Abstract

This research examines the potential for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) to provide reliable gas temperature measurements in the presence of liquid droplets. The droplets cause dielectric breakdown by focusing the CARS laser beams. This breakdown produces a plasma that can disrupt or obscure the CARS signal. Specifically, we examine the influence of laser induced breakdown on the CARS signal, and we determine the importance of droplet position relative to the CARS focal volume and droplet concentration on the reliability of CARS temperature measurements in droplet-laden flows. In addition, we propose a reliable data reduction procedure to minimize the disruptive influence of laser induced breakdown on CARS temperatures.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. M. Roquemore et al., “Development of Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Research,” Invited paper of the Central States Section/The Combustion Institute Spring Meeting, NASA Lewis Research Center, May 5–6, 1986.
  2. V. G. McDonell, C. P. Wood, G. S. Samuelsen, “A Comparison of Spatially-Resolved Drop Size and Drop Velocity Measurements in an Isothermal Chamber and a Swirl-Stabilized Combustor,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1986), p. 685.
  3. C. P. Mao, G. Wang, N. A. Chigier, “An Experimental Study of Air-Assist Atomizer Spray Flames,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1987), p. 665.
  4. A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Review of Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA-600/7-77-006 (1977).
  5. A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Thermometry in a Sooting Flame,” Combust. and Flame 36, 87–98 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, “Simultaneous CARS and LDA Measurements in a Turbulent Flame,” AIAA Paper AIAA-84-1458, 20th Joint Propulsion Conference, Cincinatti, Ohio, June 11–13 (1984).
  7. E. J. Beiting, “Coherent Interference in Multiplex CARS Measurements: Nonresonant Susceptibility Enhancement due to Laser Breakdown,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3010–3017 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. P. Lucht, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Measurements in Coal-Particle-Laden Flames,” Sandia National Laboratories Technical Report SAND88-8721 (1988).
  9. M. Noda, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, (1987) “CARS-Studies of Coal and Coal-Water-Mixture Combustion,” Paper 7C-109, Joint Meeting of the Western States and Japanese Sections/The Combustion Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 22–25, 1987.
  10. G. L. Switzer, T. A. Jackson, C. A. Obringer, J. S. Stutrud, “An Integrated Spectroscopic-Interferometric Instrument for Spray Combustion Diagnostics,” Western States Section/The Combustion Institute Fall Meeting, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, October 23–24, 1989.
  11. D. J. Taylor, “CARS Concentration and Temperature Measurements in Coal Gasifiers,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-UR-83-1840 (1983).
  12. G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, (1982) “A Hardened CARS System for Temperature and Species Concentration Measurements in Practical Combustion Environments,” Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry—Vol. 5, J. F. Schooley, Ed. (Publ.City, 1982) p 583.
  13. R. K. Chang, J. H. Eickmans, W.-F. Hsieh, C. F. Wood, J.-Z. Zhang, J.-B. Zheng, “Laser Induced Breakdown in Large Transparent Water Droplets,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2377–2385 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.-Z. Zhang, J. K. Lam, C. F. Wood, B.-T. Chu, R. K. Chang, “Explosive Vaporization of a Large Transparent Droplet Irradiated by a High Intensity Laser,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4731–4737 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W.-F. Hsieh, J.-B. Zheng, C. F. Wood, B. T. Chu, R. K. Chang, “Propagation Velocity of Laser-Induced Plasma Inside and Outside a Transparent Droplet,” Opt. Lett. 12, 576–578 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Chýlek, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, R. G. Pinnick, J. D. Pendleton, J. P. Cruncleton, “Effect of Spherical Particles on Laser Induced Breakdown of Gases,” Appl. Opt. 26, 760–762 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J.-B. Zheng, W.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Chen, R. K. Chang, “Temporally and Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of Laser Induced Plasma from a Droplet,” Opt. Lett. 13, 559–561 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, L. A. Rahn, “Measurements of the Nonresonant Third-Order Susceptibilities of Gases using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1241–1246 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. J. Beiting, “Multiplex CARS Temperature Measurements in a Coal-Fired MHD Environment,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1684–1692 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

1987 (4)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1979 (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Thermometry in a Sooting Flame,” Combust. and Flame 36, 87–98 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Beiting, E. J.

Bonczyk, P. A.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Review of Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA-600/7-77-006 (1977).

Chang, R. K.

Chen, S.-C.

Chigier, N. A.

C. P. Mao, G. Wang, N. A. Chigier, “An Experimental Study of Air-Assist Atomizer Spray Flames,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1987), p. 665.

Chu, B. T.

Chu, B.-T.

Chýlek, P.

Cruncleton, J. P.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Thermometry in a Sooting Flame,” Combust. and Flame 36, 87–98 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Review of Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA-600/7-77-006 (1977).

Eickmans, J. H.

Farrow, R. L.

Gierulski, A.

M. Noda, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, (1987) “CARS-Studies of Coal and Coal-Water-Mixture Combustion,” Paper 7C-109, Joint Meeting of the Western States and Japanese Sections/The Combustion Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 22–25, 1987.

Goss, L. P.

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, (1982) “A Hardened CARS System for Temperature and Species Concentration Measurements in Practical Combustion Environments,” Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry—Vol. 5, J. F. Schooley, Ed. (Publ.City, 1982) p 583.

L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, “Simultaneous CARS and LDA Measurements in a Turbulent Flame,” AIAA Paper AIAA-84-1458, 20th Joint Propulsion Conference, Cincinatti, Ohio, June 11–13 (1984).

Hall, R. J.

A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Thermometry in a Sooting Flame,” Combust. and Flame 36, 87–98 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W.-F.

Jackson, T. A.

G. L. Switzer, T. A. Jackson, C. A. Obringer, J. S. Stutrud, “An Integrated Spectroscopic-Interferometric Instrument for Spray Combustion Diagnostics,” Western States Section/The Combustion Institute Fall Meeting, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, October 23–24, 1989.

Jarzembski, M. A.

Lam, J. K.

Lucht, R. P.

R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, L. A. Rahn, “Measurements of the Nonresonant Third-Order Susceptibilities of Gases using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1241–1246 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Measurements in Coal-Particle-Laden Flames,” Sandia National Laboratories Technical Report SAND88-8721 (1988).

Mao, C. P.

C. P. Mao, G. Wang, N. A. Chigier, “An Experimental Study of Air-Assist Atomizer Spray Flames,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1987), p. 665.

Marowsky, G.

M. Noda, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, (1987) “CARS-Studies of Coal and Coal-Water-Mixture Combustion,” Paper 7C-109, Joint Meeting of the Western States and Japanese Sections/The Combustion Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 22–25, 1987.

McDonell, V. G.

V. G. McDonell, C. P. Wood, G. S. Samuelsen, “A Comparison of Spatially-Resolved Drop Size and Drop Velocity Measurements in an Isothermal Chamber and a Swirl-Stabilized Combustor,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1986), p. 685.

Noda, M.

M. Noda, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, (1987) “CARS-Studies of Coal and Coal-Water-Mixture Combustion,” Paper 7C-109, Joint Meeting of the Western States and Japanese Sections/The Combustion Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 22–25, 1987.

Obringer, C. A.

G. L. Switzer, T. A. Jackson, C. A. Obringer, J. S. Stutrud, “An Integrated Spectroscopic-Interferometric Instrument for Spray Combustion Diagnostics,” Western States Section/The Combustion Institute Fall Meeting, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, October 23–24, 1989.

Pendleton, J. D.

Pinnick, R. G.

Rahn, L. A.

Roquemore, W. M.

W. M. Roquemore et al., “Development of Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Research,” Invited paper of the Central States Section/The Combustion Institute Spring Meeting, NASA Lewis Research Center, May 5–6, 1986.

Samuelsen, G. S.

V. G. McDonell, C. P. Wood, G. S. Samuelsen, “A Comparison of Spatially-Resolved Drop Size and Drop Velocity Measurements in an Isothermal Chamber and a Swirl-Stabilized Combustor,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1986), p. 685.

Srivastava, V.

Stutrud, J. S.

G. L. Switzer, T. A. Jackson, C. A. Obringer, J. S. Stutrud, “An Integrated Spectroscopic-Interferometric Instrument for Spray Combustion Diagnostics,” Western States Section/The Combustion Institute Fall Meeting, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, October 23–24, 1989.

Switzer, G. L.

G. L. Switzer, T. A. Jackson, C. A. Obringer, J. S. Stutrud, “An Integrated Spectroscopic-Interferometric Instrument for Spray Combustion Diagnostics,” Western States Section/The Combustion Institute Fall Meeting, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, October 23–24, 1989.

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, (1982) “A Hardened CARS System for Temperature and Species Concentration Measurements in Practical Combustion Environments,” Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry—Vol. 5, J. F. Schooley, Ed. (Publ.City, 1982) p 583.

Taylor, D. J.

D. J. Taylor, “CARS Concentration and Temperature Measurements in Coal Gasifiers,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-UR-83-1840 (1983).

Trump, D. D.

L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, “Simultaneous CARS and LDA Measurements in a Turbulent Flame,” AIAA Paper AIAA-84-1458, 20th Joint Propulsion Conference, Cincinatti, Ohio, June 11–13 (1984).

Verdieck, J. F.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Review of Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA-600/7-77-006 (1977).

Wang, G.

C. P. Mao, G. Wang, N. A. Chigier, “An Experimental Study of Air-Assist Atomizer Spray Flames,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1987), p. 665.

Wood, C. F.

Wood, C. P.

V. G. McDonell, C. P. Wood, G. S. Samuelsen, “A Comparison of Spatially-Resolved Drop Size and Drop Velocity Measurements in an Isothermal Chamber and a Swirl-Stabilized Combustor,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1986), p. 685.

Zhang, J.-Z.

Zheng, J.-B.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Combust. and Flame (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Thermometry in a Sooting Flame,” Combust. and Flame 36, 87–98 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (10)

L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, “Simultaneous CARS and LDA Measurements in a Turbulent Flame,” AIAA Paper AIAA-84-1458, 20th Joint Propulsion Conference, Cincinatti, Ohio, June 11–13 (1984).

R. P. Lucht, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Measurements in Coal-Particle-Laden Flames,” Sandia National Laboratories Technical Report SAND88-8721 (1988).

M. Noda, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, (1987) “CARS-Studies of Coal and Coal-Water-Mixture Combustion,” Paper 7C-109, Joint Meeting of the Western States and Japanese Sections/The Combustion Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 22–25, 1987.

G. L. Switzer, T. A. Jackson, C. A. Obringer, J. S. Stutrud, “An Integrated Spectroscopic-Interferometric Instrument for Spray Combustion Diagnostics,” Western States Section/The Combustion Institute Fall Meeting, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, October 23–24, 1989.

D. J. Taylor, “CARS Concentration and Temperature Measurements in Coal Gasifiers,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-UR-83-1840 (1983).

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, (1982) “A Hardened CARS System for Temperature and Species Concentration Measurements in Practical Combustion Environments,” Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry—Vol. 5, J. F. Schooley, Ed. (Publ.City, 1982) p 583.

W. M. Roquemore et al., “Development of Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Research,” Invited paper of the Central States Section/The Combustion Institute Spring Meeting, NASA Lewis Research Center, May 5–6, 1986.

V. G. McDonell, C. P. Wood, G. S. Samuelsen, “A Comparison of Spatially-Resolved Drop Size and Drop Velocity Measurements in an Isothermal Chamber and a Swirl-Stabilized Combustor,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1986), p. 685.

C. P. Mao, G. Wang, N. A. Chigier, “An Experimental Study of Air-Assist Atomizer Spray Flames,” in Proceedings Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA1987), p. 665.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Review of Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA-600/7-77-006 (1977).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus: TL-transmitting lens, IL-imaging lens, RL-receiving lens, F-neutral density filter, DP-dispersing prism, BD-beam dump, P-periscope, SC-sample collection optics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between a CARS signal without droplet breakdown (a) and a CARS signal with droplet breakdown (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature fit to the experimental spectra of Fig. 2: (a) fit to CARS signal without droplet breakdown, (b) fit to CARS signal with droplet breakdown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average CARS temperature as a function of SNR for single drops in heated air, single drops in room temperature air, and a spray in room temperature air.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average baseline intensity (a) and average breakdown intensity (b) as a function of SNR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between a normalized non-resonant reference spectrum and a normalized breakdown noise spectrum. The spectra are normalized to unit area.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between a CARS spectrum influenced by droplet breakdown and a breakdown noise spectrum with no CARS generation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison between the CARS temperature fit to an uncorrected spectrum (a) and the CARS temperature fit to a corrected spectrum (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average temperature as a function of SNR for spectra uncorrected and corrected for droplet breakdown noise: (a) measurements in a room temperature spray, (b) measurements with single drops in heated air.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temperature distributions for CARS measurements in a room temperature spray. The bottom histogram in each column is the temperature distribution without droplets present. Distributions of uncorrected and corrected temperatures for three SNRs are shown.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temperature distributions for CARS measurements with single drops in heated air. The bottom histogram in each column is the temperature distribution without droplets present. Distributions of uncorrected and corrected temperatures for three SNRs are shown.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fraction of CARS measurements resulting in valid temperature measurements as a function of droplet position relative to the CARS focus. Valid measurements are within ±1 standard deviation of drop-free temperature.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Fraction of measurements in a room temperature spray that result in valid temperatures as a function of droplet number density. Valid temperatures are within ±1 standard deviation of drop-free temperature measurements. The number density is measured with a phase-doppler particle analyzer.

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