K ρ / K α × v s 2 τ 2 / ω 0 2 ,

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