Abstract

In most real mirages, each ray is confined to a single plane giving collinear images. A contiguity principle suffices for the triple image form. Inversion of any image can be associated with contact of the corresponding ray with a caustic.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. White, Thesis, London (1976).
  2. C. V. Raman, S. Pancharatnam, “The Optics of Mirages,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 49, 251–261 (1959).
  3. G. Monge, “A memoir relative to the optical phenomenon, known by the name of mirage,” in Memoirs Relative to Egypt… (Phillips, London, 1800).
  4. J. Huddart, “Observations on Horizontal Refractions Which Affect the Appearance of Terrestrial Objects and the Dip, or Depression of the Horizon of the Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 87, 29–39 (1797).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Vince, “Observations Upon an Unusual Horizontal Refraction of the Air,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Pt. I13–23 (1799).
    [CrossRef]

1959 (1)

C. V. Raman, S. Pancharatnam, “The Optics of Mirages,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 49, 251–261 (1959).

1799 (1)

S. Vince, “Observations Upon an Unusual Horizontal Refraction of the Air,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Pt. I13–23 (1799).
[CrossRef]

1797 (1)

J. Huddart, “Observations on Horizontal Refractions Which Affect the Appearance of Terrestrial Objects and the Dip, or Depression of the Horizon of the Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 87, 29–39 (1797).
[CrossRef]

Huddart, J.

J. Huddart, “Observations on Horizontal Refractions Which Affect the Appearance of Terrestrial Objects and the Dip, or Depression of the Horizon of the Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 87, 29–39 (1797).
[CrossRef]

Monge, G.

G. Monge, “A memoir relative to the optical phenomenon, known by the name of mirage,” in Memoirs Relative to Egypt… (Phillips, London, 1800).

Pancharatnam, S.

C. V. Raman, S. Pancharatnam, “The Optics of Mirages,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 49, 251–261 (1959).

Raman, C. V.

C. V. Raman, S. Pancharatnam, “The Optics of Mirages,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 49, 251–261 (1959).

Vince, S.

S. Vince, “Observations Upon an Unusual Horizontal Refraction of the Air,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Pt. I13–23 (1799).
[CrossRef]

White, R.

R. White, Thesis, London (1976).

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. (1)

J. Huddart, “Observations on Horizontal Refractions Which Affect the Appearance of Terrestrial Objects and the Dip, or Depression of the Horizon of the Sea,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 87, 29–39 (1797).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Pt. I (1)

S. Vince, “Observations Upon an Unusual Horizontal Refraction of the Air,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Pt. I13–23 (1799).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A (1)

C. V. Raman, S. Pancharatnam, “The Optics of Mirages,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 49, 251–261 (1959).

Other (2)

G. Monge, “A memoir relative to the optical phenomenon, known by the name of mirage,” in Memoirs Relative to Egypt… (Phillips, London, 1800).

R. White, Thesis, London (1976).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Definitions of position angle AOB and observation angle AOC for a given point P, observer O, and fixed direction OA, where the curved ray is PCO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sequence (running top left, then top right, etc.) of a portion of the graph of the observation angle (vertical axis) vs the position angle (horizontal axis) on a circle centered at the observer as the radius of that circle increases. This is the most general possible sequence if no ray changes its direction by more than 90°. (Such large deviations are virtually impossible in the atmosphere.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Small but finite object (left) and its merged image (right). The line of reflection is shown by the dashed line.

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