Abstract

We report measurements of the refractive indices of poly-4BCMU films and the fabrication of an efficient integrated optical distributed coupler. The refractive index measurements were performed in the visible and near IR using blazed-grating couplers. The analysis led to the optimization of an input coupler with a coupling efficiency larger than 45% at 1.064 μm.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Sauteret et al., “Optical Nonlinearities in One-Dimensional-Conjugated Polymer Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity-Dependent Index of Refraction in Multilayers of Polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. M. Carter, J. V. Hryniewicz, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, S. Meyler, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polydiacetylene Measured with Femtosecond Duration Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 998–1000 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. N. Prasad, D. R. Urlich, Eds., Nonlinear Optical and Electroactive Polymers (Plenum, New York, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, “Optical Bistable Behavior of a Planar Quasi-Waveguide Interferometer Made with a Conjugated Organic Polymer Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 453–456 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polymer Waveguide: Grating Coupler Measurements of Electronic and Thermal Nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, R. Zanoni, “Organic Films in Non-Linear Integrated Optics Structures,” Thin Solid Films 152, 231–263 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. T. Boyd, “Applications Requirements for Nonlinear-Optical Devices and the Status of Organic Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 685–692 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. N. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in Spun Films of Soluble Polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of Integrated Optical Structures in Polydiacetylene Films by Irreversible Photoinduced Bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Thakur, S. Meyler, “Growth of Large-Area Thin-Film Single Crystals of Poly-(diacetylenes),” Macromolecules 18, 2341–2344 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Krug, E. Miao, D. Derstine, J. Valera, “Optical Absorption and Scattering Losses of PTS and Poly(4-BCMU) Thin-Film Waveguides in the Near Infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 726–732 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Biegajski, R. Burzynski, D. A. Cadenhead, P. N. Prasad, “Molecular Weight and Comparative Studies of Poly-3- and Poly-4BCMU Monolayers and Multilayers,” Macromolecules 23, 816–823 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Xu, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, “Simple Versatile Method for Fabricating Guided-Wave Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3155–3161 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Tamir, S. T. Peng, “Analysis and Design of Grating Couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, “Directional Blazing of Waves Guided by Asymmetical Dielectric Gratings,” Opt. Commun. 11, 405–409 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Tamir, “Beam and Waveguide Couplers,” in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. 3.
  18. H. Kogelnik, “Theory of Dielectric Waveguides,” in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. 1.
  19. R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Large Optical Birefringence in Poly-P-Phenylene Vinylene Films Measured by Optical Wave Guide Techniques,” Polymer 31, 627–630 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1990

J. Biegajski, R. Burzynski, D. A. Cadenhead, P. N. Prasad, “Molecular Weight and Comparative Studies of Poly-3- and Poly-4BCMU Monolayers and Multilayers,” Macromolecules 23, 816–823 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Large Optical Birefringence in Poly-P-Phenylene Vinylene Films Measured by Optical Wave Guide Techniques,” Polymer 31, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

W. Krug, E. Miao, D. Derstine, J. Valera, “Optical Absorption and Scattering Losses of PTS and Poly(4-BCMU) Thin-Film Waveguides in the Near Infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 726–732 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of Integrated Optical Structures in Polydiacetylene Films by Irreversible Photoinduced Bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. T. Boyd, “Applications Requirements for Nonlinear-Optical Devices and the Status of Organic Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 685–692 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in Spun Films of Soluble Polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, “Optical Bistable Behavior of a Planar Quasi-Waveguide Interferometer Made with a Conjugated Organic Polymer Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 453–456 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polymer Waveguide: Grating Coupler Measurements of Electronic and Thermal Nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, R. Zanoni, “Organic Films in Non-Linear Integrated Optics Structures,” Thin Solid Films 152, 231–263 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, J. V. Hryniewicz, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, S. Meyler, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polydiacetylene Measured with Femtosecond Duration Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 998–1000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. Xu, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, “Simple Versatile Method for Fabricating Guided-Wave Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3155–3161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Thakur, S. Meyler, “Growth of Large-Area Thin-Film Single Crystals of Poly-(diacetylenes),” Macromolecules 18, 2341–2344 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity-Dependent Index of Refraction in Multilayers of Polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

T. Tamir, S. T. Peng, “Analysis and Design of Grating Couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

C. Sauteret et al., “Optical Nonlinearities in One-Dimensional-Conjugated Polymer Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, “Directional Blazing of Waves Guided by Asymmetical Dielectric Gratings,” Opt. Commun. 11, 405–409 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Baker, G. L.

P. N. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in Spun Films of Soluble Polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Biegajski, J.

J. Biegajski, R. Burzynski, D. A. Cadenhead, P. N. Prasad, “Molecular Weight and Comparative Studies of Poly-3- and Poly-4BCMU Monolayers and Multilayers,” Macromolecules 23, 816–823 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

Burzynski, R.

J. Biegajski, R. Burzynski, D. A. Cadenhead, P. N. Prasad, “Molecular Weight and Comparative Studies of Poly-3- and Poly-4BCMU Monolayers and Multilayers,” Macromolecules 23, 816–823 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Large Optical Birefringence in Poly-P-Phenylene Vinylene Films Measured by Optical Wave Guide Techniques,” Polymer 31, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polymer Waveguide: Grating Coupler Measurements of Electronic and Thermal Nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cadenhead, D. A.

J. Biegajski, R. Burzynski, D. A. Cadenhead, P. N. Prasad, “Molecular Weight and Comparative Studies of Poly-3- and Poly-4BCMU Monolayers and Multilayers,” Macromolecules 23, 816–823 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

G. M. Carter, J. V. Hryniewicz, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, S. Meyler, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polydiacetylene Measured with Femtosecond Duration Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 998–1000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity-Dependent Index of Refraction in Multilayers of Polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

G. M. Carter, J. V. Hryniewicz, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, S. Meyler, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polydiacetylene Measured with Femtosecond Duration Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 998–1000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity-Dependent Index of Refraction in Multilayers of Polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Derstine, D.

W. Krug, E. Miao, D. Derstine, J. Valera, “Optical Absorption and Scattering Losses of PTS and Poly(4-BCMU) Thin-Film Waveguides in the Near Infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 726–732 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Etemad, S.

P. N. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in Spun Films of Soluble Polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, U. J.

Gong, Q.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of Integrated Optical Structures in Polydiacetylene Films by Irreversible Photoinduced Bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

G. M. Carter, J. V. Hryniewicz, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, S. Meyler, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polydiacetylene Measured with Femtosecond Duration Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 998–1000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Karasz, F. E.

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Large Optical Birefringence in Poly-P-Phenylene Vinylene Films Measured by Optical Wave Guide Techniques,” Polymer 31, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klausner, C. F.

P. N. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in Spun Films of Soluble Polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Theory of Dielectric Waveguides,” in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. 1.

Krug, W.

W. Krug, E. Miao, D. Derstine, J. Valera, “Optical Absorption and Scattering Losses of PTS and Poly(4-BCMU) Thin-Film Waveguides in the Near Infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 726–732 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Meyler, S.

G. M. Carter, J. V. Hryniewicz, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, S. Meyler, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polydiacetylene Measured with Femtosecond Duration Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 998–1000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Thakur, S. Meyler, “Growth of Large-Area Thin-Film Single Crystals of Poly-(diacetylenes),” Macromolecules 18, 2341–2344 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Miao, E.

W. Krug, E. Miao, D. Derstine, J. Valera, “Optical Absorption and Scattering Losses of PTS and Poly(4-BCMU) Thin-Film Waveguides in the Near Infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 726–732 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moshrefzadeh, R.

Peng, S. T.

T. Tamir, S. T. Peng, “Analysis and Design of Grating Couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, “Directional Blazing of Waves Guided by Asymmetical Dielectric Gratings,” Opt. Commun. 11, 405–409 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Large Optical Birefringence in Poly-P-Phenylene Vinylene Films Measured by Optical Wave Guide Techniques,” Polymer 31, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biegajski, R. Burzynski, D. A. Cadenhead, P. N. Prasad, “Molecular Weight and Comparative Studies of Poly-3- and Poly-4BCMU Monolayers and Multilayers,” Macromolecules 23, 816–823 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, “Optical Bistable Behavior of a Planar Quasi-Waveguide Interferometer Made with a Conjugated Organic Polymer Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 453–456 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polymer Waveguide: Grating Coupler Measurements of Electronic and Thermal Nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rochford, K. B.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of Integrated Optical Structures in Polydiacetylene Films by Irreversible Photoinduced Bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

C. Sauteret et al., “Optical Nonlinearities in One-Dimensional-Conjugated Polymer Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, N. E.

P. N. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in Spun Films of Soluble Polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, R. Zanoni, “Organic Films in Non-Linear Integrated Optics Structures,” Thin Solid Films 152, 231–263 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, “Simple Versatile Method for Fabricating Guided-Wave Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3155–3161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. P.

Stegeman, G. I.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of Integrated Optical Structures in Polydiacetylene Films by Irreversible Photoinduced Bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polymer Waveguide: Grating Coupler Measurements of Electronic and Thermal Nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, R. Zanoni, “Organic Films in Non-Linear Integrated Optics Structures,” Thin Solid Films 152, 231–263 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, “Simple Versatile Method for Fabricating Guided-Wave Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3155–3161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir, S. T. Peng, “Analysis and Design of Grating Couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, “Directional Blazing of Waves Guided by Asymmetical Dielectric Gratings,” Opt. Commun. 11, 405–409 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamir, “Beam and Waveguide Couplers,” in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. 3.

Thakur, M.

M. Thakur, S. Meyler, “Growth of Large-Area Thin-Film Single Crystals of Poly-(diacetylenes),” Macromolecules 18, 2341–2344 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, M. K.

G. M. Carter, J. V. Hryniewicz, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, S. Meyler, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polydiacetylene Measured with Femtosecond Duration Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 998–1000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. N.

P. N. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in Spun Films of Soluble Polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity-Dependent Index of Refraction in Multilayers of Polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Valera, J.

W. Krug, E. Miao, D. Derstine, J. Valera, “Optical Absorption and Scattering Losses of PTS and Poly(4-BCMU) Thin-Film Waveguides in the Near Infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 726–732 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

Zanoni, R.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of Integrated Optical Structures in Polydiacetylene Films by Irreversible Photoinduced Bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polymer Waveguide: Grating Coupler Measurements of Electronic and Thermal Nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, R. Zanoni, “Organic Films in Non-Linear Integrated Optics Structures,” Thin Solid Films 152, 231–263 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

T. Tamir, S. T. Peng, “Analysis and Design of Grating Couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity-Dependent Index of Refraction in Multilayers of Polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, J. V. Hryniewicz, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, S. Meyler, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polydiacetylene Measured with Femtosecond Duration Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 998–1000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear Optical Processes in a Polymer Waveguide: Grating Coupler Measurements of Electronic and Thermal Nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Townsend, G. L. Baker, N. E. Schlotter, C. F. Klausner, S. Etemad, “Waveguiding in Spun Films of Soluble Polydiacetylenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1782–1784 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of Integrated Optical Structures in Polydiacetylene Films by Irreversible Photoinduced Bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

W. Krug, E. Miao, D. Derstine, J. Valera, “Optical Absorption and Scattering Losses of PTS and Poly(4-BCMU) Thin-Film Waveguides in the Near Infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 726–732 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Macromolecules

M. Thakur, S. Meyler, “Growth of Large-Area Thin-Film Single Crystals of Poly-(diacetylenes),” Macromolecules 18, 2341–2344 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Biegajski, R. Burzynski, D. A. Cadenhead, P. N. Prasad, “Molecular Weight and Comparative Studies of Poly-3- and Poly-4BCMU Monolayers and Multilayers,” Macromolecules 23, 816–823 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, “Directional Blazing of Waves Guided by Asymmetical Dielectric Gratings,” Opt. Commun. 11, 405–409 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Sauteret et al., “Optical Nonlinearities in One-Dimensional-Conjugated Polymer Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Polymer

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Large Optical Birefringence in Poly-P-Phenylene Vinylene Films Measured by Optical Wave Guide Techniques,” Polymer 31, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, R. Zanoni, “Organic Films in Non-Linear Integrated Optics Structures,” Thin Solid Films 152, 231–263 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. N. Prasad, D. R. Urlich, Eds., Nonlinear Optical and Electroactive Polymers (Plenum, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamir, “Beam and Waveguide Couplers,” in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. 3.

H. Kogelnik, “Theory of Dielectric Waveguides,” in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Chap. 1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Holographic exposure of a photoresist. A spatially filtered beam from a He–Cd laser (λ = 441.6 nm) is split by a mirror to produce an interference pattern on a resist film. The period of the photoresist mask is determined by the angle of incidence θ: Λ = λ/(2 sinθ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Blazed grating. A scanning electron micrograph of a blazed grating ion-milled into a fused-silica substrate. The grating period is 0.6 μm, and the blaze angle is 60°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Leakage distance. The computed leakage distance in millimeters is plotted vs blaze angle for a grating period of 0.6 μm, polydiacetylene film thicknesses of 0.60, 0.65, and 0.70 μm, and a wavelength of 1.064 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Branching ratio. The calculated branching ratio is plotted vs the blaze angle for a grating period of 0.6 μm, various polydiacetylene film thicknesses, and a wavelength of 1.064 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the sample–grating geometry. The relevant measured quantities are indicated.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k 0 n sin θ m ± ν 2 π Λ = k 0 β m ,
k 0 t n f 2 - β m 2 - Φ c , m - Φ s , m = m π ,
η = I i - I r - T R I i ,

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