Abstract

The planar microlens is a 2-D integrated microlens fabricated by the selective ion exchange technique. This paper demonstrates a new class of planar microlens which has a high numerical aperture. The new planar microlens uses a swelling structure and index distribution which comes from replacing ions with different ion volumes. Lens diameters from 10 to 400 μm can be fabricated. A numerical aperture larger than 0.5 is achieved when the lens diameter is smaller than 100 μm. Use of this microlens in light coupling between an LD and a single-mode fiber is also evaluated.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Oikawa, K. Iga, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1052–1056 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Oikawa, K. Tanaka, T. Yamasaki, “Highly Integrated Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Its Characteristics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 554, 314–318 (1985).
  3. M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, “Integrated Planar Microlens and Its Application,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 898, 3–11 (1988).
  4. K. Iga, S. Misawa, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Stacked Planar Optics: A Review of Progress,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3388–3396 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Specification Sheet for Semiconductor Laser TOLD302A-3 Toshiba (1988).
  6. Data Book of Hitachi Opt-Device (Hitachi, 1988), pp. 120–121.

1988 (1)

M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, “Integrated Planar Microlens and Its Application,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 898, 3–11 (1988).

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

M. Oikawa, K. Tanaka, T. Yamasaki, “Highly Integrated Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Its Characteristics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 554, 314–318 (1985).

1982 (1)

Hamanaka, K.

M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, “Integrated Planar Microlens and Its Application,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 898, 3–11 (1988).

Iga, K.

Misawa, S.

Nemoto, H.

M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, “Integrated Planar Microlens and Its Application,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 898, 3–11 (1988).

Oikawa, M.

M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, “Integrated Planar Microlens and Its Application,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 898, 3–11 (1988).

M. Oikawa, K. Tanaka, T. Yamasaki, “Highly Integrated Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Its Characteristics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 554, 314–318 (1985).

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1052–1056 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okuda, E.

M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, “Integrated Planar Microlens and Its Application,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 898, 3–11 (1988).

Tanaka, K.

M. Oikawa, K. Tanaka, T. Yamasaki, “Highly Integrated Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Its Characteristics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 554, 314–318 (1985).

Yamasaki, T.

M. Oikawa, K. Tanaka, T. Yamasaki, “Highly Integrated Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Its Characteristics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 554, 314–318 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

M. Oikawa, K. Tanaka, T. Yamasaki, “Highly Integrated Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Its Characteristics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 554, 314–318 (1985).

M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, “Integrated Planar Microlens and Its Application,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 898, 3–11 (1988).

Other (2)

Specification Sheet for Semiconductor Laser TOLD302A-3 Toshiba (1988).

Data Book of Hitachi Opt-Device (Hitachi, 1988), pp. 120–121.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-dimensional array of planar microlens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Swelling induced by ion exchange.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of the planar microlens with swelled structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focal length and N.A. vs lens (aperture) diameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Focused spot of a He–Ne laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) NFP of LD; (b) focused spot of a planar microlens.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Coupling loss between the single-mode fiber and a 1.3-μm LD vs fiber displacement (a) in the optical axis direction (b) perpendicular to the optical axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Coupling loss between GI-50 fiber and 0.8 μm LD vs fiber displacement (a) in the optical axis direction (b) perpendicular to the optical axis.

Tables (1)

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Table I Optical Characteristics of Planar Microlens

Equations (1)

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N . A . = sin [ tan - 1 ( a / F b ) ] .

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