Abstract

We reevaluate the performance of an incoherent Doppler lidar system operating at 354.7 nm, based on recent but well-proven Nd:YAG laser technology and currently available optical sensors. For measurements in the lower troposphere, up to ~5 km altitude, and also in the Junge-layer of the lower stratosphere, a wind component accuracy of ± 2 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km should be obtained with a single pulse from a 1-J laser, operating at Polar Platform altitudes (700–850 km) and high scan angles (55°). For wind measurements in the upper troposphere (above ~5 km altitude) and stratosphere (above and below the Junge layer) the concentration of scatterers is much lower and higher energies would be required to maintain ± 2 m/s accuracy and 1 km vertical resolution, using single laser pulses. Except for the region in the vicinity of the tropopause (10 km altitude), a 5-J pulse would be appropriate to make measurements in these regions. The worst case is encountered near 10 km altitude, where we calculate that a 15-J pulse would be required. To reduce this energy requirement, we would propose to degrade the altitude resolution from 1 km to 2–3 km, and also to consider averaging multiple pulses. Degrading the vertical and horizontal resolution could provide an acceptable method of obtaining the required wind accuracy without the penalty of using a laser of higher output power. We believe that a Doppler lidar system, employing a near ultraviolet laser with a pulse energy of 5 J, could achieve the performance objectives required by the major potential users of a global space-borne wind observing system.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

D. Rees et al., “The Westward Thermospheric Jet-Stream of the Evening Auroral Oval,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 425–456 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhou, T. J. Kane, G. J. Dixon, R. L. Byer, “Efficient Frequency-Stable Laser-Diode-Pumped Nd:YAG Laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 62–64 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

J. W. Fitzgerald, “Effect of Relative Humidity on the Aerosol Backscattering Coefficient at 0.694 and 10.6-μm Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 23, 411–418 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Single Axial Mode Operation of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG Oscillator by Injection Seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (4)

1982 (6)

P. B. Hays, “High-Resolution Optical Measurements of Atmospheric Wind from Space. 1. Lower Atmosphere Molecular Absorption,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1136–1141 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, “Thermospheric Winds During the Energy Budget Campaign: Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Observations Supported by Dynamical Simulations with a Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Model,” J. Geophys. Res. 50, 202–211 (1982).

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191–206 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors III. An Assessment of the Performance of the Resistive Anode IPD,” J. Phys. E 15, 145–150 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer. I: Design and Construction,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3896–3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, “Neutral Winds in the Polar Thermosphere as Measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (5)

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, “Electronic Linewidth Narrowing Method for Single Axial Mode Operation of Q-Switched Nd:YAG Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 37, 411–416 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilised Piezo-Electric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320–1325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors: II Devices with Transparent Windows,” J. Phys. E 14, 229–233 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient Profiles Measured at 10.6 μm,” J. Appl. Meteor. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

1979 (1)

1974 (2)

1968 (1)

L. Elterman, “UV, Visible and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” AFCRL-68-0153 (1968).

Abreu, V. J.

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Optimization of a Triple Etalon Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2817–2827 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Abreu, “Wind Measurements from an Orbital Platform Using a Lidar System with Incoherent Detection: An Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2992–2997 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 Micron Space-Borne Wind Sensor,” in Preprint Volume, Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing Applications, 25–29 June, Clearwater Beach (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1984), pp. 266–271.

Arnold, C. P.

C. P. Arnold et al. “Results of an Observing System Simulation Experiment Based on the Proposed WINDSAT Instrument,” in Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements, W. E. Baker, R. J. Curran, Eds. (A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 81–88.

Barlow, F. E.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors: II Devices with Transparent Windows,” J. Phys. E 14, 229–233 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, E. W.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient Profiles Measured at 10.6 μm,” J. Appl. Meteor. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

Byer, R. L.

B. Zhou, T. J. Kane, G. J. Dixon, R. L. Byer, “Efficient Frequency-Stable Laser-Diode-Pumped Nd:YAG Laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 62–64 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Single Axial Mode Operation of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG Oscillator by Injection Seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, “Electronic Linewidth Narrowing Method for Single Axial Mode Operation of Q-Switched Nd:YAG Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 37, 411–416 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Stable Single-Axial-Mode Operation of an Unstable-Resonator Nd:YAG Oscillator by Injection Locking,” Opt. Lett. 5, 96–98 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ceckowski, D. H.

Charleton, P.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, “Thermospheric Winds During the Energy Budget Campaign: Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Observations Supported by Dynamical Simulations with a Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Model,” J. Geophys. Res. 50, 202–211 (1982).

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, “Lidar Measurement of Particles and Gases,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

Cupp, R. E.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient Profiles Measured at 10.6 μm,” J. Appl. Meteor. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Deirmendjian, D.

D. Deirmendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (Elsevier, New York, 1969).

Derr, V. E.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient Profiles Measured at 10.6 μm,” J. Appl. Meteor. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dines, T.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilised Piezo-Electric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320–1325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, G. J.

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, “UV, Visible and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” AFCRL-68-0153 (1968).

Fitzgerald, J. W.

Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. E. Wharton, N. W. Spencer, “A Comparison of The Wind Observations from the Dynamics Explorer Satellite with the Predictions of a Global Time-Dependent Model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, “Thermospheric Winds During the Energy Budget Campaign: Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Observations Supported by Dynamical Simulations with a Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Model,” J. Geophys. Res. 50, 202–211 (1982).

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer. I: Design and Construction,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3896–3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagne, J. M.

Gasiorek, L. S.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution Measurement by Active Remote Sensing Techniques,” NASA Contractor Report CR-132724 (1975).

Giuliani, G.

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Single Axial Mode Operation of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG Oscillator by Injection Seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Stable Single-Axial-Mode Operation of an Unstable-Resonator Nd:YAG Oscillator by Injection Locking,” Opt. Lett. 5, 96–98 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. E. Wharton, N. W. Spencer, “A Comparison of The Wind Observations from the Dynamics Explorer Satellite with the Predictions of a Global Time-Dependent Model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A. H.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191–206 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors III. An Assessment of the Performance of the Resistive Anode IPD,” J. Phys. E 15, 145–150 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Optimization of a Triple Etalon Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2817–2827 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. E. Wharton, N. W. Spencer, “A Comparison of The Wind Observations from the Dynamics Explorer Satellite with the Predictions of a Global Time-Dependent Model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. a. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, “High-Resolution Optical Measurements of Atmospheric Wind from Space. 1. Lower Atmosphere Molecular Absorption,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1136–1141 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer. I: Design and Construction,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3896–3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, “Neutral Winds in the Polar Thermosphere as Measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilised Piezo-Electric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320–1325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 Micron Space-Borne Wind Sensor,” in Preprint Volume, Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing Applications, 25–29 June, Clearwater Beach (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1984), pp. 266–271.

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, Fabry-Perot Interferometers (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1986).

Hertel, R.

R. Hertel, ITT; private communication (1987).

Hoge, F. E.

Kane, T. J.

Kennedy, B. C.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. a. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Killeen, T. L.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. a. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. E. Wharton, N. W. Spencer, “A Comparison of The Wind Observations from the Dynamics Explorer Satellite with the Predictions of a Global Time-Dependent Model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer. I: Design and Construction,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3896–3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, “Neutral Winds in the Polar Thermosphere as Measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Liston, E. M.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution Measurement by Active Remote Sensing Techniques,” NASA Contractor Report CR-132724 (1975).

Lyons, A.

Margolis, J. S.

McCleese, D. J.

D. J. McCleese, J. S. Margolis, “Remote Sensing of Stratospheric and Mesospheric Winds by Gas Correlation Electrooptic Phase-Modulation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2528–2534 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Rider, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, “Electrooptic Phase Modulation Gas Correlation Spectroradiometry,” in Technical Digest, Toptical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing: Instrumentation and Techniques (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), pp. 226–229.

McDermid, I. S.

I. S. McDermid, JPL–TMF unpublished results (1987).

McWhirter, I.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, “Thermospheric Winds During the Energy Budget Campaign: Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Observations Supported by Dynamical Simulations with a Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Model,” J. Geophys. Res. 50, 202–211 (1982).

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191–206 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors III. An Assessment of the Performance of the Resistive Anode IPD,” J. Phys. E 15, 145–150 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors: II Devices with Transparent Windows,” J. Phys. E 14, 229–233 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilised Piezo-Electric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320–1325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, D. Wade, “Development of a Doppler Wind Lidar System for Atmospheric Wind Measurements,” in Proceedings of the Eighth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP 276 (1987), pp. 99–106.

Megie, G.

Menzies, R. T.

Park, Y. K.

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Single Axial Mode Operation of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG Oscillator by Injection Seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, “Electronic Linewidth Narrowing Method for Single Axial Mode Operation of Q-Switched Nd:YAG Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 37, 411–416 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Stable Single-Axial-Mode Operation of an Unstable-Resonator Nd:YAG Oscillator by Injection Locking,” Opt. Lett. 5, 96–98 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picard, M.

Proctor, E. K.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution Measurement by Active Remote Sensing Techniques,” NASA Contractor Report CR-132724 (1975).

Pueschel, R. F.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient Profiles Measured at 10.6 μm,” J. Appl. Meteor. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rees, D.

D. Rees et al., “The Westward Thermospheric Jet-Stream of the Evening Auroral Oval,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 425–456 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. E. Wharton, N. W. Spencer, “A Comparison of The Wind Observations from the Dynamics Explorer Satellite with the Predictions of a Global Time-Dependent Model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, “Thermospheric Winds During the Energy Budget Campaign: Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Observations Supported by Dynamical Simulations with a Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Model,” J. Geophys. Res. 50, 202–211 (1982).

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191–206 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors III. An Assessment of the Performance of the Resistive Anode IPD,” J. Phys. E 15, 145–150 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer. I: Design and Construction,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3896–3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors: II Devices with Transparent Windows,” J. Phys. E 14, 229–233 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilised Piezo-Electric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320–1325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, “Balloon-Based Interferometric Techniques,” in Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements, W. E. Baker, R. J. Curran, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 109–114.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, D. Wade, “Development of a Doppler Wind Lidar System for Atmospheric Wind Measurements,” in Proceedings of the Eighth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP 276 (1987), pp. 99–106.

Rider, D. M.

D. M. Rider, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, “Electrooptic Phase Modulation Gas Correlation Spectroradiometry,” in Technical Digest, Toptical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing: Instrumentation and Techniques (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), pp. 226–229.

Rosenberg, A.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 Micron Space-Borne Wind Sensor,” in Preprint Volume, Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing Applications, 25–29 June, Clearwater Beach (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1984), pp. 266–271.

A. Rosenberg, J. Sroga, “Development of a 0.5 μn Incoherent Doppler Lidar for Space Application,” in Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements, W. E. Baker, R. J. Curran, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 157–162.

Rounce, P. A.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191–206 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, “Thermospheric Winds During the Energy Budget Campaign: Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Observations Supported by Dynamical Simulations with a Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Model,” J. Geophys. Res. 50, 202–211 (1982).

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors: II Devices with Transparent Windows,” J. Phys. E 14, 229–233 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, “Lidar Measurement of Particles and Gases,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

Saint-Dizier, J. P.

Schofield, J. T.

D. M. Rider, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, “Electrooptic Phase Modulation Gas Correlation Spectroradiometry,” in Technical Digest, Toptical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing: Instrumentation and Techniques (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), pp. 226–229.

Schwiesow, R. L.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient Profiles Measured at 10.6 μm,” J. Appl. Meteor. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A. F. D.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191–206 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, P. C.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient Profiles Measured at 10.6 μm,” J. Appl. Meteor. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

Smith, K.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, “Thermospheric Winds During the Energy Budget Campaign: Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Observations Supported by Dynamical Simulations with a Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Model,” J. Geophys. Res. 50, 202–211 (1982).

Spencer, N. W.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. E. Wharton, N. W. Spencer, “A Comparison of The Wind Observations from the Dynamics Explorer Satellite with the Predictions of a Global Time-Dependent Model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, “Neutral Winds in the Polar Thermosphere as Measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sroga, J.

A. Rosenberg, J. Sroga, “Development of a 0.5 μn Incoherent Doppler Lidar for Space Application,” in Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements, W. E. Baker, R. J. Curran, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 157–162.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 Micron Space-Borne Wind Sensor,” in Preprint Volume, Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing Applications, 25–29 June, Clearwater Beach (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1984), pp. 266–271.

Swift, R. N.

Symanow, D. a.

Thekaekara, M. P.

Towlson, W.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191–206 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wade, D.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, D. Wade, “Development of a Doppler Wind Lidar System for Atmospheric Wind Measurements,” in Proceedings of the Eighth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP 276 (1987), pp. 99–106.

Wharton, L. E.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. E. Wharton, N. W. Spencer, “A Comparison of The Wind Observations from the Dynamics Explorer Satellite with the Predictions of a Global Time-Dependent Model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, “Neutral Winds in the Polar Thermosphere as Measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wright, M. L.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution Measurement by Active Remote Sensing Techniques,” NASA Contractor Report CR-132724 (1975).

Zhou, B.

AFCRL-68-0153 (1)

L. Elterman, “UV, Visible and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” AFCRL-68-0153 (1968).

Appl. Opt. (12)

M. P. Thekaekara, “Extraterrestrial Solar Spectrum, 3000–6100 Å at 1 Å Intervals,” Appl. Opt. 13, 518–522 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Measurements of Laser Backscatter from the Ocean Surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603–2618 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Gagne, J. P. Saint-Dizier, M. Picard, “Méthode d’echantillonage des fonctions déterministes en spectrscopie: application á un spectrombtre multicanal par comptage photonique,” Appl. Opt. 13, 581–588 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. a. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, “High-Resolution Optical Measurements of Atmospheric Wind from Space. 1. Lower Atmosphere Molecular Absorption,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1136–1141 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Optimization of a Triple Etalon Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2817–2827 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. McCleese, J. S. Margolis, “Remote Sensing of Stratospheric and Mesospheric Winds by Gas Correlation Electrooptic Phase-Modulation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2528–2534 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Abreu, “Wind Measurements from an Orbital Platform Using a Lidar System with Incoherent Detection: An Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2992–2997 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, “Doppler Lidar Atmospheric Wind Sensors: A Comparative Performance Evaluation for Global Measurement Applications from Earth Orbit,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2546–2553 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer. I: Design and Construction,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3896–3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Fitzgerald, “Effect of Relative Humidity on the Aerosol Backscattering Coefficient at 0.694 and 10.6-μm Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 23, 411–418 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Megie, R. T. Menzies, “Complementarity of UV and IR Differential Absorption Lidar for Global Measurements of Atmospheric Species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173–1183 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, “Neutral Winds in the Polar Thermosphere as Measured from Dynamics Explorer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957–960 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Single Axial Mode Operation of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG Oscillator by Injection Seeding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117–125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteor. (1)

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient Profiles Measured at 10.6 μm,” J. Appl. Meteor. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, “Thermospheric Winds During the Energy Budget Campaign: Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Observations Supported by Dynamical Simulations with a Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Model,” J. Geophys. Res. 50, 202–211 (1982).

J. Phys. E (4)

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191–206 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilised Piezo-Electric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320–1325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors: II Devices with Transparent Windows,” J. Phys. E 14, 229–233 (1981).
[CrossRef]

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors III. An Assessment of the Performance of the Resistive Anode IPD,” J. Phys. E 15, 145–150 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, “Electronic Linewidth Narrowing Method for Single Axial Mode Operation of Q-Switched Nd:YAG Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 37, 411–416 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Planet. Space Sci. (2)

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. Gordon, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, L. E. Wharton, N. W. Spencer, “A Comparison of The Wind Observations from the Dynamics Explorer Satellite with the Predictions of a Global Time-Dependent Model,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 1299–1314 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees et al., “The Westward Thermospheric Jet-Stream of the Evening Auroral Oval,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 425–456 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Other (16)

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 Micron Space-Borne Wind Sensor,” in Preprint Volume, Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing Applications, 25–29 June, Clearwater Beach (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1984), pp. 266–271.

W. E. Baker, R. J. Curran, Eds., Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements (A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1985).

D. M. Rider, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, “Electrooptic Phase Modulation Gas Correlation Spectroradiometry,” in Technical Digest, Toptical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing: Instrumentation and Techniques (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), pp. 226–229.

C. P. Arnold et al. “Results of an Observing System Simulation Experiment Based on the Proposed WINDSAT Instrument,” in Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements, W. E. Baker, R. J. Curran, Eds. (A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 81–88.

D. Rees, “Balloon-Based Interferometric Techniques,” in Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements, W. E. Baker, R. J. Curran, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 109–114.

“LAWS: Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder,” Earth Observing System Volume IIg, NASA, Washington, DC (1987).

R. Hertel, ITT; private communication (1987).

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, D. Wade, “Development of a Doppler Wind Lidar System for Atmospheric Wind Measurements,” in Proceedings of the Eighth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP 276 (1987), pp. 99–106.

A. Rosenberg, J. Sroga, “Development of a 0.5 μn Incoherent Doppler Lidar for Space Application,” in Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements, W. E. Baker, R. J. Curran, Eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 157–162.

D. Deirmendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (Elsevier, New York, 1969).

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution Measurement by Active Remote Sensing Techniques,” NASA Contractor Report CR-132724 (1975).

“LASA: Lidar Atmospheric Sounder and Altimeter,” Earth Observing System Volume IId, NASA, Washington, DC (1987).

“U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” NOAA-S/T 76–1562, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1976).

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, “Lidar Measurement of Particles and Gases,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

I. S. McDermid, JPL–TMF unpublished results (1987).

G. Hernandez, Fabry-Perot Interferometers (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1986).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the scheme used for illuminating the far field with the backscattered laser light. Traditionally, a complete free spectral range of the Fabry-Perot etalon in the Doppler receiver is illuminated in the far field. This is illustrated in the top section of the figure. Only a small part of the laser light backscattered from this relatively large solid angle can be potentially transmitted by the receiver—that close to the wavelength of the backscattered signal. A region of 0.2 FSR about this wavelength is illuminated, and the detector optics are modified, so that this region in the far field illuminates the entire detector (thirty-two channels). The bottom panel shows a schematic of the recorded spectrum, thirty-two channels each 3 m/s wide, with the aerosol scattered spectrum illuminating three adjacent channels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Aerosol distribution model, showing aerosol number density as a function of altitude (0–30 km), as used in the atmospheric backscatter calculations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Aerosol backscatter cross section as a function of wavelength for a marine type aerosol.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral distribution of the combined aerosol and Rayleigh scattering return, calculated for 5-km altitude in the assumed model atmosphere. The upper panel shows the complete spectrum over a range of ± 2000 MHz. The lower panel shows, on an expanded scale, the spectrum within one free spectral range of the detector of the proposed Doppler Wind Lidar System.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signal-to-noise ratio calculated for the Doppler wind analysis of the detected single-pulse) lidar signal scattered from aerosol sources. Values are shown for a lidar output of 1 J and 5 J per pulse.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of Menzles’s15 Previous Assessment

Tables Icon

Table II Lidar System Parameters

Tables Icon

Table III Atmospheric Backscatter Parameters

Tables Icon

Table IV Lidar Returns at Telescope Primary

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( ξ D ) = R 1 T 1 T 2 T 3 T 4 R 2 Q E IPD ,
P j ( θ , n , λ ) = 4 π β j ( θ , n , λ ) β sc ( n , λ )             j = 1 , 2
P j ( π , λ ) = 4 π β j ( π , λ ) β sc ( λ )
P π ( λ ) = 4 π β π ( λ ) β sc ( λ )
S = E ξ ( R ) β T 2 Δ R sec θ A / ( R sec θ ) 2 ,
I ( ν ) = I 0 exp [ - ( ν - ν 0 ) 2 / 0.36 Δ ν 2 ]             [ 1 / ( 4 ln 2 ) = 0.36 ] .
Δ ω D = ( 2 ω 0 / c ) ( 2 R T ln 2 / M )
Δ ν D = 7.16 × 10 - 7 ν 0 ( T / M ) ( Hz )
I ( λ ) = I 0 ( λ ) ρ cos θ / π ,
S B G = I ( λ ) A Ω 2 Δ R / c ξ ( λ ) d λ I ( λ ) A Ω 2 Δ R / c ξ ( λ ) Δ λ
7.4 × 10 - 2 photons / pulse / range element / MHz .
ν = { i = - i = ν i S i } { i = - i = S i } - 1
σ ν 2 = Δ ν 2 8 N ln ( 2 ) - 1
SNR A = N A ÷ ( N A + N R + N S + N D ) 0.5

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