Abstract

Two new techniques for altering the gradient-index profile shape are presented using ion exchange of Li+ for Na+ in an aluminosilicate glass. By varying the alkali concentration in the base glass and salt melt, the functional form of the index profile is modified to range in shape from convex to concave. The success of these techniques is attributed to the unusual characteristics of the initial system, which are shown to be caused by a nonlinear dependence of refractive index on dopant concentration.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. S. Kindred, D. T. Moore, “Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Gradient-Index Binocular Objective,” Appl. Opt. 27, 492 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. N. Houde-Walter, “Field-Assisted Ion Exchange in Glass,” M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, 1983.
  3. S. D. Fantone, “Design, Engineering, and Manufacturing Aspects of Gradient Index Optical Components,” Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, 1979.
  4. D. P. Ryan-Howard, “Chromatic Properties of Index of Refraction Gradients in Glass,” Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, 1983.
  5. D. S. Kindred, J. Bentley, “Gradient Index Titania Flint Glasses,” submitted to Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1989.
  6. S. N. Houde-Walter, D. T. Moore, “Real-Time Index Profile Measurement during GRIN Glass Fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 27, 508 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975, p. 37.
  8. J. E. Samuels, “Influence of the Molten Slat Bath on Ion Exchange in Glass and the Gradient Index Profile,” M.S. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1989.

1988 (2)

Bentley, J.

D. S. Kindred, J. Bentley, “Gradient Index Titania Flint Glasses,” submitted to Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1989.

Crank, J.

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975, p. 37.

Fantone, S. D.

S. D. Fantone, “Design, Engineering, and Manufacturing Aspects of Gradient Index Optical Components,” Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, 1979.

Houde-Walter, S. N.

S. N. Houde-Walter, D. T. Moore, “Real-Time Index Profile Measurement during GRIN Glass Fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 27, 508 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Houde-Walter, “Field-Assisted Ion Exchange in Glass,” M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, 1983.

Kindred, D. S.

D. S. Kindred, D. T. Moore, “Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Gradient-Index Binocular Objective,” Appl. Opt. 27, 492 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Kindred, J. Bentley, “Gradient Index Titania Flint Glasses,” submitted to Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1989.

Moore, D. T.

Ryan-Howard, D. P.

D. P. Ryan-Howard, “Chromatic Properties of Index of Refraction Gradients in Glass,” Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, 1983.

Samuels, J. E.

J. E. Samuels, “Influence of the Molten Slat Bath on Ion Exchange in Glass and the Gradient Index Profile,” M.S. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1989.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Other (6)

S. N. Houde-Walter, “Field-Assisted Ion Exchange in Glass,” M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, 1983.

S. D. Fantone, “Design, Engineering, and Manufacturing Aspects of Gradient Index Optical Components,” Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, 1979.

D. P. Ryan-Howard, “Chromatic Properties of Index of Refraction Gradients in Glass,” Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, 1983.

D. S. Kindred, J. Bentley, “Gradient Index Titania Flint Glasses,” submitted to Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1989.

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975, p. 37.

J. E. Samuels, “Influence of the Molten Slat Bath on Ion Exchange in Glass and the Gradient Index Profile,” M.S. Thesis, University of Rochester, 1989.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the typical profile observed in Li+ for Na+ exchange to the theoretical prediction c = erfc(x) based on Fickian diffusion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Index of refraction profiles for salt baths composed of LiNO3 vs LiCl.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results from varying initial Li+ content X in base glass on the final profile shape.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effects of poisoning the salt melt with Na+ on the index profile shape.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical and experimental results indicating nonlinear relationship between refractive index and lithia content in the glass. The theoretical curve is based on the assumption c(x) = erfc(x) and the measured values for n(x).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimentally determined relationship between the concentration of Li+ in the melt to lithia content in the glass at the glass–salt interface, i.e., x = 0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between the Fickian diffusion model for c(x) = erfc(x) and the experimentally predicted shape. The experimental curve is generated using the measured values of n(x) (Fig. 4), X = 0, and n(c) (Fig. 5).

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