Abstract

Fabrication of PMMA clad polyimide waveguides by electron beam lithography creates very smooth sidewalls allowing production of narrow low loss waveguides on planar substrates.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated Optical Waveguides in Polyimide for Wafer Scale Integration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1034–1044 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-Etched Polymer Waveguides for Intrachip Optical Interconnects,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 836, 359–363.
  3. T. Kurokawa, N. Takato, Y. Katayama, “Polymer Optical Circuits for Multimode Optical Fiber Systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3124–3129 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. H. Hartman, G. R. Lalk, J. W. Howse, R. R. Krchnavek, “Radiant Cured Polymer Optical Waveguides on Printed Circuit Boards for Photonic Interconnection Use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 40–47 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086–1102 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Feldman, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Comparison Between Optical and Electrical Interconnects Based on Power and Speed Considerations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1742–1751 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Fried, “Optical I/O for High Speed CMOS Systems,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1132–1141 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. A. Hornak, “Optical Interconnections for Wafer-Scale Integrated and Hybrid-Wafer-Scale Integrated Architectures,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 835, 322–327 (1987).
  10. D. E. Craley, L. R. Megargel, M. A. Mentzer, D. H. Naghski, “Interconnects for VHSIC Packaging,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 85, 328–336 (1987).
  11. L. D. Hutcheson, P. Haugen, “Optical Interconnects Replace Hardwire,” IEEE Spectrum, 30–35 (Mar.1987).
  12. D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A Technology for Optical Interconnections Based on Multichip Integration,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1127–1131 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. T. Sullivan, M. C. Roth, T. Budzynski, “Integrated Optics Approach for High-Density Optical Interconnections in High-Speed Multichip IC Packages,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 836, 343–350 (1987).
  14. M. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, Y. Yamada, A. Himeno, H. Terui, “Guided-Wave Optical Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Electron. lett. 23, 143–144 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. E. E. Frietman, W. van Nifterick, “Optoelectronic ICS for High-Speed Parallel Processing,” Lasers Optron.69–71 (Aug.1987).
  16. H. Franke, J. D. Crow, “Optical Waveguiding in Polyimide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 102–107 (1986).
  17. P. K. Tien, “Light Waves in Thin Films and Integrated Optics,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated Optical Waveguides in Polyimide for Wafer Scale Integration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Feldman, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Comparison Between Optical and Electrical Interconnects Based on Power and Speed Considerations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1742–1751 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (6)

C. T. Sullivan, M. C. Roth, T. Budzynski, “Integrated Optics Approach for High-Density Optical Interconnections in High-Speed Multichip IC Packages,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 836, 343–350 (1987).

M. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, Y. Yamada, A. Himeno, H. Terui, “Guided-Wave Optical Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Electron. lett. 23, 143–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. E. E. Frietman, W. van Nifterick, “Optoelectronic ICS for High-Speed Parallel Processing,” Lasers Optron.69–71 (Aug.1987).

L. A. Hornak, “Optical Interconnections for Wafer-Scale Integrated and Hybrid-Wafer-Scale Integrated Architectures,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 835, 322–327 (1987).

D. E. Craley, L. R. Megargel, M. A. Mentzer, D. H. Naghski, “Interconnects for VHSIC Packaging,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 85, 328–336 (1987).

L. D. Hutcheson, P. Haugen, “Optical Interconnects Replace Hardwire,” IEEE Spectrum, 30–35 (Mar.1987).

1986 (5)

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A Technology for Optical Interconnections Based on Multichip Integration,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1127–1131 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086–1102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Franke, J. D. Crow, “Optical Waveguiding in Polyimide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 102–107 (1986).

J. A. Fried, “Optical I/O for High Speed CMOS Systems,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1132–1141 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1971 (1)

Budzynski, T.

C. T. Sullivan, M. C. Roth, T. Budzynski, “Integrated Optics Approach for High-Density Optical Interconnections in High-Speed Multichip IC Packages,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 836, 343–350 (1987).

Christensen, D. A.

D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-Etched Polymer Waveguides for Intrachip Optical Interconnects,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 836, 359–363.

Chu, A.

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A Technology for Optical Interconnections Based on Multichip Integration,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1127–1131 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Craley, D. E.

D. E. Craley, L. R. Megargel, M. A. Mentzer, D. H. Naghski, “Interconnects for VHSIC Packaging,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 85, 328–336 (1987).

Crow, J. D.

H. Franke, J. D. Crow, “Optical Waveguiding in Polyimide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 102–107 (1986).

Esener, S. C.

Feldman, M. R.

Franke, H.

H. Franke, J. D. Crow, “Optical Waveguiding in Polyimide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 102–107 (1986).

Fried, J. A.

J. A. Fried, “Optical I/O for High Speed CMOS Systems,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1132–1141 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Frietman, E. E. E.

E. E. E. Frietman, W. van Nifterick, “Optoelectronic ICS for High-Speed Parallel Processing,” Lasers Optron.69–71 (Aug.1987).

Guest, C. C.

Hartman, D. H.

Haugen, P.

L. D. Hutcheson, P. Haugen, “Optical Interconnects Replace Hardwire,” IEEE Spectrum, 30–35 (Mar.1987).

Haugen, P. R.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, A.

M. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, Y. Yamada, A. Himeno, H. Terui, “Guided-Wave Optical Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Electron. lett. 23, 143–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hornak, L. A.

L. A. Hornak, “Optical Interconnections for Wafer-Scale Integrated and Hybrid-Wafer-Scale Integrated Architectures,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 835, 322–327 (1987).

Howse, J. W.

Husain, A.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hutcheson, L. D.

L. D. Hutcheson, P. Haugen, “Optical Interconnects Replace Hardwire,” IEEE Spectrum, 30–35 (Mar.1987).

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, Y.

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, Y. Yamada, A. Himeno, H. Terui, “Guided-Wave Optical Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Electron. lett. 23, 143–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Krchnavek, R. R.

Kurokawa, T.

Lalk, G. R.

Lambert, J. J.

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A Technology for Optical Interconnections Based on Multichip Integration,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1127–1131 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Lin, H. T.

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated Optical Waveguides in Polyimide for Wafer Scale Integration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. F.

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated Optical Waveguides in Polyimide for Wafer Scale Integration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Megargel, L. R.

D. E. Craley, L. R. Megargel, M. A. Mentzer, D. H. Naghski, “Interconnects for VHSIC Packaging,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 85, 328–336 (1987).

Mentzer, M. A.

D. E. Craley, L. R. Megargel, M. A. Mentzer, D. H. Naghski, “Interconnects for VHSIC Packaging,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 85, 328–336 (1987).

Naghski, D. H.

D. E. Craley, L. R. Megargel, M. A. Mentzer, D. H. Naghski, “Interconnects for VHSIC Packaging,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 85, 328–336 (1987).

Roth, M. C.

C. T. Sullivan, M. C. Roth, T. Budzynski, “Integrated Optics Approach for High-Density Optical Interconnections in High-Speed Multichip IC Packages,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 836, 343–350 (1987).

Rychnovsky, S.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraj, R.

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated Optical Waveguides in Polyimide for Wafer Scale Integration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, D. L.

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A Technology for Optical Interconnections Based on Multichip Integration,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1127–1131 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, C. T.

C. T. Sullivan, M. C. Roth, T. Budzynski, “Integrated Optics Approach for High-Density Optical Interconnections in High-Speed Multichip IC Packages,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 836, 343–350 (1987).

Takato, N.

Terui, H.

M. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, Y. Yamada, A. Himeno, H. Terui, “Guided-Wave Optical Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Electron. lett. 23, 143–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Tsang, D. Z.

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A Technology for Optical Interconnections Based on Multichip Integration,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1127–1131 (1986).
[CrossRef]

van Nifterick, W.

E. E. E. Frietman, W. van Nifterick, “Optoelectronic ICS for High-Speed Parallel Processing,” Lasers Optron.69–71 (Aug.1987).

Yamada, M.

M. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, Y. Yamada, A. Himeno, H. Terui, “Guided-Wave Optical Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Electron. lett. 23, 143–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

M. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, Y. Yamada, A. Himeno, H. Terui, “Guided-Wave Optical Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Electron. lett. 23, 143–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. lett. (1)

M. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, Y. Yamada, A. Himeno, H. Terui, “Guided-Wave Optical Chip-to-Chip Interconnections,” Electron. lett. 23, 143–144 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

L. D. Hutcheson, P. Haugen, “Optical Interconnects Replace Hardwire,” IEEE Spectrum, 30–35 (Mar.1987).

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated Optical Waveguides in Polyimide for Wafer Scale Integration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Optron. (1)

E. E. E. Frietman, W. van Nifterick, “Optoelectronic ICS for High-Speed Parallel Processing,” Lasers Optron.69–71 (Aug.1987).

Opt. Eng. (4)

D. Z. Tsang, D. L. Smythe, A. Chu, J. J. Lambert, “A Technology for Optical Interconnections Based on Multichip Integration,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1127–1131 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fried, “Optical I/O for High Speed CMOS Systems,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1132–1141 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, “Digital High Speed Interconnects: a Study of the Optical Alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086–1102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical Interconnects for High Speed Computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (5)

L. A. Hornak, “Optical Interconnections for Wafer-Scale Integrated and Hybrid-Wafer-Scale Integrated Architectures,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 835, 322–327 (1987).

D. E. Craley, L. R. Megargel, M. A. Mentzer, D. H. Naghski, “Interconnects for VHSIC Packaging,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 85, 328–336 (1987).

C. T. Sullivan, M. C. Roth, T. Budzynski, “Integrated Optics Approach for High-Density Optical Interconnections in High-Speed Multichip IC Packages,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 836, 343–350 (1987).

D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-Etched Polymer Waveguides for Intrachip Optical Interconnects,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 836, 359–363.

H. Franke, J. D. Crow, “Optical Waveguiding in Polyimide,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 102–107 (1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structures of (A) slab and (B) channel waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication sequence for channel waveguides: formation of (a) the lower PMMA layer, (b) the core polyimide layer, and (c) the upper PMMA and thin aluminum layers is followed by (d) electron beam lithography, (e) reactive ion etching, and (f) spin coating of new PMMA layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical losses for PMMA clad polyimide structures.

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