Abstract

Radial-GRIN rod lenses of titanium doped silica have been prepared by a solgel process using metal alkoxides. The obtained rods with parabolic index distribution give high efficiency in coupling with optical fibers as well as good image resolution. Moreover they exhibit good stability in an adverse environment such as high temperature, high humidity, and strong radiation.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. J. Tomlinson, “Application of GRIN-Rod Lenses in Optical Fiber Communication Systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1127–1138 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Palais, “Fiber Coupling Using Graded-Index Rod Lenses,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2011–2018 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. T. Moore, “Gradient-Index Optics: A Review,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1035–1038 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izumitani, “Gradient-Index Rod Lens Made by a Double Ion-Exchange Process,” Appl. Opt. 27, 496–499 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “Radial Gradient Refractive-Index Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 99–100 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “r-GRIN TiO2-SiO2 Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1108–1110 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Konishi, K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, “r-GRIN Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 511–513 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, M. Tutumi, S. Takenouchi, S. Konishi, “Determination of Diffusion Coefficient of Titanium Ion in TiO2-SiO2 Wet Gel Prepared from Metal Alkoxides During Leaching,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 383–387 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (3)

S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izumitani, “Gradient-Index Rod Lens Made by a Double Ion-Exchange Process,” Appl. Opt. 27, 496–499 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Konishi, K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, “r-GRIN Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 511–513 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, M. Tutumi, S. Takenouchi, S. Konishi, “Determination of Diffusion Coefficient of Titanium Ion in TiO2-SiO2 Wet Gel Prepared from Metal Alkoxides During Leaching,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 383–387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “Radial Gradient Refractive-Index Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 99–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “r-GRIN TiO2-SiO2 Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1108–1110 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

Asahara, Y.

Izumitani, T.

Konishi, S.

S. Konishi, K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, “r-GRIN Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 511–513 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, M. Tutumi, S. Takenouchi, S. Konishi, “Determination of Diffusion Coefficient of Titanium Ion in TiO2-SiO2 Wet Gel Prepared from Metal Alkoxides During Leaching,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 383–387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “Radial Gradient Refractive-Index Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 99–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “r-GRIN TiO2-SiO2 Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1108–1110 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Makishima, A.

K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, M. Tutumi, S. Takenouchi, S. Konishi, “Determination of Diffusion Coefficient of Titanium Ion in TiO2-SiO2 Wet Gel Prepared from Metal Alkoxides During Leaching,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 383–387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Konishi, K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, “r-GRIN Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 511–513 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, I.

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “r-GRIN TiO2-SiO2 Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1108–1110 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “Radial Gradient Refractive-Index Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 99–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moore, D. T.

Nakayama, S.

Ohmi, S.

Palais, J. C.

Sakai, H.

Shingyouchi, K.

K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, M. Tutumi, S. Takenouchi, S. Konishi, “Determination of Diffusion Coefficient of Titanium Ion in TiO2-SiO2 Wet Gel Prepared from Metal Alkoxides During Leaching,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 383–387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Konishi, K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, “r-GRIN Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 511–513 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “r-GRIN TiO2-SiO2 Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1108–1110 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “Radial Gradient Refractive-Index Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 99–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Susa, K.

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “r-GRIN TiO2-SiO2 Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1108–1110 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “Radial Gradient Refractive-Index Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 99–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Takenouchi, S.

K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, M. Tutumi, S. Takenouchi, S. Konishi, “Determination of Diffusion Coefficient of Titanium Ion in TiO2-SiO2 Wet Gel Prepared from Metal Alkoxides During Leaching,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 383–387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Tutumi, M.

K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, M. Tutumi, S. Takenouchi, S. Konishi, “Determination of Diffusion Coefficient of Titanium Ion in TiO2-SiO2 Wet Gel Prepared from Metal Alkoxides During Leaching,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 383–387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yoneda, Y.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “Radial Gradient Refractive-Index Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 99–100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, S. Konishi, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “r-GRIN TiO2-SiO2 Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1108–1110 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids. (2)

S. Konishi, K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, “r-GRIN Glass Rods Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 511–513 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Shingyouchi, A. Makishima, M. Tutumi, S. Takenouchi, S. Konishi, “Determination of Diffusion Coefficient of Titanium Ion in TiO2-SiO2 Wet Gel Prepared from Metal Alkoxides During Leaching,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 100, 383–387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process of r-GRIN titanium doped silica rods by a solgel method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radial profile of the refractive index of a solgel GRIN rod.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of a resolution target formed by a solgel GRIN rod 2 mm in diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Coupling loss vs lens spacing using nearly a quarter pitch rods (λ = 0.85 μm) (GI fiber ← GI fiber).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coupling loss vs lens spacing using nearly a quarter pitch rods (λ = 1.3 μm): (A) GI fiber ← SM fiber; (B) SM fiber SM fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Radiation response of solgel GRIN rods measured in experimental conditions that are the same as shown in Fig. 4.

Equations (1)

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N ( r ) = N o ( 1 - g 2 r 2 ) ,

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