Abstract

We describe the design, construction and testing of a miniature, solid state laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) for measurement of the velocities of gases, liquids and solid surfaces, especially using photon correlation I techniques. Detailed comparative tests with standard LDV equipment are presented.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, “Principles and Practise of Laser Doppler Anemometry,” (Acedemic, London, 1976).
  2. R. G. W. Brown, E. R. Pike, “Laser Anemometry,” Optical Transducers and Techniques in Engineering Measurement, A. Luxmore, Ed., (Applied Science, London, 1983), Chap. 8.
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Smart, C. J. Moore, “Aero-Engine Applications of Laser Anemometry,” AIAA Journal 14, 363–370 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Cole, M. D. Swords, “Laser Doppler Anemometry in an Engine,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1539–1545 (1979); and: T. D. Fansler, “Time Multiplexed Photon-Correlation Velocimetry for Unsteady Flows,” in Optical Measurements in Fluid Mechanics 1985, P. H. Richards, Ed., (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Norris, “The Use of Laser Velocimetry in the Full Scale Ships’ Environment,” in Ref. 8.
  6. H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).
  7. H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York, 1977).
  8. E. O. Schulz-DuBois, Ed., Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
  9. R. G. W. Brown, R. Grant, “Photon Statistical Properties of Visible Laser Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 928–931 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. G. W. Brown, “Dynamic Light Scattering Using Monomode Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4846–4851 (1987). Also R. G. W. Brown, British Patent Application No.8705844.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. G. W. Brown, A. Jackson, “Monomode Fibre Components for Dynamic Light Scattering,” J. Phys. E. 20, 1503–1507 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. W. Brown, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements, 1. Passive Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4122–4126 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements, 2. Active Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2383–2389 (1987). Also, R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, British Patent Application No.8628110.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. G. W. Brown, “Miniature Components for Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Third Int. Symp. on Laser Anemometry, ASME, Vol FED-55, 1987.
  15. R. G. W. Brown, “Miniature Instrumentation for Laser Light Scattering Experiments,” in Proceedings of NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, September1988.
  16. R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D. 21, S20–S22 (1988); also Proceedings Fourth Int. Symp. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, 1988.
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. W. Forder, C. N. Pannell, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, R. G. W. Brown, “Designs of Fibre Optic Probes for Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Symp. on Laser Anemometry: Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, Eds., Strathclyde, Sept.1987, Springer Verlag/BHRA, 1987.
  18. D. Dopheide, G. Taux, G. Reim, M. Faber, “Laser Doppler Anemometry using Laser Diodes and Solid-Sate Photodetectors,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics III, R. J. Adrian et al. Eds. Ladoan, Lisbon, 1988; and “The Application of Phase Coupled Diode Arrays for LDA and for a New Technique: The Laser Array Velocimeter,” Procedings Fourth Int. Conf. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July, 1988, Paper 2.4.
  19. S. Damp, “Battery Driven LDA-System with Semiconductor Laser Diode,” in Proceedings Fourth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July, 1988, Paper 5.4.
  20. R. G. W. Brown, M. E. Gill, “A Comparison of Photon Correlation Laser Doppler Anemometry Data Processing Techniques,” Proceedings The Max Born Centenary Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, Paper 15, (1982).
  21. L. Lading, “Spectrum Analysis of LDA Signals,” in Proceedings The Use of Computers in Laser Velocimetry, ISL, Saint Louis, France, May1987.
  22. R. J. Adrian, J. Evansted, L. M. Fingerson, R. Menon, “Correlation and Spectrum of Doppler Signal Zero Crossings Using a Photon Correlation Computer,” J. Phys. E 21, 743–748 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. R. Sharpe, “An Online Data Reduction System for Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” Physica Scripta 19, 411–416 (1979); and J. B. Abbiss, “The Structure of the Doppler-Difference Signal and the Analysis of its Autocorrelation Function,” Phys. Scr. 19, 388–395 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, “Burst Correlation Laser Doppler Anemometry,” Opt. Lett. 8, 449–451 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. D. Macleod, “LDV Signal Processing with an Ultra Fast DFT Processor,” in Optical Measurements in Fluid Mechanics 1985, P. H. Richards, Ed., (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1985).
  26. M. Alldritt, R. Jones, C. J. Oliver, J. M. Vaughan, “The Processing of Digital Signals by a Surface Acoustic Wave Spectrum Analyser,” J. Phys. E 11, 116–119 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. J. S. Hirst, “An Investigation of Methods for Measuring a Very Small Angle between Two Coherent Laser Beams,” RAE-IRP211, Farnborough, 1973.
  28. Sharp Corporation (Japan), Laser Diode Users Manual (1986).
  29. C. J. Oliver, “Accuracy in Laser Anemometry,” J. Phys. D 13, 1145–1159 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. G. W. Brown, E. R. Pike, “Seeding Levels and Size Distribution in Laser Doppler and Laser Transit Velocimetry,” in Proceedings Fourth Int. Conf. Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, A. E. Smart, Eds., Stanford University, 1980.
  31. P. Buchhave, J. Knuhtsen, “Fibre Optic Laser Anemometer Measurements,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, R. J. Adrian et al., Eds., Ladoan, Lisbon, 1984.
  32. B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan, H. J. Shaw, “All-Fiber Acousto-Optic Frequency Shifter, Opt. Lett. 11, 389–391 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Dandridge, L. Goldberg, “Current Induced Frequency Modulation in Diode Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 302–303 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  34. York VSOP Ltd, Chandlers Ford, Southampton, S053DG, U. K.
  35. L. Danielson, Ed., “Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics,” Phys. Scr.19, 360–490 (1979).
  36. C. Klewe, Ed., “The Third International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics,” Optica Acta27, 1–127 (1980). (complete issue).
    [CrossRef]
  37. E. R. Pike, in Reference 7.
  38. E. Jakeman, “The Effect of Wavefront Curvature on the Coherence Properties of Laser Light Scattered by Target Centres in Uniform Motion,” J. Phys. A 8, L23–L28 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. R. Pike, “Laser Doppler Anemometry,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, E. Robertson, Ed., (Academic Press1976).
  40. J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, P. R. Tapster, “Absolute Measurement of Detector Quantum Efficiency Using Parametric Downconversion,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4616–4169 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. R. G. W. Brown et al., “A Combined Fringe and Two-Spot Backscatter LDV with 10 ns Burst-Correlator Processor,” Phys. Scr. 19, 365–368 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  42. Melles Griot Corporation, Optics Guide 4, (1988).
  43. B. S. Lowans, “Construction and Testing of a Modular Laser Doppler Velocimeter,” M.Sc. Thesis, Queens University, Belfast, 1988.
  44. R. G. W. Brown, “An Exploration of New Optical Techniques for Turbulence Measurement Using Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” Ph.D Thesis, University of Surrey, 1983.
  45. R. G. W. Brown, P. N. Inman, “Direct Comparisons of Laser Doppler, Transit, Hot-Wire and Pulsed-Wire Anemometer Measurements in an Axi-Symmetric Jet,” Proc. ICIASF’83 Record, IEEE CH1954-7/83, 158 (1983).
  46. R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, J. Mansbridge, C. I. Moir, “Miniature, Solid State Laser Transit Velocimeter,” to be submitted to Applied Optics, 1990.
  47. R. G. W. Brown, “Combined Transform Doppler Anemometry,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics II, R. J. Adrian et al., Eds., Ladoan, Lisbon, Portugal, 1986.
  48. Under License from DTE Ltd, c/o RSRE, Malvern, Wores, U.K.

1988 (2)

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D. 21, S20–S22 (1988); also Proceedings Fourth Int. Symp. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, 1988.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Adrian, J. Evansted, L. M. Fingerson, R. Menon, “Correlation and Spectrum of Doppler Signal Zero Crossings Using a Photon Correlation Computer,” J. Phys. E 21, 743–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (6)

1986 (2)

1983 (2)

R. G. W. Brown, P. N. Inman, “Direct Comparisons of Laser Doppler, Transit, Hot-Wire and Pulsed-Wire Anemometer Measurements in an Axi-Symmetric Jet,” Proc. ICIASF’83 Record, IEEE CH1954-7/83, 158 (1983).

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, “Burst Correlation Laser Doppler Anemometry,” Opt. Lett. 8, 449–451 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

A. Dandridge, L. Goldberg, “Current Induced Frequency Modulation in Diode Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 302–303 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, M. E. Gill, “A Comparison of Photon Correlation Laser Doppler Anemometry Data Processing Techniques,” Proceedings The Max Born Centenary Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, Paper 15, (1982).

1980 (1)

C. J. Oliver, “Accuracy in Laser Anemometry,” J. Phys. D 13, 1145–1159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

J. B. Cole, M. D. Swords, “Laser Doppler Anemometry in an Engine,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1539–1545 (1979); and: T. D. Fansler, “Time Multiplexed Photon-Correlation Velocimetry for Unsteady Flows,” in Optical Measurements in Fluid Mechanics 1985, P. H. Richards, Ed., (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Sharpe, “An Online Data Reduction System for Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” Physica Scripta 19, 411–416 (1979); and J. B. Abbiss, “The Structure of the Doppler-Difference Signal and the Analysis of its Autocorrelation Function,” Phys. Scr. 19, 388–395 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown et al., “A Combined Fringe and Two-Spot Backscatter LDV with 10 ns Burst-Correlator Processor,” Phys. Scr. 19, 365–368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. Alldritt, R. Jones, C. J. Oliver, J. M. Vaughan, “The Processing of Digital Signals by a Surface Acoustic Wave Spectrum Analyser,” J. Phys. E 11, 116–119 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. E. Smart, C. J. Moore, “Aero-Engine Applications of Laser Anemometry,” AIAA Journal 14, 363–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. Jakeman, “The Effect of Wavefront Curvature on the Coherence Properties of Laser Light Scattered by Target Centres in Uniform Motion,” J. Phys. A 8, L23–L28 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

W. J. S. Hirst, “An Investigation of Methods for Measuring a Very Small Angle between Two Coherent Laser Beams,” RAE-IRP211, Farnborough, 1973.

Adrian, R. J.

R. J. Adrian, J. Evansted, L. M. Fingerson, R. Menon, “Correlation and Spectrum of Doppler Signal Zero Crossings Using a Photon Correlation Computer,” J. Phys. E 21, 743–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Alldritt, M.

M. Alldritt, R. Jones, C. J. Oliver, J. M. Vaughan, “The Processing of Digital Signals by a Surface Acoustic Wave Spectrum Analyser,” J. Phys. E 11, 116–119 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J. N.

Brown, R. G. W.

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D. 21, S20–S22 (1988); also Proceedings Fourth Int. Symp. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, 1988.
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, R. Grant, “Photon Statistical Properties of Visible Laser Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 928–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, A. Jackson, “Monomode Fibre Components for Dynamic Light Scattering,” J. Phys. E. 20, 1503–1507 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements, 2. Active Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2383–2389 (1987). Also, R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, British Patent Application No.8628110.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, “Miniature Components for Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Third Int. Symp. on Laser Anemometry, ASME, Vol FED-55, 1987.

R. G. W. Brown, “Dynamic Light Scattering Using Monomode Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4846–4851 (1987). Also R. G. W. Brown, British Patent Application No.8705844.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements, 1. Passive Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4122–4126 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, “Burst Correlation Laser Doppler Anemometry,” Opt. Lett. 8, 449–451 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, P. N. Inman, “Direct Comparisons of Laser Doppler, Transit, Hot-Wire and Pulsed-Wire Anemometer Measurements in an Axi-Symmetric Jet,” Proc. ICIASF’83 Record, IEEE CH1954-7/83, 158 (1983).

R. G. W. Brown, M. E. Gill, “A Comparison of Photon Correlation Laser Doppler Anemometry Data Processing Techniques,” Proceedings The Max Born Centenary Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, Paper 15, (1982).

R. G. W. Brown et al., “A Combined Fringe and Two-Spot Backscatter LDV with 10 ns Burst-Correlator Processor,” Phys. Scr. 19, 365–368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, “An Exploration of New Optical Techniques for Turbulence Measurement Using Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” Ph.D Thesis, University of Surrey, 1983.

R. G. W. Brown, E. R. Pike, “Seeding Levels and Size Distribution in Laser Doppler and Laser Transit Velocimetry,” in Proceedings Fourth Int. Conf. Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, A. E. Smart, Eds., Stanford University, 1980.

R. G. W. Brown, “Combined Transform Doppler Anemometry,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics II, R. J. Adrian et al., Eds., Ladoan, Lisbon, Portugal, 1986.

P. W. Forder, C. N. Pannell, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, R. G. W. Brown, “Designs of Fibre Optic Probes for Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Symp. on Laser Anemometry: Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, Eds., Strathclyde, Sept.1987, Springer Verlag/BHRA, 1987.

R. G. W. Brown, “Miniature Instrumentation for Laser Light Scattering Experiments,” in Proceedings of NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, September1988.

R. G. W. Brown, E. R. Pike, “Laser Anemometry,” Optical Transducers and Techniques in Engineering Measurement, A. Luxmore, Ed., (Applied Science, London, 1983), Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, J. Mansbridge, C. I. Moir, “Miniature, Solid State Laser Transit Velocimeter,” to be submitted to Applied Optics, 1990.

Buchhave, P.

P. Buchhave, J. Knuhtsen, “Fibre Optic Laser Anemometer Measurements,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, R. J. Adrian et al., Eds., Ladoan, Lisbon, 1984.

Burnett, J. G.

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D. 21, S20–S22 (1988); also Proceedings Fourth Int. Symp. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, 1988.
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, J. Mansbridge, C. I. Moir, “Miniature, Solid State Laser Transit Velocimeter,” to be submitted to Applied Optics, 1990.

Cole, J. B.

Damp, S.

S. Damp, “Battery Driven LDA-System with Semiconductor Laser Diode,” in Proceedings Fourth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July, 1988, Paper 5.4.

Dandridge, A.

A. Dandridge, L. Goldberg, “Current Induced Frequency Modulation in Diode Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 302–303 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dopheide, D.

D. Dopheide, G. Taux, G. Reim, M. Faber, “Laser Doppler Anemometry using Laser Diodes and Solid-Sate Photodetectors,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics III, R. J. Adrian et al. Eds. Ladoan, Lisbon, 1988; and “The Application of Phase Coupled Diode Arrays for LDA and for a New Technique: The Laser Array Velocimeter,” Procedings Fourth Int. Conf. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July, 1988, Paper 2.4.

Durst, F.

F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, “Principles and Practise of Laser Doppler Anemometry,” (Acedemic, London, 1976).

Engan, H. E.

Evansted, J.

R. J. Adrian, J. Evansted, L. M. Fingerson, R. Menon, “Correlation and Spectrum of Doppler Signal Zero Crossings Using a Photon Correlation Computer,” J. Phys. E 21, 743–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Faber, M.

D. Dopheide, G. Taux, G. Reim, M. Faber, “Laser Doppler Anemometry using Laser Diodes and Solid-Sate Photodetectors,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics III, R. J. Adrian et al. Eds. Ladoan, Lisbon, 1988; and “The Application of Phase Coupled Diode Arrays for LDA and for a New Technique: The Laser Array Velocimeter,” Procedings Fourth Int. Conf. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July, 1988, Paper 2.4.

Fingerson, L. M.

R. J. Adrian, J. Evansted, L. M. Fingerson, R. Menon, “Correlation and Spectrum of Doppler Signal Zero Crossings Using a Photon Correlation Computer,” J. Phys. E 21, 743–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Forder, P. W.

P. W. Forder, C. N. Pannell, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, R. G. W. Brown, “Designs of Fibre Optic Probes for Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Symp. on Laser Anemometry: Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, Eds., Strathclyde, Sept.1987, Springer Verlag/BHRA, 1987.

Gill, M. E.

R. G. W. Brown, M. E. Gill, “A Comparison of Photon Correlation Laser Doppler Anemometry Data Processing Techniques,” Proceedings The Max Born Centenary Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, Paper 15, (1982).

Goldberg, L.

A. Dandridge, L. Goldberg, “Current Induced Frequency Modulation in Diode Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 302–303 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R.

R. G. W. Brown, R. Grant, “Photon Statistical Properties of Visible Laser Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 928–931 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hackney, N.

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D. 21, S20–S22 (1988); also Proceedings Fourth Int. Symp. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, 1988.
[CrossRef]

Hirst, W. J. S.

W. J. S. Hirst, “An Investigation of Methods for Measuring a Very Small Angle between Two Coherent Laser Beams,” RAE-IRP211, Farnborough, 1973.

Inman, P. N.

R. G. W. Brown, P. N. Inman, “Direct Comparisons of Laser Doppler, Transit, Hot-Wire and Pulsed-Wire Anemometer Measurements in an Axi-Symmetric Jet,” Proc. ICIASF’83 Record, IEEE CH1954-7/83, 158 (1983).

Jackson, A.

R. G. W. Brown, A. Jackson, “Monomode Fibre Components for Dynamic Light Scattering,” J. Phys. E. 20, 1503–1507 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

P. W. Forder, C. N. Pannell, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, R. G. W. Brown, “Designs of Fibre Optic Probes for Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Symp. on Laser Anemometry: Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, Eds., Strathclyde, Sept.1987, Springer Verlag/BHRA, 1987.

Jakeman, E.

E. Jakeman, “The Effect of Wavefront Curvature on the Coherence Properties of Laser Light Scattered by Target Centres in Uniform Motion,” J. Phys. A 8, L23–L28 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

P. W. Forder, C. N. Pannell, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, R. G. W. Brown, “Designs of Fibre Optic Probes for Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Symp. on Laser Anemometry: Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, Eds., Strathclyde, Sept.1987, Springer Verlag/BHRA, 1987.

Jones, R.

Kim, B. Y.

Knuhtsen, J.

P. Buchhave, J. Knuhtsen, “Fibre Optic Laser Anemometer Measurements,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, R. J. Adrian et al., Eds., Ladoan, Lisbon, 1984.

Lading, L.

L. Lading, “Spectrum Analysis of LDA Signals,” in Proceedings The Use of Computers in Laser Velocimetry, ISL, Saint Louis, France, May1987.

Lowans, B. S.

B. S. Lowans, “Construction and Testing of a Modular Laser Doppler Velocimeter,” M.Sc. Thesis, Queens University, Belfast, 1988.

Macleod, M. D.

M. D. Macleod, “LDV Signal Processing with an Ultra Fast DFT Processor,” in Optical Measurements in Fluid Mechanics 1985, P. H. Richards, Ed., (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1985).

Mansbridge, J.

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, J. Mansbridge, C. I. Moir, “Miniature, Solid State Laser Transit Velocimeter,” to be submitted to Applied Optics, 1990.

Melling, A.

F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, “Principles and Practise of Laser Doppler Anemometry,” (Acedemic, London, 1976).

Menon, R.

R. J. Adrian, J. Evansted, L. M. Fingerson, R. Menon, “Correlation and Spectrum of Doppler Signal Zero Crossings Using a Photon Correlation Computer,” J. Phys. E 21, 743–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moir, C. I.

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, J. Mansbridge, C. I. Moir, “Miniature, Solid State Laser Transit Velocimeter,” to be submitted to Applied Optics, 1990.

Moore, C. J.

A. E. Smart, C. J. Moore, “Aero-Engine Applications of Laser Anemometry,” AIAA Journal 14, 363–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Norris, C.

C. Norris, “The Use of Laser Velocimetry in the Full Scale Ships’ Environment,” in Ref. 8.

Oliver, C. J.

C. J. Oliver, “Accuracy in Laser Anemometry,” J. Phys. D 13, 1145–1159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Alldritt, R. Jones, C. J. Oliver, J. M. Vaughan, “The Processing of Digital Signals by a Surface Acoustic Wave Spectrum Analyser,” J. Phys. E 11, 116–119 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pannell, C. N.

P. W. Forder, C. N. Pannell, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, R. G. W. Brown, “Designs of Fibre Optic Probes for Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Symp. on Laser Anemometry: Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, Eds., Strathclyde, Sept.1987, Springer Verlag/BHRA, 1987.

Pike, E. R.

R. G. W. Brown, E. R. Pike, “Laser Anemometry,” Optical Transducers and Techniques in Engineering Measurement, A. Luxmore, Ed., (Applied Science, London, 1983), Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

E. R. Pike, “Laser Doppler Anemometry,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, E. Robertson, Ed., (Academic Press1976).

E. R. Pike, in Reference 7.

R. G. W. Brown, E. R. Pike, “Seeding Levels and Size Distribution in Laser Doppler and Laser Transit Velocimetry,” in Proceedings Fourth Int. Conf. Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, A. E. Smart, Eds., Stanford University, 1980.

Rarity, J. G.

Reim, G.

D. Dopheide, G. Taux, G. Reim, M. Faber, “Laser Doppler Anemometry using Laser Diodes and Solid-Sate Photodetectors,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics III, R. J. Adrian et al. Eds. Ladoan, Lisbon, 1988; and “The Application of Phase Coupled Diode Arrays for LDA and for a New Technique: The Laser Array Velocimeter,” Procedings Fourth Int. Conf. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July, 1988, Paper 2.4.

Ridley, K. D.

Sharpe, P. R.

P. R. Sharpe, “An Online Data Reduction System for Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” Physica Scripta 19, 411–416 (1979); and J. B. Abbiss, “The Structure of the Doppler-Difference Signal and the Analysis of its Autocorrelation Function,” Phys. Scr. 19, 388–395 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

Smart, A. E.

A. E. Smart, C. J. Moore, “Aero-Engine Applications of Laser Anemometry,” AIAA Journal 14, 363–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Swords, M. D.

Tapster, P. R.

Taux, G.

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Vaughan, J. M.

M. Alldritt, R. Jones, C. J. Oliver, J. M. Vaughan, “The Processing of Digital Signals by a Surface Acoustic Wave Spectrum Analyser,” J. Phys. E 11, 116–119 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, “Principles and Practise of Laser Doppler Anemometry,” (Acedemic, London, 1976).

AIAA Journal (1)

A. E. Smart, C. J. Moore, “Aero-Engine Applications of Laser Anemometry,” AIAA Journal 14, 363–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Dandridge, L. Goldberg, “Current Induced Frequency Modulation in Diode Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 302–303 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

M. Alldritt, R. Jones, C. J. Oliver, J. M. Vaughan, “The Processing of Digital Signals by a Surface Acoustic Wave Spectrum Analyser,” J. Phys. E 11, 116–119 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A (1)

E. Jakeman, “The Effect of Wavefront Curvature on the Coherence Properties of Laser Light Scattered by Target Centres in Uniform Motion,” J. Phys. A 8, L23–L28 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

C. J. Oliver, “Accuracy in Laser Anemometry,” J. Phys. D 13, 1145–1159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D. (1)

R. G. W. Brown, J. G. Burnett, N. Hackney, “A Miniature, Battery Operated Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Phys. D. 21, S20–S22 (1988); also Proceedings Fourth Int. Symp. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, 1988.
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

R. J. Adrian, J. Evansted, L. M. Fingerson, R. Menon, “Correlation and Spectrum of Doppler Signal Zero Crossings Using a Photon Correlation Computer,” J. Phys. E 21, 743–748 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E. (1)

R. G. W. Brown, A. Jackson, “Monomode Fibre Components for Dynamic Light Scattering,” J. Phys. E. 20, 1503–1507 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Scr. (1)

R. G. W. Brown et al., “A Combined Fringe and Two-Spot Backscatter LDV with 10 ns Burst-Correlator Processor,” Phys. Scr. 19, 365–368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Physica Scripta (1)

P. R. Sharpe, “An Online Data Reduction System for Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” Physica Scripta 19, 411–416 (1979); and J. B. Abbiss, “The Structure of the Doppler-Difference Signal and the Analysis of its Autocorrelation Function,” Phys. Scr. 19, 388–395 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. ICIASF’83 Record, IEEE CH1954-7/83 (1)

R. G. W. Brown, P. N. Inman, “Direct Comparisons of Laser Doppler, Transit, Hot-Wire and Pulsed-Wire Anemometer Measurements in an Axi-Symmetric Jet,” Proc. ICIASF’83 Record, IEEE CH1954-7/83, 158 (1983).

Proceedings The Max Born Centenary Conference (1)

R. G. W. Brown, M. E. Gill, “A Comparison of Photon Correlation Laser Doppler Anemometry Data Processing Techniques,” Proceedings The Max Born Centenary Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, Paper 15, (1982).

Proceedings Third Int. Symp. on Laser Anemometry (1)

R. G. W. Brown, “Miniature Components for Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Third Int. Symp. on Laser Anemometry, ASME, Vol FED-55, 1987.

RAE-IRP211, Farnborough (1)

W. J. S. Hirst, “An Investigation of Methods for Measuring a Very Small Angle between Two Coherent Laser Beams,” RAE-IRP211, Farnborough, 1973.

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Other (26)

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[CrossRef]

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B. S. Lowans, “Construction and Testing of a Modular Laser Doppler Velocimeter,” M.Sc. Thesis, Queens University, Belfast, 1988.

R. G. W. Brown, “An Exploration of New Optical Techniques for Turbulence Measurement Using Photon Correlation Laser Anemometry,” Ph.D Thesis, University of Surrey, 1983.

R. G. W. Brown, “Miniature Instrumentation for Laser Light Scattering Experiments,” in Proceedings of NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, September1988.

F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, “Principles and Practise of Laser Doppler Anemometry,” (Acedemic, London, 1976).

R. G. W. Brown, E. R. Pike, “Laser Anemometry,” Optical Transducers and Techniques in Engineering Measurement, A. Luxmore, Ed., (Applied Science, London, 1983), Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

C. Norris, “The Use of Laser Velocimetry in the Full Scale Ships’ Environment,” in Ref. 8.

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York, 1977).

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L. Lading, “Spectrum Analysis of LDA Signals,” in Proceedings The Use of Computers in Laser Velocimetry, ISL, Saint Louis, France, May1987.

M. D. Macleod, “LDV Signal Processing with an Ultra Fast DFT Processor,” in Optical Measurements in Fluid Mechanics 1985, P. H. Richards, Ed., (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1985).

P. W. Forder, C. N. Pannell, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, R. G. W. Brown, “Designs of Fibre Optic Probes for Laser Anemometry,” in Proceedings Symp. on Laser Anemometry: Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, Eds., Strathclyde, Sept.1987, Springer Verlag/BHRA, 1987.

D. Dopheide, G. Taux, G. Reim, M. Faber, “Laser Doppler Anemometry using Laser Diodes and Solid-Sate Photodetectors,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics III, R. J. Adrian et al. Eds. Ladoan, Lisbon, 1988; and “The Application of Phase Coupled Diode Arrays for LDA and for a New Technique: The Laser Array Velocimeter,” Procedings Fourth Int. Conf. on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July, 1988, Paper 2.4.

S. Damp, “Battery Driven LDA-System with Semiconductor Laser Diode,” in Proceedings Fourth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July, 1988, Paper 5.4.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of an LDV system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the complete miniature LDV system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Annotated plan view of the miniature LDV system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fringe pattern in the measurement volume of the miniature LDV system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical layout of the miniature LDV system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The inside of the APD module. To the left two optical fibers enter the thermally insulated detector chamber. This chamber contains one or two APD detectors and mini-Peltier heat pumps to cool the chamber to 2°C. To the right the electronics chamber (60 × 30 × 10 mm) contains a printed circuit card on which are mounted the active quenching circuitry and temperature control circuit. Power is supplied by the cables to the right hand side, and signal pulses (one for each photodetection) are directed to the correlator through one of the cable wires.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of the radially measured velocities of a spinning metal disk. (Radial position measured from the circumference).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of two correlograms from the (coherent detection) miniature LDV system measuring the spinning metal disk. Upper trace, 20-ms integration time at 10 ms−1, lower trace 50 ms integration at 0.47 ms−1. In both cases, similar data quality was obtained from the standard LDV also.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fourier transforms of traces in Fig. 8 showing peak to background clarity, and a single velocity peak.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plots of mean velocity, ū, and turbulence intensity, σ/ū, from horizontal radial traverses of the 30-mm diam axi-symmetric air jet. Reynolds number ≃2150, axial exit velocity ~1 ms−1.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Plots of mean velocity u and turbulence intensity T (σ/ū) from horizontal radial traverses of another air jet,43 showing greater variation in velocity and turbulence than Fig. 10.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Plots of a low turbulence correlogram (a) and its transform (b) from the air jet measurements, integrated for 15 s by the miniature LDV.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Plots of closely corresponding velocity distributions from the miniature (a) and standard (b) LDVs, both showing evidence of negative skewness, as expected.

Equations (2)

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g ( 2 ) ( τ ) = 0 p ( u ) exp ( - u 2 τ 2 r 2 ) [ 1 + m 2 2 cos ( 2 π u τ s ) ] d u
Δ u u ( m 2 N s N F ) - 1

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