Abstract

A new instrument to measure the point spread function (PSF) in the ocean is described. This instrument uses a CCD solid state camera to measure the angular radiance field due to a pulsed Lambertian source. In this way the PSF can be measured easily at sea, when precise alignments over ranges >10 m cannot be maintained. With the large dynamic range of the camera system, the PSF can be measured over short ranges (10 m), and the variation of the PSF with depth, or range, can be investigated.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, R. R. Shannon, “The Testing of Complete Objectives,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 206.
  2. See, for example, W. A. Pearce, “Monte Carlo Study of the Atmospheric Spread Function,” Appl. Opt. 25, 438–447 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. See, for example, J. S. Jaffe, C. Dunn, “A Model-Based Comparison of Underwater Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 925, 344–350 (1988).
  4. L. E. Mertens, F. S. Replogle, “Use of Point Spread and Beam Spread Functions for Analysis of Imaging Systems in Water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1105–1117 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. H. Wells, “Theory of Small Angle Scattering,” in Optics of the Sea, AGARD Lecture Series61 (NATO, 1973).
  6. H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).
  7. A. Morel, “Diffusion de la lumiere par les eaux de mer. Resultats experimentaux et approche theorique,” in Optics of the Sea, AGARD Lecture Series61 (NATO, 1973).
  8. See, for example, N. W. Witherspoon et al., “Experimentally Measured MTF’s Associated with Imaging Through Turbid Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 925, 363–370 (1988).
  9. R. C. Honey, “Beam Spread and Point Spread Functions and Their Measurement in the Ocean,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 242–248 (1979).
  10. J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970), p. 19.
  11. R. W. Austin, G. Halikas, “The Index of Refraction of Seawater,” SIO Ref. 76-1, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, U. California, San Diego (1976).

1988

See, for example, J. S. Jaffe, C. Dunn, “A Model-Based Comparison of Underwater Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 925, 344–350 (1988).

See, for example, N. W. Witherspoon et al., “Experimentally Measured MTF’s Associated with Imaging Through Turbid Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 925, 363–370 (1988).

1986

1979

R. C. Honey, “Beam Spread and Point Spread Functions and Their Measurement in the Ocean,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 242–248 (1979).

1977

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, G. Halikas, “The Index of Refraction of Seawater,” SIO Ref. 76-1, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, U. California, San Diego (1976).

Dunn, C.

See, for example, J. S. Jaffe, C. Dunn, “A Model-Based Comparison of Underwater Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 925, 344–350 (1988).

Halikas, G.

R. W. Austin, G. Halikas, “The Index of Refraction of Seawater,” SIO Ref. 76-1, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, U. California, San Diego (1976).

Honey, R. C.

R. C. Honey, “Beam Spread and Point Spread Functions and Their Measurement in the Ocean,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 242–248 (1979).

Jaffe, J. S.

See, for example, J. S. Jaffe, C. Dunn, “A Model-Based Comparison of Underwater Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 925, 344–350 (1988).

Mertens, L. E.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Diffusion de la lumiere par les eaux de mer. Resultats experimentaux et approche theorique,” in Optics of the Sea, AGARD Lecture Series61 (NATO, 1973).

Pearce, W. A.

Replogle, F. S.

Shannon, R. R.

See, for example, R. R. Shannon, “The Testing of Complete Objectives,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 206.

Smith, R. C.

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970), p. 19.

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970), p. 19.

Van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Wells, W. H.

W. H. Wells, “Theory of Small Angle Scattering,” in Optics of the Sea, AGARD Lecture Series61 (NATO, 1973).

Witherspoon, N. W.

See, for example, N. W. Witherspoon et al., “Experimentally Measured MTF’s Associated with Imaging Through Turbid Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 925, 363–370 (1988).

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

See, for example, J. S. Jaffe, C. Dunn, “A Model-Based Comparison of Underwater Imaging Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 925, 344–350 (1988).

See, for example, N. W. Witherspoon et al., “Experimentally Measured MTF’s Associated with Imaging Through Turbid Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 925, 363–370 (1988).

R. C. Honey, “Beam Spread and Point Spread Functions and Their Measurement in the Ocean,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 242–248 (1979).

Other

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970), p. 19.

R. W. Austin, G. Halikas, “The Index of Refraction of Seawater,” SIO Ref. 76-1, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, U. California, San Diego (1976).

W. H. Wells, “Theory of Small Angle Scattering,” in Optics of the Sea, AGARD Lecture Series61 (NATO, 1973).

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

A. Morel, “Diffusion de la lumiere par les eaux de mer. Resultats experimentaux et approche theorique,” in Optics of the Sea, AGARD Lecture Series61 (NATO, 1973).

See, for example, R. R. Shannon, “The Testing of Complete Objectives,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 206.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PSF vs angle for clear water and a small source in air. The water symbol is shown. Other symbols correspond to imaging through different angles of the camera (norm 0 is at 0°, etc.). The PSF for the camera is constant with angle, negligible compared with clean water, and thus can be neglected in the data reduction process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral response of camera and filter combination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission characteristics of the flashlamp emitter. The emitter does perform as a cosine source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSF vs angle for various ranges. In all cases the camera was held at a depth of 1.0 m. These data were taken in Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas, in clear water. Data show the general decrease in received radiance with increased range along with a flattening of the PSF with increased range.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PSF vs depth. The range in each of the cases was 13 m; data were obtained at the same location and time (within 1 hr) as Fig. 4. The PSF was constant with a depth at this location.

Equations (4)

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MTR ( ψ , R ) = exp [ - D ( ψ ) R ] ,
m = θ d σ σ d θ ,
θ ( deg ) = arcsin ( 0.947 # ) .
θ w ( deg ) = arcsin ( 0.947 # / n w ) ,

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