Abstract

A new coating method which employs ion bombardment has been developed for a gradient-index (GRIN) rod lens array using silicone rubber and fiber reinforced plastic plates in its construction. The thin film coatings deposited using this method passed the durability tests on the basis of MIL-M-13508C. The adhesion of the thin film coating was strong and durable enough to allow for use on GRIN rod lens arrays in photocopiers. The effect of ion bombardment has been investigated with thin film analysis data by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “A Light-Focusing Fiber Guide Prepared by Ion-Exchange Techniques,” J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63–70 (1970).
  2. P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. B. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. G. Sainty, P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, “Protective Dielectric Coatings Produced by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1116–1119 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, B. Bendow, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Optical and Protective Coatings for Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1973–1976 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. I. Oh, “Broadband AR Coatings on Germanium Substrates Using Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4255–4259 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. Stetter, R. Esselborn, N. Harder, M. Fritz, P. Tolles, “Material for Optical Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2315–2317 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, I. Kitano, “Gradient-Index Rod Lens with High N. A.,” Appl. Opt. 22, 400–403 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izmitani, “Gradient-Index Rod Lens Made by a Double Ion-Exchange Process,” Appl. Opt. 27, 496–499 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of Optical Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 21–28 (1982).
  10. T. H. Allen, “Properties of Ion Assisted Deposited Silica and Titania Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 93–100 (1982).
  11. J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films: Low Energy vs High Energy Bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552–559 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. G. Saxe, M. J. Messerly, B. Bovard, L. DeSandre, F. J. Van Milligen, H. A. Macleod, “Ion Bombardment-Induced Retarded Moisture Absorption in Optical Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3633–3637 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, L. J. Lingg, H. A. Macleod, J. A. Leavitt, L. C. McIntyre, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Lanthanum Fluoride Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. G. A. Al-Jumaily, L. A. Yazlovitsky, T. A. Mooney, A. Smajkiewicz, “Optical Properties of ThF4 Films Deposited Using Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3752–3753 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. E. McCarthy, “The Reflection and Transmission of ir Materials. 3: Spectra from 2 μm to 50 μm,” Appl. Opt. 4, 317–320 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. E. McCarthy, “Transmittance of Optical Materials from 0.17 μm to 3.0 μm,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1896–1898 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the Optical and Structural Properties of Dielectric ZrO2 Films by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
    [Crossref]

1988 (2)

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

1984 (4)

1983 (2)

1982 (2)

H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of Optical Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 21–28 (1982).

T. H. Allen, “Properties of Ion Assisted Deposited Silica and Titania Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 93–100 (1982).

1976 (1)

1970 (1)

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “A Light-Focusing Fiber Guide Prepared by Ion-Exchange Techniques,” J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63–70 (1970).

1967 (1)

1965 (1)

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

Allen, T. H.

T. H. Allen, “Properties of Ion Assisted Deposited Silica and Titania Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 93–100 (1982).

Asahara, Y.

Barron, A. C.

Bendow, B.

Bovard, B.

DeSandre, L.

Esselborn, R.

Fritz, M.

Fujii, K.

Furukawa, M.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “A Light-Focusing Fiber Guide Prepared by Ion-Exchange Techniques,” J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63–70 (1970).

Harder, N.

Herrmann, W. C.

Izmitani, T.

Kitano, I.

T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, I. Kitano, “Gradient-Index Rod Lens with High N. A.,” Appl. Opt. 22, 400–403 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “A Light-Focusing Fiber Guide Prepared by Ion-Exchange Techniques,” J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63–70 (1970).

Koizumi, K.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “A Light-Focusing Fiber Guide Prepared by Ion-Exchange Techniques,” J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63–70 (1970).

Leavitt, J. A.

Lehan, J. P.

Lingg, L. J.

Macleod, H. A.

Martin, P. J.

Matsumura, H.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “A Light-Focusing Fiber Guide Prepared by Ion-Exchange Techniques,” J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63–70 (1970).

McCarthy, D. E.

McIntyre, L. C.

McNally, J. J.

McNeil, J. R.

Messerly, M. J.

Mooney, T. A.

Nakayama, S.

Netterfield, R. P.

Oh, T. I.

Ohmi, S.

Pacey, C. B.

Sainty, W. G.

Sakai, H.

Saxe, S. G.

Smajkiewicz, A.

Stetter, F.

Targove, J. D.

Tolles, P.

Uchida, T.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “A Light-Focusing Fiber Guide Prepared by Ion-Exchange Techniques,” J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63–70 (1970).

Van Milligen, F. J.

Wilson, S. R.

Yamagishi, T.

Yazlovitsky, L. A.

Yoneda, Y.

Appl. Opt. (13)

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. B. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. Sainty, P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, “Protective Dielectric Coatings Produced by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1116–1119 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, B. Bendow, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Optical and Protective Coatings for Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1973–1976 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Oh, “Broadband AR Coatings on Germanium Substrates Using Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4255–4259 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stetter, R. Esselborn, N. Harder, M. Fritz, P. Tolles, “Material for Optical Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2315–2317 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, I. Kitano, “Gradient-Index Rod Lens with High N. A.,” Appl. Opt. 22, 400–403 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izmitani, “Gradient-Index Rod Lens Made by a Double Ion-Exchange Process,” Appl. Opt. 27, 496–499 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films: Low Energy vs High Energy Bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552–559 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Saxe, M. J. Messerly, B. Bovard, L. DeSandre, F. J. Van Milligen, H. A. Macleod, “Ion Bombardment-Induced Retarded Moisture Absorption in Optical Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3633–3637 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, L. J. Lingg, H. A. Macleod, J. A. Leavitt, L. C. McIntyre, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Lanthanum Fluoride Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Al-Jumaily, L. A. Yazlovitsky, T. A. Mooney, A. Smajkiewicz, “Optical Properties of ThF4 Films Deposited Using Ion-Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3752–3753 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. McCarthy, “The Reflection and Transmission of ir Materials. 3: Spectra from 2 μm to 50 μm,” Appl. Opt. 4, 317–320 (1965).
[Crossref]

D. E. McCarthy, “Transmittance of Optical Materials from 0.17 μm to 3.0 μm,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1896–1898 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the Optical and Structural Properties of Dielectric ZrO2 Films by Ion-Assisted Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “A Light-Focusing Fiber Guide Prepared by Ion-Exchange Techniques,” J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63–70 (1970).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of Optical Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 21–28 (1982).

T. H. Allen, “Properties of Ion Assisted Deposited Silica and Titania Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 93–100 (1982).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Construction of a Selfoc lens array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the apparatus configured for ion assisted deposition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface of an SLA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral transmittance of a filter coating deposited on an SLA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photomicrographs of two filter coatings after a scratch test: (a) sample deposited using IAD; (b) sample without using IAD; (a),(b) at ambient substrate temperature evaporation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photomicrographs of two filter coatings; tape-pull test after exposure to humid air (85% RH at 85°C) for 240 h. (a) Sample deposited using ion cleaning; (b) sample without using ion cleaning; (a),(b) at ambient substrate temperature evaporation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photomicrographs of two filter coatings; abrasion test after exposure to humid air (85% RH at 85°C) for 240 h. (a) Sample deposited using AD; (b) sample without using AD; (a),(b) at ambient substrate temperature evaporation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photomicrograph of electric discharge marks; acceleration voltage: 1000 V.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Degree of Adhesion by Varying Acceleration Voltage of an Ion Gun

Tables Icon

Table II Analysis of Hydroxyl Groups Content by FT-IR Microscope

Tables Icon

Table III Analysis of Hydrogen Content by SIMS

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