Abstract

In the optical–neural recognition system proposed for flexible parallel information processing, a planar microlens array is used to form simultaneously many identical Fourier transforms of an input pattern; from each transform the feature extraction of the input pattern is performed in parallel through optical correlations with memorized standard spatial filters. In this paper, it is experimentally shown that the multimatched filtering system, as the optical feature extracting part of the proposed system, can be composed of a planar array of graded index microlenses of 1.05-mm diameter and 2.6-mm focal length.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Oikawa, K. Iga, S. Misawa, Y. Kokubun, “Improved Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Its Application to 2-D Lightwave Components,” Appl. Opt. 22, 441–442 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Iga, S. Misawa, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Stacked Planar Optics: a Review of Progress,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3388–3396 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Recently many papers have appeared on this subject; see, for example, Refs. 4–7.
  4. D. Psaltis, N. H. Farhat, “Optical Information Processing Based on an Associative-Memory Model of Neural Nets with Thresholding and Feedback,” Opt. Lett. 10, 98–100 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. H. Soffer, G. J. Dunning, Y. Owechko, E. Marom, “Associative Holographic Memory with Feedback Using Phase-Conjugate Mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 11, 118–120 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Yariv, S.-K. Kwong, “Associative Memories Based on Message-Bearing Optical Modes in Phase-Conjugate Resonators,” Opt. Lett. 11, 186–188 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. H. Farhat, “Optoelectronic Analogs of Self-Programming Neural Nets: Architecture and Methodologies for Implementing Fast Stochastic Learning by Simulated Annealing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5093 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. H. Lee, Ed., Optical Information Processing (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. G. Feitelson, Optical Computing (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1988).
  10. D. E. Rummelhart, J. L. McCelland, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1986).
  11. J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. Gregory, H. K. Liu, “Large-Memory Real-Time Multi-channel Multiplexed Pattern Recognition,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4560–4570 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. R. Leger, S. H. Lee, “Hybrid Optical Processor for Pattern Recognition and Classification Using a Generalized Set of Pattern Functions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 274–287 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Asthana, A. Akiba, T. Yamaki, K. Nishizawa, M. Oikawa, “Graded-Index Lens Matched Filtering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 84–86 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “A Parallel-Processing Optical-Digital Recognition System as a Model of Biological Visual Perception,” Opt. Commun. 66, 69 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Akiba, M. Agu, S. Kamemaru, T. Yamaki, “A Miniaturization of an Optical Matched Filter,” Kogaku 17, 306–000 (1988).
  17. M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “Multimatched Filtering System as a Model of Biological Visual System,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1014, 144 (1988).
  18. K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda,“Multiple Imaging and Mutiple Fourier Transformation Using the PlanarMicrolens Array,” in Technical Digest, MicroopticsConference/Topical Meeting on Graded-Index Optical Imaging System,Tokyo (1989), paper L2.

1988

P. Asthana, A. Akiba, T. Yamaki, K. Nishizawa, M. Oikawa, “Graded-Index Lens Matched Filtering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 84–86 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “A Parallel-Processing Optical-Digital Recognition System as a Model of Biological Visual Perception,” Opt. Commun. 66, 69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Akiba, M. Agu, S. Kamemaru, T. Yamaki, “A Miniaturization of an Optical Matched Filter,” Kogaku 17, 306–000 (1988).

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “Multimatched Filtering System as a Model of Biological Visual System,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1014, 144 (1988).

1987

1986

1985

1984

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Gregory, H. K. Liu, “Large-Memory Real-Time Multi-channel Multiplexed Pattern Recognition,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4560–4570 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

1982

Agu, M.

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “A Parallel-Processing Optical-Digital Recognition System as a Model of Biological Visual Perception,” Opt. Commun. 66, 69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Akiba, M. Agu, S. Kamemaru, T. Yamaki, “A Miniaturization of an Optical Matched Filter,” Kogaku 17, 306–000 (1988).

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “Multimatched Filtering System as a Model of Biological Visual System,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1014, 144 (1988).

Akiba, A.

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “Multimatched Filtering System as a Model of Biological Visual System,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1014, 144 (1988).

A. Akiba, M. Agu, S. Kamemaru, T. Yamaki, “A Miniaturization of an Optical Matched Filter,” Kogaku 17, 306–000 (1988).

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “A Parallel-Processing Optical-Digital Recognition System as a Model of Biological Visual Perception,” Opt. Commun. 66, 69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Asthana, A. Akiba, T. Yamaki, K. Nishizawa, M. Oikawa, “Graded-Index Lens Matched Filtering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 84–86 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asthana, P.

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dunning, G. J.

Farhat, N. H.

Feitelson, D. G.

D. G. Feitelson, Optical Computing (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1988).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D. A.

Hamanaka, K.

K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda,“Multiple Imaging and Mutiple Fourier Transformation Using the PlanarMicrolens Array,” in Technical Digest, MicroopticsConference/Topical Meeting on Graded-Index Optical Imaging System,Tokyo (1989), paper L2.

Iga, K.

Kamemaru, S.

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “A Parallel-Processing Optical-Digital Recognition System as a Model of Biological Visual Perception,” Opt. Commun. 66, 69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Akiba, M. Agu, S. Kamemaru, T. Yamaki, “A Miniaturization of an Optical Matched Filter,” Kogaku 17, 306–000 (1988).

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “Multimatched Filtering System as a Model of Biological Visual System,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1014, 144 (1988).

Kokubun, Y.

Kung, S-Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, S.-K.

Lee, S. H.

Leger, J. R.

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. K.

Marom, E.

McCelland, J. L.

D. E. Rummelhart, J. L. McCelland, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Misawa, S.

Nemoto, H.

K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda,“Multiple Imaging and Mutiple Fourier Transformation Using the PlanarMicrolens Array,” in Technical Digest, MicroopticsConference/Topical Meeting on Graded-Index Optical Imaging System,Tokyo (1989), paper L2.

Nishizawa, K.

Oikawa, M.

P. Asthana, A. Akiba, T. Yamaki, K. Nishizawa, M. Oikawa, “Graded-Index Lens Matched Filtering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 84–86 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, S. Misawa, Y. Kokubun, “Improved Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Its Application to 2-D Lightwave Components,” Appl. Opt. 22, 441–442 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda,“Multiple Imaging and Mutiple Fourier Transformation Using the PlanarMicrolens Array,” in Technical Digest, MicroopticsConference/Topical Meeting on Graded-Index Optical Imaging System,Tokyo (1989), paper L2.

Okuda, E.

K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda,“Multiple Imaging and Mutiple Fourier Transformation Using the PlanarMicrolens Array,” in Technical Digest, MicroopticsConference/Topical Meeting on Graded-Index Optical Imaging System,Tokyo (1989), paper L2.

Owechko, Y.

Psaltis, D.

Rummelhart, D. E.

D. E. Rummelhart, J. L. McCelland, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Soffer, B. H.

Yamaki, T.

P. Asthana, A. Akiba, T. Yamaki, K. Nishizawa, M. Oikawa, “Graded-Index Lens Matched Filtering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 84–86 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Akiba, M. Agu, S. Kamemaru, T. Yamaki, “A Miniaturization of an Optical Matched Filter,” Kogaku 17, 306–000 (1988).

Yariv, A.

Appl. Opt.

Kogaku

A. Akiba, M. Agu, S. Kamemaru, T. Yamaki, “A Miniaturization of an Optical Matched Filter,” Kogaku 17, 306–000 (1988).

Opt. Commun.

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “A Parallel-Processing Optical-Digital Recognition System as a Model of Biological Visual Perception,” Opt. Commun. 66, 69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

M. Agu, A. Akiba, S. Kamemaru, “Multimatched Filtering System as a Model of Biological Visual System,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1014, 144 (1988).

Other

K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda,“Multiple Imaging and Mutiple Fourier Transformation Using the PlanarMicrolens Array,” in Technical Digest, MicroopticsConference/Topical Meeting on Graded-Index Optical Imaging System,Tokyo (1989), paper L2.

Recently many papers have appeared on this subject; see, for example, Refs. 4–7.

S. H. Lee, Ed., Optical Information Processing (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Feitelson, Optical Computing (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1988).

D. E. Rummelhart, J. L. McCelland, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1986).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical–neural recognition system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multimatched spatial filtering system of using a microlens array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup for matched filter synthesis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reference object for filter recording (0.5 × 0.5 cm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Playback setup forimatched spatial filtering.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Impulse response of a recorded microhologram.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Correlation peaks; (b) light intensity profile along a line.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Correlation peaks; (b) light intensity profile along a line.

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