Abstract

We describe the design, construction, and testing of a miniature, all-solid state laser light scattering instrument for determination of particle sizes and distributions using photon correlation spectroscopy techniques (i.e., quasielastic or dynamic light scattering). Detailed comparative tests with standard photon correlation spectroscopy equipment are presented.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974); H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York, 1977).
  2. R. Pecora, Ed., Dynamic Light Scattering: Applications of Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1985).
  3. P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, “Light Scattering and Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy,” in Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes, Vol. 2, M. Davies, Ed. (Chemical Society, London, 1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. E. Dahneke, Ed., Measurement of Suspended Particles by Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).
  5. P. N. Pusey, D. E. Koppel, D. W. Schaefer, R. D. CameriniOtero, S. H. Koenig, “Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy of Light Scattered by Solutions of Spherical Viruses,” Biochemistry 13, 952 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. G. W. Brown, R. Grant, “Photon Statistical Properties of Visible Laser Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 928–931 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. G. W. Brown, “Dynamic Light Scattering Using Monomode Optical Fibres,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4846–4851 (1987); R. G. W. Brown, British Patent Application No.8705844.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. G. W. Brown, A. Jackson, “Monomode Fibre Components for Dynamic Light Scattering,” J. Phys. E 20, 1503–1507 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. G. W. Brown, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 1: Passive Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4122–4126 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 2: Active Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2383–2389 (1987); R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, British Patent Application No.8628110.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. G. W. Brown, “Miniature Instrumentation for Laser Light Scattering Experiments,” in Proceedings, NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, 1988).
  12. E. R. Pike, “Analysis of Polydisperse Scattering Data 1,” in Scattering Techniques Applied to Supra-Molecular and Non-Equilibrium Systems, S. H. Chen, B. Chu, R. Nossal, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), p. 179; E. R. Pike, D. Watson, F. McNeil Watson, “Analysis of Polydisperse Scattering Data 2,” in Ref. 4, p. 107.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. O. Schulz-DuBois, Ed., Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), including papers by M. Bertero, E. R. Pike, “On the Extraction of Polydispersity Information in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” p. 298; N. Ostrowsky, D. Sornette, “Data Reduction in Polydisperse Diffusion Studies,” p. 286.
  14. N. Ostrowsky, D. Sornette, P. Parker, E. R. Pike, “Exponential Sampling Method for Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis,” Opt. Acta 28, 1059 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Melles Griot Corp., Optics Guide 4 (1988).
  16. B. S. Lowans, “The Construction and Testing of a Modular Laser Doppler Velocimeter,” M.Sc. Thesis, Queen’s University, Belfast (1988).
  17. Sharp Corp., Japan, Laser Diode Users Manual (1986).
  18. K. Chow, A. G. Stansfield, R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, R. G. W. Brown, “On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Using Fibre-Optic Probes,” J. Phys. E 21, 1186–1190 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. J. Ackerson, N. A. Clark, “Cross-Correlation Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy Applied to Colloidal Suspensions,” Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 76, 219 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Measurement of the Intensity Cross Correlation Function of Light Scattered by Brownian Doublets,” Opt. Commun. 50, 101 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. E. Stanley, N. Ostrowsky, Eds., On Growth and Form (M. Nijhoff, Boston, 1986).
  22. R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D 21, S20 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Bertero, P. Brianzi, E. R. Pike, G. de Villiers, K. H. Lan, N. Ostrowsky, “Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis of Molecular Diffusion by Laplace Transform Inversion in Weighted Spaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1551 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. J. Oliver, “The Extraction of Spectral Parameters in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Adv. Phys. 27, 387 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. N. Pusey, J. G. Rarity, RSRE, unpublished work.
  26. R. C. Weast, S. M. Selby, Eds., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1967).
  27. J. Topping, Errors of Observation and Their Treatment (Chapman & Hall, London, 1972).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. E. Bott, “Enhanced Resolution Particle Size Distributions by Multiple Angle Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” in Particle Size Analysis 1988, P. J. Lloyd, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  29. M. Bertero, E. R. Pike, in Ref. 13, Fig. 1, p. 299.
  30. H. G. Berth, Ed., Modern Methods of Particle Size Analysis (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984), papers by B. Weiner.
  31. R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, A. G. Stansfield, R. G. W. Brown, D. J. Clarke, T. Atkinson, “Determination of Protein Size in Chromatography Column Eluants by On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 175, 492 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, J. M. Vaughan, “Observation of an Oscillating Hydrodynamic Mode in a Laser Scattering Experiment,” RRE Newsletter Res. Rev. 12, (1973).
  33. G. Eden, W. Shroer, W. Staude, “Nonlinear Effects in Light Scattering of Thermal Lensing Systems,” Opt. Commun. 63, 135 (1987) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, D. V. Willetts, “Effect of Spatial Incoherence of the Laser in Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1012–1017 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Under license from DTE, Ltd.
  36. D. Jolly, H. Eisenberg, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy, Total Intensity Light Scattering with Laser Radiation, and Hydrodynamic Studies of a Well Fractionated DNA Sample,” Biopolymers 15, 61 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. H. Auweter, D. Horn, “Fibre-Optical Quasi-Elastical Light Scattering in Concentrated Dispersions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 105, 399 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  38. D. F. Nicoli, R. B. Dorshow, “The Effects of Interparticle Interactions on Particle Size Determination by QELS,” in Ref. 4, p. 501.

1988 (3)

K. Chow, A. G. Stansfield, R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, R. G. W. Brown, “On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Using Fibre-Optic Probes,” J. Phys. E 21, 1186–1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D 21, S20 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, A. G. Stansfield, R. G. W. Brown, D. J. Clarke, T. Atkinson, “Determination of Protein Size in Chromatography Column Eluants by On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 175, 492 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (5)

G. Eden, W. Shroer, W. Staude, “Nonlinear Effects in Light Scattering of Thermal Lensing Systems,” Opt. Commun. 63, 135 (1987) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 2: Active Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2383–2389 (1987); R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, British Patent Application No.8628110.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, R. Grant, “Photon Statistical Properties of Visible Laser Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 928–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, “Dynamic Light Scattering Using Monomode Optical Fibres,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4846–4851 (1987); R. G. W. Brown, British Patent Application No.8705844.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, A. Jackson, “Monomode Fibre Components for Dynamic Light Scattering,” J. Phys. E 20, 1503–1507 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

M. Bertero, P. Brianzi, E. R. Pike, G. de Villiers, K. H. Lan, N. Ostrowsky, “Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis of Molecular Diffusion by Laplace Transform Inversion in Weighted Spaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1551 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Auweter, D. Horn, “Fibre-Optical Quasi-Elastical Light Scattering in Concentrated Dispersions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 105, 399 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Measurement of the Intensity Cross Correlation Function of Light Scattered by Brownian Doublets,” Opt. Commun. 50, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, D. V. Willetts, “Effect of Spatial Incoherence of the Laser in Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1012–1017 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Ackerson, N. A. Clark, “Cross-Correlation Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy Applied to Colloidal Suspensions,” Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 76, 219 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

N. Ostrowsky, D. Sornette, P. Parker, E. R. Pike, “Exponential Sampling Method for Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis,” Opt. Acta 28, 1059 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

C. J. Oliver, “The Extraction of Spectral Parameters in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Adv. Phys. 27, 387 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. Jolly, H. Eisenberg, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy, Total Intensity Light Scattering with Laser Radiation, and Hydrodynamic Studies of a Well Fractionated DNA Sample,” Biopolymers 15, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

P. N. Pusey, D. E. Koppel, D. W. Schaefer, R. D. CameriniOtero, S. H. Koenig, “Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy of Light Scattered by Solutions of Spherical Viruses,” Biochemistry 13, 952 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, J. M. Vaughan, “Observation of an Oscillating Hydrodynamic Mode in a Laser Scattering Experiment,” RRE Newsletter Res. Rev. 12, (1973).

Ackerson, B. J.

B. J. Ackerson, N. A. Clark, “Cross-Correlation Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy Applied to Colloidal Suspensions,” Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 76, 219 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, T.

R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, A. G. Stansfield, R. G. W. Brown, D. J. Clarke, T. Atkinson, “Determination of Protein Size in Chromatography Column Eluants by On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 175, 492 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auweter, H.

H. Auweter, D. Horn, “Fibre-Optical Quasi-Elastical Light Scattering in Concentrated Dispersions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 105, 399 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bertero, M.

M. Bertero, P. Brianzi, E. R. Pike, G. de Villiers, K. H. Lan, N. Ostrowsky, “Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis of Molecular Diffusion by Laplace Transform Inversion in Weighted Spaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1551 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertero, E. R. Pike, in Ref. 13, Fig. 1, p. 299.

Bott, S. E.

S. E. Bott, “Enhanced Resolution Particle Size Distributions by Multiple Angle Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” in Particle Size Analysis 1988, P. J. Lloyd, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Brianzi, P.

M. Bertero, P. Brianzi, E. R. Pike, G. de Villiers, K. H. Lan, N. Ostrowsky, “Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis of Molecular Diffusion by Laplace Transform Inversion in Weighted Spaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1551 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. G. W.

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D 21, S20 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, A. G. Stansfield, R. G. W. Brown, D. J. Clarke, T. Atkinson, “Determination of Protein Size in Chromatography Column Eluants by On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 175, 492 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Chow, A. G. Stansfield, R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, R. G. W. Brown, “On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Using Fibre-Optic Probes,” J. Phys. E 21, 1186–1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, R. Grant, “Photon Statistical Properties of Visible Laser Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 928–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, “Dynamic Light Scattering Using Monomode Optical Fibres,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4846–4851 (1987); R. G. W. Brown, British Patent Application No.8705844.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, A. Jackson, “Monomode Fibre Components for Dynamic Light Scattering,” J. Phys. E 20, 1503–1507 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 2: Active Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2383–2389 (1987); R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, British Patent Application No.8628110.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 1: Passive Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4122–4126 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, “Miniature Instrumentation for Laser Light Scattering Experiments,” in Proceedings, NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, 1988).

Burnett, J. G.

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D 21, S20 (1988).
[CrossRef]

CameriniOtero, R. D.

P. N. Pusey, D. E. Koppel, D. W. Schaefer, R. D. CameriniOtero, S. H. Koenig, “Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy of Light Scattered by Solutions of Spherical Viruses,” Biochemistry 13, 952 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, R. J. G.

K. Chow, A. G. Stansfield, R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, R. G. W. Brown, “On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Using Fibre-Optic Probes,” J. Phys. E 21, 1186–1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, A. G. Stansfield, R. G. W. Brown, D. J. Clarke, T. Atkinson, “Determination of Protein Size in Chromatography Column Eluants by On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 175, 492 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, K.

K. Chow, A. G. Stansfield, R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, R. G. W. Brown, “On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Using Fibre-Optic Probes,” J. Phys. E 21, 1186–1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

B. J. Ackerson, N. A. Clark, “Cross-Correlation Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy Applied to Colloidal Suspensions,” Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 76, 219 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, D. J.

R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, A. G. Stansfield, R. G. W. Brown, D. J. Clarke, T. Atkinson, “Determination of Protein Size in Chromatography Column Eluants by On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 175, 492 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Villiers, G.

M. Bertero, P. Brianzi, E. R. Pike, G. de Villiers, K. H. Lan, N. Ostrowsky, “Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis of Molecular Diffusion by Laplace Transform Inversion in Weighted Spaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1551 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dorshow, R. B.

D. F. Nicoli, R. B. Dorshow, “The Effects of Interparticle Interactions on Particle Size Determination by QELS,” in Ref. 4, p. 501.

Eden, G.

G. Eden, W. Shroer, W. Staude, “Nonlinear Effects in Light Scattering of Thermal Lensing Systems,” Opt. Commun. 63, 135 (1987) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H.

D. Jolly, H. Eisenberg, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy, Total Intensity Light Scattering with Laser Radiation, and Hydrodynamic Studies of a Well Fractionated DNA Sample,” Biopolymers 15, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, R.

R. G. W. Brown, R. Grant, “Photon Statistical Properties of Visible Laser Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 928–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hackney, N.

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D 21, S20 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Horn, D.

H. Auweter, D. Horn, “Fibre-Optical Quasi-Elastical Light Scattering in Concentrated Dispersions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 105, 399 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, A.

R. G. W. Brown, A. Jackson, “Monomode Fibre Components for Dynamic Light Scattering,” J. Phys. E 20, 1503–1507 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jakeman, E.

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, J. M. Vaughan, “Observation of an Oscillating Hydrodynamic Mode in a Laser Scattering Experiment,” RRE Newsletter Res. Rev. 12, (1973).

Jolly, D.

D. Jolly, H. Eisenberg, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy, Total Intensity Light Scattering with Laser Radiation, and Hydrodynamic Studies of a Well Fractionated DNA Sample,” Biopolymers 15, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

Koenig, S. H.

P. N. Pusey, D. E. Koppel, D. W. Schaefer, R. D. CameriniOtero, S. H. Koenig, “Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy of Light Scattered by Solutions of Spherical Viruses,” Biochemistry 13, 952 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koppel, D. E.

P. N. Pusey, D. E. Koppel, D. W. Schaefer, R. D. CameriniOtero, S. H. Koenig, “Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy of Light Scattered by Solutions of Spherical Viruses,” Biochemistry 13, 952 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, K. H.

M. Bertero, P. Brianzi, E. R. Pike, G. de Villiers, K. H. Lan, N. Ostrowsky, “Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis of Molecular Diffusion by Laplace Transform Inversion in Weighted Spaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1551 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lowans, B. S.

B. S. Lowans, “The Construction and Testing of a Modular Laser Doppler Velocimeter,” M.Sc. Thesis, Queen’s University, Belfast (1988).

Nicoli, D. F.

D. F. Nicoli, R. B. Dorshow, “The Effects of Interparticle Interactions on Particle Size Determination by QELS,” in Ref. 4, p. 501.

Oliver, C. J.

C. J. Oliver, “The Extraction of Spectral Parameters in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Adv. Phys. 27, 387 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, N.

M. Bertero, P. Brianzi, E. R. Pike, G. de Villiers, K. H. Lan, N. Ostrowsky, “Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis of Molecular Diffusion by Laplace Transform Inversion in Weighted Spaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1551 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Ostrowsky, D. Sornette, P. Parker, E. R. Pike, “Exponential Sampling Method for Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis,” Opt. Acta 28, 1059 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Parker, P.

N. Ostrowsky, D. Sornette, P. Parker, E. R. Pike, “Exponential Sampling Method for Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis,” Opt. Acta 28, 1059 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pike, E. R.

M. Bertero, P. Brianzi, E. R. Pike, G. de Villiers, K. H. Lan, N. Ostrowsky, “Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis of Molecular Diffusion by Laplace Transform Inversion in Weighted Spaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1551 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Ostrowsky, D. Sornette, P. Parker, E. R. Pike, “Exponential Sampling Method for Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis,” Opt. Acta 28, 1059 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, J. M. Vaughan, “Observation of an Oscillating Hydrodynamic Mode in a Laser Scattering Experiment,” RRE Newsletter Res. Rev. 12, (1973).

M. Bertero, E. R. Pike, in Ref. 13, Fig. 1, p. 299.

E. R. Pike, “Analysis of Polydisperse Scattering Data 1,” in Scattering Techniques Applied to Supra-Molecular and Non-Equilibrium Systems, S. H. Chen, B. Chu, R. Nossal, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), p. 179; E. R. Pike, D. Watson, F. McNeil Watson, “Analysis of Polydisperse Scattering Data 2,” in Ref. 4, p. 107.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pusey, P. N.

P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, D. V. Willetts, “Effect of Spatial Incoherence of the Laser in Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1012–1017 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Pusey, D. E. Koppel, D. W. Schaefer, R. D. CameriniOtero, S. H. Koenig, “Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy of Light Scattered by Solutions of Spherical Viruses,” Biochemistry 13, 952 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, “Light Scattering and Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy,” in Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes, Vol. 2, M. Davies, Ed. (Chemical Society, London, 1975).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Pusey, J. G. Rarity, RSRE, unpublished work.

Randle, K. J.

J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Measurement of the Intensity Cross Correlation Function of Light Scattered by Brownian Doublets,” Opt. Commun. 50, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, A. G. Stansfield, R. G. W. Brown, D. J. Clarke, T. Atkinson, “Determination of Protein Size in Chromatography Column Eluants by On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 175, 492 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Chow, A. G. Stansfield, R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, R. G. W. Brown, “On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Using Fibre-Optic Probes,” J. Phys. E 21, 1186–1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 2: Active Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2383–2389 (1987); R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, British Patent Application No.8628110.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 1: Passive Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4122–4126 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Measurement of the Intensity Cross Correlation Function of Light Scattered by Brownian Doublets,” Opt. Commun. 50, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Pusey, J. G. Rarity, RSRE, unpublished work.

Ridley, K. D.

Schaefer, D. W.

P. N. Pusey, D. E. Koppel, D. W. Schaefer, R. D. CameriniOtero, S. H. Koenig, “Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy of Light Scattered by Solutions of Spherical Viruses,” Biochemistry 13, 952 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shroer, W.

G. Eden, W. Shroer, W. Staude, “Nonlinear Effects in Light Scattering of Thermal Lensing Systems,” Opt. Commun. 63, 135 (1987) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Sornette, D.

N. Ostrowsky, D. Sornette, P. Parker, E. R. Pike, “Exponential Sampling Method for Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis,” Opt. Acta 28, 1059 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stansfield, A. G.

K. Chow, A. G. Stansfield, R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, R. G. W. Brown, “On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Using Fibre-Optic Probes,” J. Phys. E 21, 1186–1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, A. G. Stansfield, R. G. W. Brown, D. J. Clarke, T. Atkinson, “Determination of Protein Size in Chromatography Column Eluants by On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 175, 492 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staude, W.

G. Eden, W. Shroer, W. Staude, “Nonlinear Effects in Light Scattering of Thermal Lensing Systems,” Opt. Commun. 63, 135 (1987) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Topping, J.

J. Topping, Errors of Observation and Their Treatment (Chapman & Hall, London, 1972).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. M.

P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, D. V. Willetts, “Effect of Spatial Incoherence of the Laser in Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1012–1017 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, J. M. Vaughan, “Observation of an Oscillating Hydrodynamic Mode in a Laser Scattering Experiment,” RRE Newsletter Res. Rev. 12, (1973).

P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, “Light Scattering and Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy,” in Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes, Vol. 2, M. Davies, Ed. (Chemical Society, London, 1975).
[CrossRef]

Willetts, D. V.

Adv. Phys. (1)

C. J. Oliver, “The Extraction of Spectral Parameters in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Adv. Phys. 27, 387 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, A. G. Stansfield, R. G. W. Brown, D. J. Clarke, T. Atkinson, “Determination of Protein Size in Chromatography Column Eluants by On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 175, 492 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biochemistry (1)

P. N. Pusey, D. E. Koppel, D. W. Schaefer, R. D. CameriniOtero, S. H. Koenig, “Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy of Light Scattered by Solutions of Spherical Viruses,” Biochemistry 13, 952 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biopolymers (1)

D. Jolly, H. Eisenberg, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy, Total Intensity Light Scattering with Laser Radiation, and Hydrodynamic Studies of a Well Fractionated DNA Sample,” Biopolymers 15, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. (1)

B. J. Ackerson, N. A. Clark, “Cross-Correlation Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy Applied to Colloidal Suspensions,” Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 76, 219 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

H. Auweter, D. Horn, “Fibre-Optical Quasi-Elastical Light Scattering in Concentrated Dispersions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 105, 399 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Bertero, P. Brianzi, E. R. Pike, G. de Villiers, K. H. Lan, N. Ostrowsky, “Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis of Molecular Diffusion by Laplace Transform Inversion in Weighted Spaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1551 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. E (1)

K. Chow, A. G. Stansfield, R. J. G. Carr, J. G. Rarity, R. G. W. Brown, “On-Line Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Using Fibre-Optic Probes,” J. Phys. E 21, 1186–1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D 21, S20 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

R. G. W. Brown, A. Jackson, “Monomode Fibre Components for Dynamic Light Scattering,” J. Phys. E 20, 1503–1507 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

N. Ostrowsky, D. Sornette, P. Parker, E. R. Pike, “Exponential Sampling Method for Light Scattering Polydispersity Analysis,” Opt. Acta 28, 1059 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Eden, W. Shroer, W. Staude, “Nonlinear Effects in Light Scattering of Thermal Lensing Systems,” Opt. Commun. 63, 135 (1987) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Measurement of the Intensity Cross Correlation Function of Light Scattered by Brownian Doublets,” Opt. Commun. 50, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. G. W. Brown, R. Grant, “Photon Statistical Properties of Visible Laser Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 928–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

RRE Newsletter Res. Rev. (1)

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, J. M. Vaughan, “Observation of an Oscillating Hydrodynamic Mode in a Laser Scattering Experiment,” RRE Newsletter Res. Rev. 12, (1973).

Other (19)

Under license from DTE, Ltd.

D. F. Nicoli, R. B. Dorshow, “The Effects of Interparticle Interactions on Particle Size Determination by QELS,” in Ref. 4, p. 501.

H. E. Stanley, N. Ostrowsky, Eds., On Growth and Form (M. Nijhoff, Boston, 1986).

P. N. Pusey, J. G. Rarity, RSRE, unpublished work.

R. C. Weast, S. M. Selby, Eds., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1967).

J. Topping, Errors of Observation and Their Treatment (Chapman & Hall, London, 1972).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Bott, “Enhanced Resolution Particle Size Distributions by Multiple Angle Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” in Particle Size Analysis 1988, P. J. Lloyd, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988).

M. Bertero, E. R. Pike, in Ref. 13, Fig. 1, p. 299.

H. G. Berth, Ed., Modern Methods of Particle Size Analysis (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984), papers by B. Weiner.

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974); H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York, 1977).

R. Pecora, Ed., Dynamic Light Scattering: Applications of Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1985).

P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, “Light Scattering and Intensity Fluctuation Spectroscopy,” in Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes, Vol. 2, M. Davies, Ed. (Chemical Society, London, 1975).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Dahneke, Ed., Measurement of Suspended Particles by Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

Melles Griot Corp., Optics Guide 4 (1988).

B. S. Lowans, “The Construction and Testing of a Modular Laser Doppler Velocimeter,” M.Sc. Thesis, Queen’s University, Belfast (1988).

Sharp Corp., Japan, Laser Diode Users Manual (1986).

R. G. W. Brown, “Miniature Instrumentation for Laser Light Scattering Experiments,” in Proceedings, NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, 1988).

E. R. Pike, “Analysis of Polydisperse Scattering Data 1,” in Scattering Techniques Applied to Supra-Molecular and Non-Equilibrium Systems, S. H. Chen, B. Chu, R. Nossal, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), p. 179; E. R. Pike, D. Watson, F. McNeil Watson, “Analysis of Polydisperse Scattering Data 2,” in Ref. 4, p. 107.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Schulz-DuBois, Ed., Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), including papers by M. Bertero, E. R. Pike, “On the Extraction of Polydispersity Information in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” p. 298; N. Ostrowsky, D. Sornette, “Data Reduction in Polydisperse Diffusion Studies,” p. 286.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of a standard PCS system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the complete miniature PCS system. The optical head is to the front and laser and detector modules to the rear. The monomode optical fiber receiver is clearly seen as a black line in the center of the photograph.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plan view and its annotated sketch of the miniature PCS system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Inside of the APD module. To the left we see two mono-mode fibers entering the thermally insulated detector chamber. This chamber can contain two APD detectors and mini-Peltier heat pumps to cool the chamber to 2°C. To the right is the electronics chamber (60 × 30 × 10 mm) containing a printed circuit card on which are mounted the active quenching circuitry and temperature control circuit. Power is supplied from the cables on the right-hand side, and signal pulses (one for each photodetection) are directed to the correlator through one of the cable wires.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of correlogram quality from 60-s experiments on samples A, B, and C: Upper trace, sample A at 24-μs sample time; middle trace, sample B at 60-μs sample time; lower trace, sample C at 127-μs sample time. All plots are the semilogarithmic correlation coefficient in the ordinate vs the correlation delay time channel number in the abscissa.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plots of the Mie scattering function (a) standard PCS geometry and (b) miniature PCS geometry for sample C experiments.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of the intensity weight distribution recovered by Laplace inversion from the correlation data acquired with sample D: Δ is the position of the delta function in particle size space, nanometers; Wt is the intensity weighting; Ωmax is the transform bandlimit; dilation is the geometric spacing of Δ.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of the intensity weight distribution recovered by Laplace inversion from the correlation data acquired with sample E. Symbol key is the same as for Fig. 7.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Sample A Results

Tables Icon

Table II Sample B Results

Tables Icon

Table III Sample C Results

Tables Icon

Table IV Results from Low Molecular Weight Samples

Metrics