Abstract

A ground-based differential absorption lidar system has been implemented to make long-term, precise measurements of stratospheric ozone concentration profiles from ~20 to 50 km altitude. This lidar is located at an elevation of 2300 m in the San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California, and has been in operation since Jan. 1988. A high power (100-W) excimer laser system and a 90-cm diam telescope are used to achieve the desired performance levels. This paper describes the implementation of the system and its operation including the procedures for data analysis. Examples of ozone profiles measured, and intercomparisons with measurements made by other instruments, are presented which show that the lidar, in its present configuration, is capable of producing high quality ozone measurements from 20 km up to at least 45 km.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Reinsel, C. G. Tiao, J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.
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  23. T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newman, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum.
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  28. V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” SoV. J. Quantum. Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Raman Shifting of Nd:YAG Fourth Harmonic in H2, HD, and D2 for a Tropospheric Ozone Lidar System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., in press (1990).
  31. Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, H. Shimzu, “Improvement on Lidar Data Processing for Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5299–5306 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. B. Russell, M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. M. Russell, “ATMOS: Measurements of Odd Nitrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere by the ATMOS Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  34. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  36. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).
  37. I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, ECC Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Sonde, and SAGE II Satellite Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (2)

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

K. P. Bowman, “Global Trends in Total Ozone,” Science 239, 48–50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Heath, “Non-Seasonal Changes in Total Column Ozone From Satellite Observations, 1970–86,” Nature (London) 332, 219–227 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, “ATMOS: Measurements of Odd Nitrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere by the ATMOS Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (2)

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Mégie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoerberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (4)

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, P. K. Bhartia, “On the Correspondence Between Standard, Short Umkehr, and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet Vertical Profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3845–3849 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” SoV. J. Quantum. Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. Reinsel, C. G. Tiao, J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (2)

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature (London) 299, 137–139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

J. DeLuisi, “Umkehr Vertical Ozone Profile Errors Caused by the Presence of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1766–1770 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).

1978 (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Alpert, J. C.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoerberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” SoV. J. Quantum. Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, P. K. Bhartia, “On the Correspondence Between Standard, Short Umkehr, and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet Vertical Profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3845–3849 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, V. M.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” SoV. J. Quantum. Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, K. P.

K. P. Bowman, “Global Trends in Total Ozone,” Science 239, 48–50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buffa, R.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Burris, J.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

Burris, J. F.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newman, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum.

Butler, J.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

Butler, J. J.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newman, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum.

Chu, W. P.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cunnold, D. M.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J.

G. Reinsel, C. G. Tiao, J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. DeLuisi, “Umkehr Vertical Ozone Profile Errors Caused by the Presence of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1766–1770 (1979).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J. J.

J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, P. K. Bhartia, “On the Correspondence Between Standard, Short Umkehr, and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet Vertical Profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3845–3849 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Falsini, P.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Farman, J. C.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newman, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

Frederick, J. E.

G. Reinsel, C. G. Tiao, J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B. G.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Mégie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S. M.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Godin, “Etude Expérimentale par Télédétection et Modélisation de la Distribution Verticale d’Ozone dans la Haute Stratosphère,” Thesis, U. Paris VI, (1987).

Haner, D. A.

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Raman Shifting of Nd:YAG Fourth Harmonic in H2, HD, and D2 for a Tropospheric Ozone Lidar System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., in press (1990).

Hayashida-Amano, S.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Heath, D. F.

D. F. Heath, “Non-Seasonal Changes in Total Column Ozone From Satellite Observations, 1970–86,” Nature (London) 332, 219–227 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hirono, M.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iikura, Y.

Kiryukhin, Yu. B.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” SoV. J. Quantum. Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kohno, J.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, A. J.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoerberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lindqvist, L. O.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

Maeda, M.

O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, M. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer–Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347–349 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mateer, C. L.

J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, P. K. Bhartia, “On the Correspondence Between Standard, Short Umkehr, and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet Vertical Profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3845–3849 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Reinsel, C. G. Tiao, J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, I.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

McCormick, M. P.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1990).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

I. S. McDermid, “Ground-Based Lidar and Atmospheric Studies,” Surveys in Geophysics 9, 107–122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Raman Shifting of Nd:YAG Fourth Harmonic in H2, HD, and D2 for a Tropospheric Ozone Lidar System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., in press (1990).

I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, ECC Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Sonde, and SAGE II Satellite Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

McGee, T. J.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newman, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum.

McPeters, R. D.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoerberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984); R. M. Measures, Ed., Laser Remote Chemical Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1988), and references therein.

Mégie, G.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Mégie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature (London) 299, 137–139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Mégie, J. Pelon, “Active Optical Sounding of Ozone and Minor Constituents in the Middle Atmosphere: A Review of Ground-Based Lidar Measurements,” Handbook for MAP, R. A. Vincent, Ed., SCOTSEP13, 69–86 (1984).

Miller, A. J.

G. Reinsel, C. G. Tiao, J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Minato, A.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Miyazoe, Y.

Nagasawa, C.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nakane, H.

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Newman, P.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newman, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum.

Newman, P. A.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoerberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Mégie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature (London) 299, 137–139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Mégie, J. Pelon, “Active Optical Sounding of Ozone and Minor Constituents in the Middle Atmosphere: A Review of Ground-Based Lidar Measurements,” Handbook for MAP, R. A. Vincent, Ed., SCOTSEP13, 69–86 (1984).

Pini, R.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reinsel, G.

G. Reinsel, C. G. Tiao, J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, K. W.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

J. M. Russell, “ATMOS: Measurements of Odd Nitrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere by the ATMOS Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salimbeni, R.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, H. Shimzu, “Improvement on Lidar Data Processing for Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5299–5306 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Schoerberl, M. R.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoerberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shanklin, J. D.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shimzu, H.

Stepanov, Yu. Yu.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” SoV. J. Quantum. Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stolarski, R. S.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoerberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, H. Shimzu, “Improvement on Lidar Data Processing for Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5299–5306 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

Tiao, C. G.

G. Reinsel, C. G. Tiao, J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tokunaga, M.

Uchino, O.

O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, M. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer–Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347–349 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vannini, M.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Veiga, R. E.

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vinokhodov, A. Yu.

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” SoV. J. Quantum. Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, T. D.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

Walther, H.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. H.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1990).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newman, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

Yusuf Haider, A. F. M.

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113–118 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 821–823 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-15, 1094–1107 (1979).

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Mégie, “Upper Stratospheric (30–50 km) Lidar Observations of the Ozone Vertical Distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, P. K. Bhartia, “On the Correspondence Between Standard, Short Umkehr, and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet Vertical Profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3845–3849 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Reinsel, C. G. Tiao, J. DeLuisi, C. L. Mateer, A. J. Miller, J. E. Frederick, “Analysis of Upper Stratospheric Umkehr Ozone Profile Data for Trends and the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4833–4840 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. DeLuisi, “Umkehr Vertical Ozone Profile Errors Caused by the Presence of Stratospheric Aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1766–1770 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, “ATMOS: Measurements of Odd Nitrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere by the ATMOS Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447–8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large Losses in Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (3)

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoerberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 Satellite Measurements of the Springtime Antarctic Ozone Decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Heath, “Non-Seasonal Changes in Total Column Ozone From Satellite Observations, 1970–86,” Nature (London) 332, 219–227 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground-Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature (London) 299, 137–139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Falsini, R. Pini, R. Salimbeni, M. Vannini, A. F. M. Yusuf Haider, R. Buffa, “Simple and Efficient Raman Conversion of a XeCl Laser with a Variable Numerical Aperture Coupling Geometry,” Opt. Commun. 53, 421–424 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, “Stratospheric Ozone Measurements Using a Ground-Based, High Power Lidar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1062, 225–232 (1989).

Science (1)

K. P. Bowman, “Global Trends in Total Ozone,” Science 239, 48–50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SoV. J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. Yu. Vinokhodov, Yu. B. Kiryukhin, Yu. Yu. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation from an Electric-Discharge Pulse-Periodic XeCl Laser in Compressed H2,” SoV. J. Quantum. Electron. 15, 727–729 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Surveys in Geophysics (1)

I. S. McDermid, “Ground-Based Lidar and Atmospheric Studies,” Surveys in Geophysics 9, 107–122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Raman Shifting of Nd:YAG Fourth Harmonic in H2, HD, and D2 for a Tropospheric Ozone Lidar System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., in press (1990).

P. B. Russell, M. P. McCormick, “SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. McGee, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, P. Newman, D. Whiteman, J. F. Burris, “STROZ LITE: NASA Goddard’s Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984); R. M. Measures, Ed., Laser Remote Chemical Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1988), and references therein.

“U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” NOAA-S/T 76-1562 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976).

K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnet, B. Edwards, Ed., Atmospheric Structure and its Variation in the Region 20 to 120 km: Draft of a New Reference Middle Atmosphere, Handbook for MAP, SCOSTEP, Volume 16, (1985).

S. M. Godin, “Etude Expérimentale par Télédétection et Modélisation de la Distribution Verticale d’Ozone dans la Haute Stratosphère,” Thesis, U. Paris VI, (1987).

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, T. J. McGee, “Measurement Intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Systems,” Submitted to Applied Optics, July (1989).

I. S. McDermid et al., “Comparison of Ozone Profiles from Ground-Based Lidar, ECC Balloon Sonde, ROCOZ-A Rocket Sonde, and SAGE II Satellite Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, “Comparison of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles and their Seasonal Variations as Measured by Lidar and SAGE II During 1988,” J. Geophys. Res., in press (1990).
[CrossRef]

Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel—1988, WMO Report No. 18 (1989).

“Model Predictions of Ozone Changes,” WMO Report No. 16, Atmospheric Ozone 1985, Vol. III (1985), pp. 721–788; and references therein.

NASA-Upper Atmosphere Research Program, “Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change,” Report of the Workshop, Boulder, Colorado, March 5–7, (1986).

G. Mégie, J. Pelon, “Active Optical Sounding of Ozone and Minor Constituents in the Middle Atmosphere: A Review of Ground-Based Lidar Measurements,” Handbook for MAP, R. A. Vincent, Ed., SCOTSEP13, 69–86 (1984).

R. T. Watson and Ozone Trends Panel, M. J. Prather and Ad Hoc Theory Panel, and M. J. Kurylo and NASA Panel for Data Evaluation, “Present State of Kowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1988: An Assessment Report,” NASA Reference Publication 1208 (1988).

Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, S. Hayashida-Amano, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Multiple-Wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Measuring Ozone Profiles in the Stratosphere and Troposphere,” Submitted to Appl. Opt.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the excimer laser transmitter system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the laser and telescope fields of view overlap and the alignment control system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the receiver system including the wavelength separation optics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the data acquisition electronics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Flow chart of the data acquisition and transfer sequence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Expanded raw data background profile showing a comparison of the results of different fitting methods.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated ozone profiles expanded above 30 km showing the effect of the different background fitting routines on the calculated ozone profile. Below ~40 km the profiles are not sensitive to the background calculation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lidar and SAGE II profiles measured on the same day. The tangent point of the SAGE II measurement was ~250 km east of the lidar location.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Percentage difference between the lidar and SAGE II ozone profiles shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plot of the range resolution, which is fixed and the same for all profile calculations.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical ozone profiles measured with the high intensity (solid lines) and low intensity (dotted lines) receiver channels. The lines represent the limits of the statistical error bars.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of individual lidar measurements, crosses, and individual SAGE II measurements, circles, made within 1000 km of the lidar, circles, for 35-km altitude.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Ozone Profiles measured on 31 Oct. 1988, by the instruments indicated in the legend. A numerical comparison of these profiles is given in Table III.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Specifications of the Laser Transmitter System

Tables Icon

Table II Efficiencies for the Optical Receiver System

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of the Individual Profile Measurements to the Average of all the Measurements made on 31 Oct. 1988

Tables Icon

Table IV Performance Assessment for the Lidar

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( λ , R ) = E ξ ( R ) ξ ( λ ) ( A / R 2 ) { β R ( R ) + β A ( R ) } Δ R × exp [ - 2 R 0 R { α R ( R ) + α A ( R ) + α O 3 ( R ) + α ι ( R ) } d R ] ,
N ( R ) = 1 2 σ { d d R ln [ S ( λ 0 , R ) - B ( λ 0 , R ) ] - d d R ln [ S ( λ w , R ) - B ( λ w , R ) ] - d d R ln [ β ( λ 0 , R ) - β ( λ w , R ) ] - 2 [ α ( λ 0 , R ) - α ( λ w , R ) ] } ,
B ( λ , R ) = a ( λ ) exp [ - b ( λ ) R ] + c ( λ ) ,

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