Abstract

We present measurements of the spectral transmittance and photochromic response of CdCl2:CuCl coatings. The coatings are also examined with the aid of electron micrographs. We explain the features observed in the spectral transmittance of darkened photochromic films, using a colloidal model obtained from the generalized Maxwell-Garnett theory. The colloidal model indicates the presence of ellipsoidal copper particles with a shape factor (minor axis/major axis) between 0.39 and 0.42 and mean ratios between 2.03 and 1.73 nm. The optical transmittance curve obtained in the faded state shows a peak near 280 nm attributed to Cu+, and the curve in the darkened state shows two bands, a band located at 375 nm attributed to Cu2+ and another at 600–610 nm assigned to colloidal copper particles.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. H. Brown, Photochromics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971), pp. 643–685.
  2. G. P. Smith, “Photochromics Silver Halide Glasses,” J. Photogr. Sci. 18, 41–49 (1970).
  3. J. M. Fernandez, El Vidrio (CSIC-Espana, 1985), pp. 527–534.
  4. M. Mizuhashi, S. Furuuchu, “Photochromic Coating by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 30, 259 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. F. Perverey, A. V. Mikhaylov, “AgCl–CuCl Photochromics Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 39, 117 (1972).
  6. T. H. Rono, T. Yamada, “Photochromic Silver Complex Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Anodic Oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 948 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Tubbs, “High Resolution Image Recording on Photosensitive Halide Layers,” J. Photogr. Sci. 17, 162 (1969).
  8. M. Green, T. A. Kuku, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Tin Diodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 999 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. G. Albretch, M. Green, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Lead Iodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 38, 297 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Bloch, N. Shamir, Y. Zeiri, “Interaction of an Electron Beam with CdCl2 Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 113 (1988).
  11. C. J. Aidins, “Cadmium Chloride as an Electron Beam Resist,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. London (1987).
  12. H. Marquez, J. Rincon, L. E. Celaya, “Photochromic CdCl2:CuCl Coating Obtained by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films (in revision).
  13. D. M. Trotter, J. W. H. Schreus, P. A. Tick, “Copper-Cadmium Halide Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4657 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Matsumoto, H. Nakagawa, H. Kuwabara, “Optical Properties of Copper Impurities in CdCl2 and CuBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 44, 957 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (1965), p. 177.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  18. L. G. Schulz, “The Optical Constants of Silver, Gold, Copper, and Aluminum. I. The Absorption Coefficient k, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 357–362 (1954).
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  19. L. G. Schulz, F. R. Tangherlini, “Optical Constants of Silver, Gold, Copper, and Aluminum. II. The Index of Refraction n, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 362–368 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Macmillan, New York, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Dupoisot, J. Morizet, “Thin Film Coatings: Algorithms for the Determination of Reflectance and Transmittance and Their Derivatives,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2701–2704 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

J. Bloch, N. Shamir, Y. Zeiri, “Interaction of an Electron Beam with CdCl2 Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 113 (1988).

1986 (1)

T. H. Rono, T. Yamada, “Photochromic Silver Complex Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Anodic Oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 948 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

M. Green, T. A. Kuku, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Tin Diodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. M. Trotter, J. W. H. Schreus, P. A. Tick, “Copper-Cadmium Halide Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

H. Matsumoto, H. Nakagawa, H. Kuwabara, “Optical Properties of Copper Impurities in CdCl2 and CuBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 44, 957 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

M. G. Albretch, M. Green, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Lead Iodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 38, 297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. Mizuhashi, S. Furuuchu, “Photochromic Coating by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 30, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. F. Perverey, A. V. Mikhaylov, “AgCl–CuCl Photochromics Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 39, 117 (1972).

1970 (1)

G. P. Smith, “Photochromics Silver Halide Glasses,” J. Photogr. Sci. 18, 41–49 (1970).

1969 (1)

M. R. Tubbs, “High Resolution Image Recording on Photosensitive Halide Layers,” J. Photogr. Sci. 17, 162 (1969).

1965 (1)

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (1965), p. 177.

1954 (2)

Aidins, C. J.

C. J. Aidins, “Cadmium Chloride as an Electron Beam Resist,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. London (1987).

Albretch, M. G.

M. G. Albretch, M. Green, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Lead Iodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 38, 297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, J.

J. Bloch, N. Shamir, Y. Zeiri, “Interaction of an Electron Beam with CdCl2 Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 113 (1988).

Boivin, G.

Brown, G. H.

G. H. Brown, Photochromics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971), pp. 643–685.

Celaya, L. E.

H. Marquez, J. Rincon, L. E. Celaya, “Photochromic CdCl2:CuCl Coating Obtained by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films (in revision).

Chandonnet, A.

Dupoisot, H.

Fernandez, J. M.

J. M. Fernandez, El Vidrio (CSIC-Espana, 1985), pp. 527–534.

Furuuchu, S.

M. Mizuhashi, S. Furuuchu, “Photochromic Coating by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 30, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

M. Green, T. A. Kuku, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Tin Diodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Albretch, M. Green, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Lead Iodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 38, 297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (1965), p. 177.

Kuku, T. A.

M. Green, T. A. Kuku, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Tin Diodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabara, H.

H. Matsumoto, H. Nakagawa, H. Kuwabara, “Optical Properties of Copper Impurities in CdCl2 and CuBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 44, 957 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Macmillan, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, H.

H. Marquez, J. Rincon, L. E. Celaya, “Photochromic CdCl2:CuCl Coating Obtained by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films (in revision).

Matsumoto, H.

H. Matsumoto, H. Nakagawa, H. Kuwabara, “Optical Properties of Copper Impurities in CdCl2 and CuBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 44, 957 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mikhaylov, A. V.

A. F. Perverey, A. V. Mikhaylov, “AgCl–CuCl Photochromics Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 39, 117 (1972).

Mizuhashi, M.

M. Mizuhashi, S. Furuuchu, “Photochromic Coating by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 30, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Morizet, J.

Nakagawa, H.

H. Matsumoto, H. Nakagawa, H. Kuwabara, “Optical Properties of Copper Impurities in CdCl2 and CuBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 44, 957 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Perverey, A. F.

A. F. Perverey, A. V. Mikhaylov, “AgCl–CuCl Photochromics Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 39, 117 (1972).

Rincon, J.

H. Marquez, J. Rincon, L. E. Celaya, “Photochromic CdCl2:CuCl Coating Obtained by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films (in revision).

Rono, T. H.

T. H. Rono, T. Yamada, “Photochromic Silver Complex Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Anodic Oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 948 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schreus, J. W. H.

D. M. Trotter, J. W. H. Schreus, P. A. Tick, “Copper-Cadmium Halide Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, L. G.

Shamir, N.

J. Bloch, N. Shamir, Y. Zeiri, “Interaction of an Electron Beam with CdCl2 Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 113 (1988).

Smith, G. P.

G. P. Smith, “Photochromics Silver Halide Glasses,” J. Photogr. Sci. 18, 41–49 (1970).

Tangherlini, F. R.

Theriault, J. M.

Tick, P. A.

D. M. Trotter, J. W. H. Schreus, P. A. Tick, “Copper-Cadmium Halide Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. M.

D. M. Trotter, J. W. H. Schreus, P. A. Tick, “Copper-Cadmium Halide Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tubbs, M. R.

M. R. Tubbs, “High Resolution Image Recording on Photosensitive Halide Layers,” J. Photogr. Sci. 17, 162 (1969).

Yamada, T.

T. H. Rono, T. Yamada, “Photochromic Silver Complex Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Anodic Oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 948 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zeiri, Y.

J. Bloch, N. Shamir, Y. Zeiri, “Interaction of an Electron Beam with CdCl2 Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 113 (1988).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Bloch, N. Shamir, Y. Zeiri, “Interaction of an Electron Beam with CdCl2 Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 113 (1988).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. M. Trotter, J. W. H. Schreus, P. A. Tick, “Copper-Cadmium Halide Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4657 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Rono, T. Yamada, “Photochromic Silver Complex Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Anodic Oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 948 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Photogr. Sci. (2)

M. R. Tubbs, “High Resolution Image Recording on Photosensitive Halide Layers,” J. Photogr. Sci. 17, 162 (1969).

G. P. Smith, “Photochromics Silver Halide Glasses,” J. Photogr. Sci. 18, 41–49 (1970).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (2)

M. Green, T. A. Kuku, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Tin Diodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 44, 999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Albretch, M. Green, “The Kinetics of the Photolysis of Thin Films of Lead Iodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 38, 297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

H. Matsumoto, H. Nakagawa, H. Kuwabara, “Optical Properties of Copper Impurities in CdCl2 and CuBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 44, 957 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (1)

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (1965), p. 177.

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

A. F. Perverey, A. V. Mikhaylov, “AgCl–CuCl Photochromics Coatings,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 39, 117 (1972).

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Mizuhashi, S. Furuuchu, “Photochromic Coating by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 30, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. H. Brown, Photochromics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971), pp. 643–685.

J. M. Fernandez, El Vidrio (CSIC-Espana, 1985), pp. 527–534.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Macmillan, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Aidins, “Cadmium Chloride as an Electron Beam Resist,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. London (1987).

H. Marquez, J. Rincon, L. E. Celaya, “Photochromic CdCl2:CuCl Coating Obtained by Vacuum Deposition,” Thin Solid Films (in revision).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission electron micrograph obtained in the CdCl2:CuCl thin film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral transmittance of a photochromic coating before a and after b UV irradiation at 28°C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral transmittance of a photochromic coating before UV irradiation a, after 30 min of exposure with UV light b, and after 5 min of fading c.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral transmittance of a cermet with index medium of 1.74 and a, shape factor of 0.42, radius of 1.732 nm; b, shape factor of 0.40, radius of 1.88 nm; and c shape factor of 0.39, radius of 2.03 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral transmittance of a cermet with a shape factor of 0.42, radius of 1.73 nm, and index medium of a, 1.74; b, 1.9; and c, 2.23.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral transmittance of a cermet with a shape factor of 0.40, radius of 1.88 nm, and index medium of a, 1.74, b, 1.9, and c, 2.23.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fits to spectral transmittance of a photochromic coating. Points are from model calculations; solid lines are experimental data. Fitting parameters are shown in Table III.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Composition of the Photochromic Coatings (wt.%)

Tables Icon

Table II Photochromic Response for CdCl2:CuCl Films

Tables Icon

Table III Copper Particle Properties Derived from Fits of Colloidal Model to Optical Transmittance

Equations (5)

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K c - K d K c + ( 1 - F ) K d = q [ K p - K d F K p + ( 1 - F ) K d ] ,
K p = K m - g ( L - R ) g L + i w R K f ,
K f = W p 2 f / w ( i g - w ) .
F = - 0.0038 q + 0.437 ,
R = 0.038 q + 1.58 nm ,

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