Abstract

The refractive index, the temperature coefficient of the refractive index, and the optical transparency of gadolinium gallium garnet are reported as a function of wavelength from the near UV to the middle IR. The material is transparent enough for good optical components between 0.36 and 6.0 μm, and the refractive index ranges from 2.0 at the UV end to 1.8 at the IR end of the spectrum. The wavelength dependence of index is expressed as a three-term Sellmeier formula with agreement better than two parts in the fourth decimal between calculated and experimental values. Variations in composition depending on growth from various melts (e.g., stoichiometric vs congruent) have no effect on the optical parameters at this level of precision.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. E. Mee, G. R. Pulliam, J. L. Archer, R. J. Besser, “Magnetic Oxide Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-5, 717–727 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Linares, “Epitaxial Growth of Narrow Linewidth Yttrium Iron Garnet Films,” J. Cryst. Growth 3, 4, 443–446 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. McD. Robinson, A. H. Bobeck, J. W. Nielsen, “Chemical Vapor Deposition of Magnetic Garnets for Bubble-Domain Devices,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 464–466 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. J. Varnerin, “Approaches for Making Bubble-Domain Materials,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 404–409 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Levinstein, S. Licht, R. W. Landorf, S. L. Blank, “Growth of High Quality Garnet Thin Films from Supercooled Melts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 486–488 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. D. Brandle, A. J. Valentino, “Czochralski Growth of Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 3–8 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. D. Brandle, “Growth of 3″ Diameter Gd3Ga3O12 Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 1855–1858 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. J. Bruni, Crystals, Growth, Properties, and Applications, Vol. 1, C. J. M. Rooijmans, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 53–70.
  9. R. G. Raether, E. R. Prochnow, “Polishing Technique for Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3420 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. R. Prochnow, D. F. Edwards, “Polishing Characteristics of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3797–3798 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Koshiyama, Y. Naitous, “Polishing a Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Single Crystal,” U.S. Patent4,226,623 (7Oct.1980).
  12. S. L. Blank, J. W. Nielsen, “The Growth of Garnets by Liquid Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 17, 302–311 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. D. Brandle, D. C. Miller, J. W. Nielsen, “The Elimination of Defects in Czochralski Growth Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 195–200 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. L. Wood, J. W. Fleming, “Computerized Refractive Index Measurement for Bulk Materials at UV, Visible, and IR Wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 43–47 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Schwiesow, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels of Gd3+ in Five Hexagonal Crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 592–602 (1969); R. L. Schwiesow, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels of Gd3+ in LaF3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 602–603 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels and Crystal Field of LaCl3:Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083–5089 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. M. Crosswhite, H. W. Moos, Optical Properties of Ions in Crystals (Interscience, New York, 1967).
  18. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, “Lanthanide and Actinide Absorption in Solution,” Adv. Chem. Ser.71, 86–101, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1967), p. 94.
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. H. Wemple, W. J. Tabor, “Refractive Index Behavior of Garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1395–1396 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. K. Shick, C. D. Brandle, S. L. Blank, M. A. Karr, “Novel Garnet Film Optical Waveguides,” J. Electron. Mater. 2, 609–615 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Warner, “The Refractive Indices of Some Garnet Crystals at 1.15 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 507–510 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. D. Henry, J. Soohoo, “Measurement of the Physical Thickness and Refractive Index of Thin Epitaxial Garnet Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 727–734 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Nassau, “The Optical Constants of GGG,” Gems Gemol. 16, 370 (1980).
  24. H. Yugrean, G. Tieliang, “Optical Properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Kexue Tongbago 30, 14–17 (1985).
  25. Y. Tsay, B. Bendow, S. S. Mitra, “Theory of the Temperature Derivative of the Refractive Index in Transparent Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688–2696 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

R. G. Raether, E. R. Prochnow, “Polishing Technique for Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3420 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Yugrean, G. Tieliang, “Optical Properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Kexue Tongbago 30, 14–17 (1985).

1982 (1)

D. L. Wood, J. W. Fleming, “Computerized Refractive Index Measurement for Bulk Materials at UV, Visible, and IR Wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 43–47 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

K. Nassau, “The Optical Constants of GGG,” Gems Gemol. 16, 370 (1980).

1978 (1)

C. D. Brandle, “Growth of 3″ Diameter Gd3Ga3O12 Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 1855–1858 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. D. Henry, J. Soohoo, “Measurement of the Physical Thickness and Refractive Index of Thin Epitaxial Garnet Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 727–734 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. Warner, “The Refractive Indices of Some Garnet Crystals at 1.15 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 507–510 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

S. H. Wemple, W. J. Tabor, “Refractive Index Behavior of Garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1395–1396 (1973).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Shick, C. D. Brandle, S. L. Blank, M. A. Karr, “Novel Garnet Film Optical Waveguides,” J. Electron. Mater. 2, 609–615 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsay, B. Bendow, S. S. Mitra, “Theory of the Temperature Derivative of the Refractive Index in Transparent Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688–2696 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

C. D. Brandle, A. J. Valentino, “Czochralski Growth of Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 3–8 (1972).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Blank, J. W. Nielsen, “The Growth of Garnets by Liquid Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 17, 302–311 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Brandle, D. C. Miller, J. W. Nielsen, “The Elimination of Defects in Czochralski Growth Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 195–200 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (3)

McD. Robinson, A. H. Bobeck, J. W. Nielsen, “Chemical Vapor Deposition of Magnetic Garnets for Bubble-Domain Devices,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 464–466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Varnerin, “Approaches for Making Bubble-Domain Materials,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 404–409 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Levinstein, S. Licht, R. W. Landorf, S. L. Blank, “Growth of High Quality Garnet Thin Films from Supercooled Melts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 486–488 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

1968 (1)

R. C. Linares, “Epitaxial Growth of Narrow Linewidth Yttrium Iron Garnet Films,” J. Cryst. Growth 3, 4, 443–446 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels and Crystal Field of LaCl3:Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083–5089 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Archer, J. L.

J. E. Mee, G. R. Pulliam, J. L. Archer, R. J. Besser, “Magnetic Oxide Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-5, 717–727 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bendow, B.

Y. Tsay, B. Bendow, S. S. Mitra, “Theory of the Temperature Derivative of the Refractive Index in Transparent Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688–2696 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Besser, R. J.

J. E. Mee, G. R. Pulliam, J. L. Archer, R. J. Besser, “Magnetic Oxide Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-5, 717–727 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Blank, S. L.

L. K. Shick, C. D. Brandle, S. L. Blank, M. A. Karr, “Novel Garnet Film Optical Waveguides,” J. Electron. Mater. 2, 609–615 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Blank, J. W. Nielsen, “The Growth of Garnets by Liquid Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 17, 302–311 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Levinstein, S. Licht, R. W. Landorf, S. L. Blank, “Growth of High Quality Garnet Thin Films from Supercooled Melts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 486–488 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bobeck, A. H.

McD. Robinson, A. H. Bobeck, J. W. Nielsen, “Chemical Vapor Deposition of Magnetic Garnets for Bubble-Domain Devices,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 464–466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Brandle, C. D.

C. D. Brandle, “Growth of 3″ Diameter Gd3Ga3O12 Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 1855–1858 (1978).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Shick, C. D. Brandle, S. L. Blank, M. A. Karr, “Novel Garnet Film Optical Waveguides,” J. Electron. Mater. 2, 609–615 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Brandle, D. C. Miller, J. W. Nielsen, “The Elimination of Defects in Czochralski Growth Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 195–200 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Brandle, A. J. Valentino, “Czochralski Growth of Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 3–8 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bruni, F. J.

F. J. Bruni, Crystals, Growth, Properties, and Applications, Vol. 1, C. J. M. Rooijmans, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 53–70.

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, “Lanthanide and Actinide Absorption in Solution,” Adv. Chem. Ser.71, 86–101, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1967), p. 94.
[CrossRef]

Crosswhite, H. M.

R. L. Schwiesow, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels of Gd3+ in Five Hexagonal Crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 592–602 (1969); R. L. Schwiesow, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels of Gd3+ in LaF3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 602–603 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels and Crystal Field of LaCl3:Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083–5089 (1967).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Crosswhite, H. W. Moos, Optical Properties of Ions in Crystals (Interscience, New York, 1967).

Dieke, G. H.

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels and Crystal Field of LaCl3:Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083–5089 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. F.

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, “Lanthanide and Actinide Absorption in Solution,” Adv. Chem. Ser.71, 86–101, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1967), p. 94.
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

D. L. Wood, J. W. Fleming, “Computerized Refractive Index Measurement for Bulk Materials at UV, Visible, and IR Wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 43–47 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R. D.

R. D. Henry, J. Soohoo, “Measurement of the Physical Thickness and Refractive Index of Thin Epitaxial Garnet Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 727–734 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Karr, M. A.

L. K. Shick, C. D. Brandle, S. L. Blank, M. A. Karr, “Novel Garnet Film Optical Waveguides,” J. Electron. Mater. 2, 609–615 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Koshiyama, I.

I. Koshiyama, Y. Naitous, “Polishing a Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Single Crystal,” U.S. Patent4,226,623 (7Oct.1980).

Landorf, R. W.

H. J. Levinstein, S. Licht, R. W. Landorf, S. L. Blank, “Growth of High Quality Garnet Thin Films from Supercooled Melts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 486–488 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Levinstein, H. J.

H. J. Levinstein, S. Licht, R. W. Landorf, S. L. Blank, “Growth of High Quality Garnet Thin Films from Supercooled Melts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 486–488 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Licht, S.

H. J. Levinstein, S. Licht, R. W. Landorf, S. L. Blank, “Growth of High Quality Garnet Thin Films from Supercooled Melts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 486–488 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Linares, R. C.

R. C. Linares, “Epitaxial Growth of Narrow Linewidth Yttrium Iron Garnet Films,” J. Cryst. Growth 3, 4, 443–446 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Mee, J. E.

J. E. Mee, G. R. Pulliam, J. L. Archer, R. J. Besser, “Magnetic Oxide Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-5, 717–727 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. C.

C. D. Brandle, D. C. Miller, J. W. Nielsen, “The Elimination of Defects in Czochralski Growth Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 195–200 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, S. S.

Y. Tsay, B. Bendow, S. S. Mitra, “Theory of the Temperature Derivative of the Refractive Index in Transparent Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688–2696 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Moos, H. W.

H. M. Crosswhite, H. W. Moos, Optical Properties of Ions in Crystals (Interscience, New York, 1967).

Naitous, Y.

I. Koshiyama, Y. Naitous, “Polishing a Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Single Crystal,” U.S. Patent4,226,623 (7Oct.1980).

Nassau, K.

K. Nassau, “The Optical Constants of GGG,” Gems Gemol. 16, 370 (1980).

Nielsen, J. W.

S. L. Blank, J. W. Nielsen, “The Growth of Garnets by Liquid Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 17, 302–311 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Brandle, D. C. Miller, J. W. Nielsen, “The Elimination of Defects in Czochralski Growth Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 195–200 (1972).
[CrossRef]

McD. Robinson, A. H. Bobeck, J. W. Nielsen, “Chemical Vapor Deposition of Magnetic Garnets for Bubble-Domain Devices,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 464–466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Piksis, A. H.

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels and Crystal Field of LaCl3:Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083–5089 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Prochnow, E. R.

Pulliam, G. R.

J. E. Mee, G. R. Pulliam, J. L. Archer, R. J. Besser, “Magnetic Oxide Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-5, 717–727 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Raether, R. G.

Robinson, McD.

McD. Robinson, A. H. Bobeck, J. W. Nielsen, “Chemical Vapor Deposition of Magnetic Garnets for Bubble-Domain Devices,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 464–466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schwiesow, R. L.

Shick, L. K.

L. K. Shick, C. D. Brandle, S. L. Blank, M. A. Karr, “Novel Garnet Film Optical Waveguides,” J. Electron. Mater. 2, 609–615 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Soohoo, J.

R. D. Henry, J. Soohoo, “Measurement of the Physical Thickness and Refractive Index of Thin Epitaxial Garnet Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 727–734 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tabor, W. J.

S. H. Wemple, W. J. Tabor, “Refractive Index Behavior of Garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1395–1396 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tieliang, G.

H. Yugrean, G. Tieliang, “Optical Properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Kexue Tongbago 30, 14–17 (1985).

Tsay, Y.

Y. Tsay, B. Bendow, S. S. Mitra, “Theory of the Temperature Derivative of the Refractive Index in Transparent Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688–2696 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Valentino, A. J.

C. D. Brandle, A. J. Valentino, “Czochralski Growth of Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 3–8 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Varnerin, L. J.

L. J. Varnerin, “Approaches for Making Bubble-Domain Materials,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 404–409 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Warner, J.

J. Warner, “The Refractive Indices of Some Garnet Crystals at 1.15 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 507–510 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wemple, S. H.

S. H. Wemple, W. J. Tabor, “Refractive Index Behavior of Garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1395–1396 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. L.

D. L. Wood, J. W. Fleming, “Computerized Refractive Index Measurement for Bulk Materials at UV, Visible, and IR Wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 43–47 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yugrean, H.

H. Yugrean, G. Tieliang, “Optical Properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Kexue Tongbago 30, 14–17 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. J. Levinstein, S. Licht, R. W. Landorf, S. L. Blank, “Growth of High Quality Garnet Thin Films from Supercooled Melts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 486–488 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gems Gemol. (1)

K. Nassau, “The Optical Constants of GGG,” Gems Gemol. 16, 370 (1980).

IEEE Trans. Magn. (3)

J. E. Mee, G. R. Pulliam, J. L. Archer, R. J. Besser, “Magnetic Oxide Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-5, 717–727 (1969).
[CrossRef]

McD. Robinson, A. H. Bobeck, J. W. Nielsen, “Chemical Vapor Deposition of Magnetic Garnets for Bubble-Domain Devices,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 464–466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Varnerin, “Approaches for Making Bubble-Domain Materials,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-7, 404–409 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. D. Brandle, “Growth of 3″ Diameter Gd3Ga3O12 Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 1855–1858 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Wemple, W. J. Tabor, “Refractive Index Behavior of Garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1395–1396 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “Energy Levels and Crystal Field of LaCl3:Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083–5089 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (4)

S. L. Blank, J. W. Nielsen, “The Growth of Garnets by Liquid Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 17, 302–311 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Brandle, D. C. Miller, J. W. Nielsen, “The Elimination of Defects in Czochralski Growth Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 195–200 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Brandle, A. J. Valentino, “Czochralski Growth of Rare Earth Gallium Garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 12, 3–8 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Linares, “Epitaxial Growth of Narrow Linewidth Yttrium Iron Garnet Films,” J. Cryst. Growth 3, 4, 443–446 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

L. K. Shick, C. D. Brandle, S. L. Blank, M. A. Karr, “Novel Garnet Film Optical Waveguides,” J. Electron. Mater. 2, 609–615 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Kexue Tongbago (1)

H. Yugrean, G. Tieliang, “Optical Properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Kexue Tongbago 30, 14–17 (1985).

Mater. Res. Bull. (2)

J. Warner, “The Refractive Indices of Some Garnet Crystals at 1.15 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 507–510 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Henry, J. Soohoo, “Measurement of the Physical Thickness and Refractive Index of Thin Epitaxial Garnet Films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 727–734 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Tsay, B. Bendow, S. S. Mitra, “Theory of the Temperature Derivative of the Refractive Index in Transparent Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688–2696 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. L. Wood, J. W. Fleming, “Computerized Refractive Index Measurement for Bulk Materials at UV, Visible, and IR Wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 43–47 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

I. Koshiyama, Y. Naitous, “Polishing a Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Single Crystal,” U.S. Patent4,226,623 (7Oct.1980).

F. J. Bruni, Crystals, Growth, Properties, and Applications, Vol. 1, C. J. M. Rooijmans, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 53–70.

H. M. Crosswhite, H. W. Moos, Optical Properties of Ions in Crystals (Interscience, New York, 1967).

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, “Lanthanide and Actinide Absorption in Solution,” Adv. Chem. Ser.71, 86–101, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1967), p. 94.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transparency of gadolinium gallium garnet as specific absorbance in cm−1 vs wavelength in microns. Note the break in the abscissa between 0.6 and 4 μm where the absorption was too small to be measured.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detail of the optical absorption of gadolinium gallium garnet near the absorption edge in the UV. The relatively narrow lines are due to 4f → 4f transitions of gadolinium as noted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index as a function of wavelength for gadolinium gallium garnet over the useful range of transparency.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature coefficient of refractive index of gadolinium gallium garnet for the wavelength range from 0.365 to 1.8 μm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Sellmeler Coefficients of GGG

Tables Icon

Table II Index of Refraction of GGG for Selected Standard Wavelengths

Tables Icon

Table III Temperature Coefficient of Refractive Index of GGG

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α t = log 10 [ I 0 / I ] - 2 log 10 [ 1 - ( n - 1 ) 2 / ( n + 1 ) 2 ] .
n 2 - 1 = i = 1 3 A i λ 2 / ( λ 2 - L i 2 )
d n / d T = 1.69 + 0.06 / λ 3 .

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