Abstract

A new laser scanning microscope system has been developed to observe the spatial distribution of light scattering particles or defects in a partially transparent object. The present microscope has an optical probe whose intensity is modulated by the interference effect between two crossed laser beams with slightly different frequencies. In this paper, a Zeeman laser combined with a simple polarizing optical system is used to produce two such coherent beams. Experimental results obtained by using a latex sphere and a microscale as the target show qualitatively that high image contrast is obtained by the present method even if some obscuring particles exist in front of the probe volume. Distributions of light scattering particles or defects in a LiNbO3 and TGS single crystal can be visualized by a computer-controlled scan stage.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  2. T. Ogawa, N. Nango, “Infrared Light Scattering Tomography with an Electrical Streak Camera for Characterization of Semiconductor Crystals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1135–1139 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Sawatari, “Optical Heterodyne Scanning Microscope,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2768–2772 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Fujii, H. Takimoto, T. Igarashi, “Optimum Resolution of Laser Microscope by Using Optical Heterodyne Detection,” Opt. Commun. 38, 85–90 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Komatsu, H. Suhara, H. Ohzu, “Differential Heterodyne Optical Probe Using a Zeeman-Laser,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics, Quebec, (1987), pp. 299–300.
  6. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984), p. 380.
  7. C. W. See, M. V. Iravani, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope: Application to Surface Studies,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2373–2379 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. P. Wang, D. Snyder, “Laser Doppler Velocimetry: Experimental Study,” Appl. Opt. 13, 98–103 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1987), p. 441.

1986 (1)

T. Ogawa, N. Nango, “Infrared Light Scattering Tomography with an Electrical Streak Camera for Characterization of Semiconductor Crystals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1135–1139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

Y. Fujii, H. Takimoto, T. Igarashi, “Optimum Resolution of Laser Microscope by Using Optical Heterodyne Detection,” Opt. Commun. 38, 85–90 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1987), p. 441.

Fujii, Y.

Y. Fujii, H. Takimoto, T. Igarashi, “Optimum Resolution of Laser Microscope by Using Optical Heterodyne Detection,” Opt. Commun. 38, 85–90 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984), p. 380.

Igarashi, T.

Y. Fujii, H. Takimoto, T. Igarashi, “Optimum Resolution of Laser Microscope by Using Optical Heterodyne Detection,” Opt. Commun. 38, 85–90 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Iravani, M. V.

Komatsu, S.

S. Komatsu, H. Suhara, H. Ohzu, “Differential Heterodyne Optical Probe Using a Zeeman-Laser,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics, Quebec, (1987), pp. 299–300.

Nango, N.

T. Ogawa, N. Nango, “Infrared Light Scattering Tomography with an Electrical Streak Camera for Characterization of Semiconductor Crystals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1135–1139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

T. Ogawa, N. Nango, “Infrared Light Scattering Tomography with an Electrical Streak Camera for Characterization of Semiconductor Crystals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1135–1139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ohzu, H.

S. Komatsu, H. Suhara, H. Ohzu, “Differential Heterodyne Optical Probe Using a Zeeman-Laser,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics, Quebec, (1987), pp. 299–300.

Sawatari, T.

See, C. W.

Sheppard, C.

T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Snyder, D.

Suhara, H.

S. Komatsu, H. Suhara, H. Ohzu, “Differential Heterodyne Optical Probe Using a Zeeman-Laser,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics, Quebec, (1987), pp. 299–300.

Takimoto, H.

Y. Fujii, H. Takimoto, T. Igarashi, “Optimum Resolution of Laser Microscope by Using Optical Heterodyne Detection,” Opt. Commun. 38, 85–90 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. P.

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1987), p. 441.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Fujii, H. Takimoto, T. Igarashi, “Optimum Resolution of Laser Microscope by Using Optical Heterodyne Detection,” Opt. Commun. 38, 85–90 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Ogawa, N. Nango, “Infrared Light Scattering Tomography with an Electrical Streak Camera for Characterization of Semiconductor Crystals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1135–1139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1987), p. 441.

S. Komatsu, H. Suhara, H. Ohzu, “Differential Heterodyne Optical Probe Using a Zeeman-Laser,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth Congress of the International Commission for Optics, Quebec, (1987), pp. 299–300.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984), p. 380.

T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the heterodyne optical probe for laser scanning microscopy: (a) local oscillator heterodyne method; (b) nonconfocal differential heterodyne method; and (c) confocal differential heterodyne method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differential heterodyne laser scanning microscope using a Zeeman laser: (a) schematic diagram of a nonconfocal system. Variations of the detected dc and beat signal along the optical axis are shown, where density α of the obscuring particles is zero in (b) and 1000 particles/mm2 in (c). BE, beam expander; S, opaque strip; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; OL, microscope objective lens (10×); PM, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results of surface profile measurements; the distribution of height in the z-direction of an acrylic resin plate is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the improved (confocal) differential heterodyne microscope for obtaining 2-D image data: BSC, Babinet-Soleil compensator; BE, beam expander; S, opaque strip; BS, polarizing beam splitter; L1, L2, L3; microscope objective lenses (10×); PM, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally obtained images of a microscale whose spacing and linewidth are 10 and 2 μm, respectively: (a) configuration of the target (a ground glass plate smeared with glycerine was placed ~3 mm in front of the microscale); (b) the image obtained with the differential heterodyne method; and (c) the image obtained with the intensity detection method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Horizontal cross sections of Figs. 5(b) and (c). The solid and dotted lines correspond to Figs. 5(b) and (c), respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimentally obtained images of a TGS crystal surface are shown in (a) (250 × 250 μm2) and (b) (80 × 80 μm2), and those of the observation planes (135 × 135 μm2) inside a LiNbO3 crystal are shown in (c) (200-μm depth) and (d) (600-μm depth). These images were obtained with the differential heterodyne method.

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