Abstract

A new soft x-ray monochromator design, especially conceived for high brightness undulator radiation, is discussed. Its aim is to achieve a resolution limited only by grating figuring slope errors, together with a simple grating rotation scanning; thereby operating with fixed entrance and exit slits. Three cylindrical optical surfaces are employed between the slits, including two mirrors focusing in their sagittal planes, and a resolution λ/Δλ up to ≈14000 at the carbon K-edge is predicted. Its implementation for the planned Trieste synchrotron radiation facility is described in detail.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. P. Williams, “Effects of Optical Component Surface Figure Errors on Resolving Powers of Soft X-ray Grating Monochromators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 294 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. T. Chen, “Concept and Design Procedure for Cylindrical Element Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 256, 595–604 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. A. Rense, T. Violett, “Method of Increasing the Speed of a Grazing-Incidence Spectograph,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 139–141 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Hogrefe, M. R. Howells, E. Hoyer, “Applications of Spherical Gratings in Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 274–285 (1986).
  5. H. A. Padmore, “Application of a Simple Rotational Spherical Grating Mounting to High Resolution Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 253–261 (1986).
  6. M. C. Hettrick, J. H. Underwood, “Varied-Space Grazing Incidence Gratings in High Resolution Scanning Spectrometers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Hettrick, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, M. J. Eckart, “Resolving Power of 35,000 (5 mA) in the Extreme Ultraviolet Employing a Grazing Incidence Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 27, 200–202 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Tondello, F. Zanini, “Higher Resolution Czerny-Turner Monochromator for Application to Undulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2116–2119 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Cash, “X-Ray Optics: A Technique for High Resolution Imaging,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2915–2920 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. R. Howells, “Plane Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 177, 127–139 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Tondello, F. Zanini, “Higher Resolution Czerny-Turner Monochromator for Application to Undulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2116–2119 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1987 (2)

W. Cash, “X-Ray Optics: A Technique for High Resolution Imaging,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2915–2920 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chen, “Concept and Design Procedure for Cylindrical Element Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 256, 595–604 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (4)

M. Hogrefe, M. R. Howells, E. Hoyer, “Applications of Spherical Gratings in Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 274–285 (1986).

H. A. Padmore, “Application of a Simple Rotational Spherical Grating Mounting to High Resolution Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 253–261 (1986).

M. C. Hettrick, J. H. Underwood, “Varied-Space Grazing Incidence Gratings in High Resolution Scanning Spectrometers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Williams, “Effects of Optical Component Surface Figure Errors on Resolving Powers of Soft X-ray Grating Monochromators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 294 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

Batson, P. J.

Cash, W.

Chen, C. T.

C. T. Chen, “Concept and Design Procedure for Cylindrical Element Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 256, 595–604 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eckart, M. J.

Hettrick, M. C.

Hogrefe, M.

M. Hogrefe, M. R. Howells, E. Hoyer, “Applications of Spherical Gratings in Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 274–285 (1986).

Howells, M. R.

M. R. Howells, “Plane Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 177, 127–139 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Hogrefe, M. R. Howells, E. Hoyer, “Applications of Spherical Gratings in Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 274–285 (1986).

Hoyer, E.

M. Hogrefe, M. R. Howells, E. Hoyer, “Applications of Spherical Gratings in Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 274–285 (1986).

Padmore, H. A.

H. A. Padmore, “Application of a Simple Rotational Spherical Grating Mounting to High Resolution Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 253–261 (1986).

Rense, W. A.

Tondello, G.

G. Tondello, F. Zanini, “Higher Resolution Czerny-Turner Monochromator for Application to Undulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2116–2119 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

Violett, T.

Williams, G. P.

G. P. Williams, “Effects of Optical Component Surface Figure Errors on Resolving Powers of Soft X-ray Grating Monochromators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 294 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zanini, F.

G. Tondello, F. Zanini, “Higher Resolution Czerny-Turner Monochromator for Application to Undulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2116–2119 (1989).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

M. C. Hettrick, J. H. Underwood, “Varied-Space Grazing Incidence Gratings in High Resolution Scanning Spectrometers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 147, (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

M. R. Howells, “Plane Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 177, 127–139 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (2)

G. P. Williams, “Effects of Optical Component Surface Figure Errors on Resolving Powers of Soft X-ray Grating Monochromators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 294 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, “Concept and Design Procedure for Cylindrical Element Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 256, 595–604 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

M. Hogrefe, M. R. Howells, E. Hoyer, “Applications of Spherical Gratings in Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 274–285 (1986).

H. A. Padmore, “Application of a Simple Rotational Spherical Grating Mounting to High Resolution Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 253–261 (1986).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Tondello, F. Zanini, “Higher Resolution Czerny-Turner Monochromator for Application to Undulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2116–2119 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Collimating a point source by means of a cylindrical mirror either (a) tangentially or (b) sagittally.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conceptual layout of the CTM: S1, S2, entrance and exit slits; M1, M2, collimating and refocusing mirrors; G, plane grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the interchange between the tangential and sagittal planes of each mirror with respect to those of the grating: (a) view of the sagittal mirror and tangential grating plane; (b) view of the tangential mirror and sagittal grating plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Conceptual layout of a Z-shaped SF-CTM for use with SR; symbols are the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ray traced focal patterns obtained at λ = 2 nm: (a) point source on the entrance slit with 2-mrad divergence (≈3σ of the actual Gaussian profile); the inner pattern was obtained with half of that value and, being eight times smaller than the outer one, clearly shows the third-order dependence of the dispersive aberrations; and (b) actual demagnified Gaussian source and slope errors of 1 μrad on the optical surfaces. Both coordinates are expressed in micrometers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Overall resolution curve of the proposed implementation of the SF-CTM.

Tables (1)

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Table I Geometrical Parameters of the Proposed Implementation of the SF-CTM

Equations (1)

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1 p G + 1 q G = cos α + cos β ρ = 2 cos θ ρ ,

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