Abstract

Low-optical-loss glass thin films have been prepared using sputtering and electron beam deposition methods. Results of film composition and optical property measurements are presented. Glass films have been prepared with optical loss values of 0.5 dB/cm. We discuss factors limiting the reduction in optical loss for sputtered and vapor-deposited films. These films can be easily patterned using standard photolithographic processes for fabrication of integrated optics components, such as grating couplers and planar lenses.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. V. VanDewqestine, A. J. Morrow, “Developments in Optical Waveguide Fabrication by the Outside Vapor Deposition Process,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1020–1025 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, “Low Loss Si3N4–SiO2 Optical Waveguides on Si,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2621–2624 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Dutta, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, “Reduction of Scattering from a Glass Thin Film Optical Waveguide by CO2 Laser Annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 512–514 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Th. Kersten, H. F. Mahlein, W. Rauscher, “Optical Losses of Evaporation Deposited Dielectric Waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 28, 369–374 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, “Sputtered Glass Waveguide for Integrated Optical Circuits,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445–3448 (1969).
  6. C. W. Pitt, F. R. Gfeller, R. J. Stevens, “R. F. Sputtered Thin Films for Integrated Optical Components,” Thin Solid Films 26, 25–51 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Shimoto, H. Matsumaru, T. Nishimure, “Optical Characteristics of Corning 7059 Glass Films Deposited by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, Pt. 1, 701–704 (1974).
  8. H. Jerominek, S. Patela, J. Y. D. Pomerleau, C. Delisle, R. Tremblay, “Some Properties of R. F. Planar Magnetron-Sputtered Corning 7059 Glass Films,” Thin Solid Films 146, 191–200 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Goell, “Barium Silicate Films for Integrated Optical Circuits,” Appl. Opt. 12, 737–742 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Stutius, W. Streifer, “Silicon Nitride Films on Silicon for Optical Waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 16, 3218–3222 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172–1179 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. K. Tien, “Light Waves in Thin Films and Integrated Optics,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. M. Levin, C. R. Robbins, M. F. McMurdie, “Phase Diagram for Ceramists,” compiled at Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) and published by Amer. Ceramic Soc. (1964) Figs. 558–560.

1987 (3)

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, “Low Loss Si3N4–SiO2 Optical Waveguides on Si,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2621–2624 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jerominek, S. Patela, J. Y. D. Pomerleau, C. Delisle, R. Tremblay, “Some Properties of R. F. Planar Magnetron-Sputtered Corning 7059 Glass Films,” Thin Solid Films 146, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172–1179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. V. VanDewqestine, A. J. Morrow, “Developments in Optical Waveguide Fabrication by the Outside Vapor Deposition Process,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1020–1025 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

S. Dutta, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, “Reduction of Scattering from a Glass Thin Film Optical Waveguide by CO2 Laser Annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 512–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1975 (2)

R. Th. Kersten, H. F. Mahlein, W. Rauscher, “Optical Losses of Evaporation Deposited Dielectric Waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 28, 369–374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Pitt, F. R. Gfeller, R. J. Stevens, “R. F. Sputtered Thin Films for Integrated Optical Components,” Thin Solid Films 26, 25–51 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Y. Shimoto, H. Matsumaru, T. Nishimure, “Optical Characteristics of Corning 7059 Glass Films Deposited by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, Pt. 1, 701–704 (1974).

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, “Sputtered Glass Waveguide for Integrated Optical Circuits,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445–3448 (1969).

Borland, W. C.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172–1179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172–1179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Dutta, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, “Reduction of Scattering from a Glass Thin Film Optical Waveguide by CO2 Laser Annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 512–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Delisle, C.

H. Jerominek, S. Patela, J. Y. D. Pomerleau, C. Delisle, R. Tremblay, “Some Properties of R. F. Planar Magnetron-Sputtered Corning 7059 Glass Films,” Thin Solid Films 146, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, S.

S. Dutta, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, “Reduction of Scattering from a Glass Thin Film Optical Waveguide by CO2 Laser Annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 512–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gfeller, F. R.

C. W. Pitt, F. R. Gfeller, R. J. Stevens, “R. F. Sputtered Thin Films for Integrated Optical Components,” Thin Solid Films 26, 25–51 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Goell, J. E.

J. E. Goell, “Barium Silicate Films for Integrated Optical Circuits,” Appl. Opt. 12, 737–742 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, “Sputtered Glass Waveguide for Integrated Optical Circuits,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445–3448 (1969).

Henry, C. H.

Jackson, H. E.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172–1179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Dutta, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, “Reduction of Scattering from a Glass Thin Film Optical Waveguide by CO2 Laser Annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 512–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jerominek, H.

H. Jerominek, S. Patela, J. Y. D. Pomerleau, C. Delisle, R. Tremblay, “Some Properties of R. F. Planar Magnetron-Sputtered Corning 7059 Glass Films,” Thin Solid Films 146, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Katz, L. E.

Kazarinov, R. F.

Kersten, R. Th.

R. Th. Kersten, H. F. Mahlein, W. Rauscher, “Optical Losses of Evaporation Deposited Dielectric Waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 28, 369–374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

Levin, E. M.

E. M. Levin, C. R. Robbins, M. F. McMurdie, “Phase Diagram for Ceramists,” compiled at Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) and published by Amer. Ceramic Soc. (1964) Figs. 558–560.

Mahlein, H. F.

R. Th. Kersten, H. F. Mahlein, W. Rauscher, “Optical Losses of Evaporation Deposited Dielectric Waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 28, 369–374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Matsumaru, H.

Y. Shimoto, H. Matsumaru, T. Nishimure, “Optical Characteristics of Corning 7059 Glass Films Deposited by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, Pt. 1, 701–704 (1974).

McMurdie, M. F.

E. M. Levin, C. R. Robbins, M. F. McMurdie, “Phase Diagram for Ceramists,” compiled at Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) and published by Amer. Ceramic Soc. (1964) Figs. 558–560.

Morrow, A. J.

R. V. VanDewqestine, A. J. Morrow, “Developments in Optical Waveguide Fabrication by the Outside Vapor Deposition Process,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1020–1025 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nishimure, T.

Y. Shimoto, H. Matsumaru, T. Nishimure, “Optical Characteristics of Corning 7059 Glass Films Deposited by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, Pt. 1, 701–704 (1974).

Orlowsky, K. J.

Patela, S.

H. Jerominek, S. Patela, J. Y. D. Pomerleau, C. Delisle, R. Tremblay, “Some Properties of R. F. Planar Magnetron-Sputtered Corning 7059 Glass Films,” Thin Solid Films 146, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, C. W.

C. W. Pitt, F. R. Gfeller, R. J. Stevens, “R. F. Sputtered Thin Films for Integrated Optical Components,” Thin Solid Films 26, 25–51 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pomerleau, J. Y. D.

H. Jerominek, S. Patela, J. Y. D. Pomerleau, C. Delisle, R. Tremblay, “Some Properties of R. F. Planar Magnetron-Sputtered Corning 7059 Glass Films,” Thin Solid Films 146, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Radens, C. J.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172–1179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rauscher, W.

R. Th. Kersten, H. F. Mahlein, W. Rauscher, “Optical Losses of Evaporation Deposited Dielectric Waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 28, 369–374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, C. R.

E. M. Levin, C. R. Robbins, M. F. McMurdie, “Phase Diagram for Ceramists,” compiled at Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) and published by Amer. Ceramic Soc. (1964) Figs. 558–560.

Shimoto, Y.

Y. Shimoto, H. Matsumaru, T. Nishimure, “Optical Characteristics of Corning 7059 Glass Films Deposited by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, Pt. 1, 701–704 (1974).

Standley, R. D.

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, “Sputtered Glass Waveguide for Integrated Optical Circuits,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445–3448 (1969).

Stevens, R. J.

C. W. Pitt, F. R. Gfeller, R. J. Stevens, “R. F. Sputtered Thin Films for Integrated Optical Components,” Thin Solid Films 26, 25–51 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

Stutius, W.

Tien, P. K.

Tremblay, R.

H. Jerominek, S. Patela, J. Y. D. Pomerleau, C. Delisle, R. Tremblay, “Some Properties of R. F. Planar Magnetron-Sputtered Corning 7059 Glass Films,” Thin Solid Films 146, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

VanDewqestine, R. V.

R. V. VanDewqestine, A. J. Morrow, “Developments in Optical Waveguide Fabrication by the Outside Vapor Deposition Process,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1020–1025 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172–1179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Dutta, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, “Reduction of Scattering from a Glass Thin Film Optical Waveguide by CO2 Laser Annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 512–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, “Sputtered Glass Waveguide for Integrated Optical Circuits,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445–3448 (1969).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Properties of Four-Layer Planar Optical Waveguides Near Cutoff,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172–1179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. V. VanDewqestine, A. J. Morrow, “Developments in Optical Waveguide Fabrication by the Outside Vapor Deposition Process,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1020–1025 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. (1)

Y. Shimoto, H. Matsumaru, T. Nishimure, “Optical Characteristics of Corning 7059 Glass Films Deposited by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, Pt. 1, 701–704 (1974).

Thin Solid Films (3)

H. Jerominek, S. Patela, J. Y. D. Pomerleau, C. Delisle, R. Tremblay, “Some Properties of R. F. Planar Magnetron-Sputtered Corning 7059 Glass Films,” Thin Solid Films 146, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Pitt, F. R. Gfeller, R. J. Stevens, “R. F. Sputtered Thin Films for Integrated Optical Components,” Thin Solid Films 26, 25–51 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Th. Kersten, H. F. Mahlein, W. Rauscher, “Optical Losses of Evaporation Deposited Dielectric Waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 28, 369–374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. M. Levin, C. R. Robbins, M. F. McMurdie, “Phase Diagram for Ceramists,” compiled at Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) and published by Amer. Ceramic Soc. (1964) Figs. 558–560.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Elemental composition data obtained with electon micro probe analysis for (a) bulk Corning 7059 glass, (b) sputtered film, and (c) vapor-deposited film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Boron concentration profile data obtained with neutron activation analysis for (a) sputtered film and (b) vapor-deposited film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Elemental composition profile data obtained using RBS technique for sputtered and vapor-deposited films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated results of attenuation vs cladding layer thickness for various guide film thicknesses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface roughness measurement using an optical profilometer for guide film deposited on an oxidized Si wafer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculation of scattering loss vs waveguide film thickness of index 1.50 using the roughness data from Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Grating pattern formed in Corning 7059 glass films.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Corning Glass Composition in wt.%

Metrics