Abstract

We review the principle of photothermal deflection for measuring absorption losses in TiO2 films. A collinear arrangement gives the best sensitivity for the detection of losses in a low absorbing film deposited on a transparent substrate. The nineteen TiO2 films produced by six different processes (electron beam evaporation, ion assisted deposition, ion beam sputtering, ion plating, …), discussed at the 1986 Optical Society of America annual meeting, are measured by this technique. The extinction coefficients of the different films do not show obvious correlation with the deposition method. An important fact is that we have detected a variation in absorption as a function of time on some layers. This absorption shift is connected with the illumination conditions of the sample under study (wavelength: 600 nm; incident power: 400 W/cm2). Experimental results over time are given. The evolution of the photothermal signal is different from one sample to another. This phenomenon is partially reversible and depends on moisture degree of atmosphere.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Bousquet, F. Flory, P. Roche, “Scattering From Multilayer Thin Films: Theory and Experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115–1123 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Characterizations of Optical Surfaces by Measurement of Scattering Distribution,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3561–3566 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, “Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy and Detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1344 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Commandre, L. Bertrand, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Measurement of Absorption Losses of Optical Thin Film Components by Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 128–135 (1987).
  6. J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, E. Pelletier, “Automatic Determination of the Optical Constants of Inhomogeneous Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4020–4029 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Carniglia, presented at Optical Materials and Thin Films Technical Group Meeting at the 1986 Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (unpublished); U. J. Gibson, presented at Optical Materials and Thin Films Technical Group Meeting at the 1987 Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (unpublished).
  8. J. M. Bennett et al., “Comparison of the Properties of Titanium Dioxide Films Prepared Using Different Techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, P. Roche, “An Improved Method for the Determination of the Extinction Coefficient of Thin Film Materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of Optical Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 21–28 (1982).
  11. H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “Moisture Penetration Patterns in Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 37, 163–169 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

M. Commandre, L. Bertrand, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Measurement of Absorption Losses of Optical Thin Film Components by Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 128–135 (1987).

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, P. Roche, “An Improved Method for the Determination of the Extinction Coefficient of Thin Film Materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

1981 (2)

1980 (1)

1976 (1)

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “Moisture Penetration Patterns in Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 37, 163–169 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

M. Commandre, L. Bertrand, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Measurement of Absorption Losses of Optical Thin Film Components by Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 128–135 (1987).

Amer, N. M.

Bennett, J. M.

Bertrand, L.

M. Commandre, L. Bertrand, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Measurement of Absorption Losses of Optical Thin Film Components by Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 128–135 (1987).

Boccara, A. C.

Borgogno, J. P.

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, P. Roche, “An Improved Method for the Determination of the Extinction Coefficient of Thin Film Materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, E. Pelletier, “Automatic Determination of the Optical Constants of Inhomogeneous Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4020–4029 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bousquet, P.

Carniglia, C.

C. Carniglia, presented at Optical Materials and Thin Films Technical Group Meeting at the 1986 Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (unpublished); U. J. Gibson, presented at Optical Materials and Thin Films Technical Group Meeting at the 1987 Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (unpublished).

Commandre, M.

M. Commandre, L. Bertrand, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Measurement of Absorption Losses of Optical Thin Film Components by Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 128–135 (1987).

Flory, F.

Fournier, D.

Jackson, W.

Jackson, W. B.

Lazarides, B.

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, P. Roche, “An Improved Method for the Determination of the Extinction Coefficient of Thin Film Materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, E. Pelletier, “Automatic Determination of the Optical Constants of Inhomogeneous Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4020–4029 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of Optical Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 21–28 (1982).

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “Moisture Penetration Patterns in Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 37, 163–169 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

Richmond, D.

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “Moisture Penetration Patterns in Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 37, 163–169 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

M. Commandre, L. Bertrand, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Measurement of Absorption Losses of Optical Thin Film Components by Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 128–135 (1987).

H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of Optical Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 21–28 (1982).

Thin Solid Films (2)

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, “Moisture Penetration Patterns in Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 37, 163–169 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, P. Roche, “An Improved Method for the Determination of the Extinction Coefficient of Thin Film Materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Carniglia, presented at Optical Materials and Thin Films Technical Group Meeting at the 1986 Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (unpublished); U. J. Gibson, presented at Optical Materials and Thin Films Technical Group Meeting at the 1987 Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (unpublished).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Collinear photothermal deflection spectroscopy: experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histograms of extinction coefficients. Each figure is related to a deposition technique: (a) EB samples; (b) IAD samples; (c) IBSD samples; and (d) other samples (ARE, RFS, IP).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index vs extinction coefficient. Each sample is pictured as a square: (a) deposition technique indicated inside the square and (b) the ΔA/A values expressed as a percentage are given inside the squares.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative variations of absorptance vs time for four illuminated single layer titania films: (a) No. 11 (OSA); (b) TiO2 (ENSPM); (c) No. 137 (OSA); and (d) No. 120 (OSA).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intermittent illumination of a single layer titania film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of hygrometric degree of atmosphere on time dependent absorption change.

Tables (2)

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Table I Suppliers of Titanla Films

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Table II Summary of Optical Constants and Thicknesses of Titanla Layers at λ = 600 nma

Equations (4)

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A T = k 1 n 1 2 r 2 n 1 2 - s 2 [ ϕ 0 ( Q 2 + 1 ) - ( Q 2 - 1 ) sin ϕ 0 ] + k 1 2 n 1 2 ( n 1 2 - s 2 ) 2 ( ϕ 0 2 2 + cos ϕ 0 - 1 ) + k 1 2 ( k 1 ) ,
Q 2 = r 1 2 / ( n 1 2 - s 2 ) ;             ϕ 0 = 4 π e λ n 1 2 - s 2 ; r 2 = n 2 cos θ 2 ;             s = n 0 sin θ 0
Δ A A = A ( t = 10 mn ) - A ( t = 0 ) A ( t = 0 ) .
moisture degree temperature 60 % ( point A ) 95 % 60 % 20 ° C

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