Abstract

Current interest in all-optical waveguide devices has created a need for suitable nonlinear materials and fabrication techniques. To meet this need, we have made optical waveguides using ion exchange in two glasses, which were designed both to have large optical nonlinearities and to be compatible with the ion-exchange processing. We find that the choice of alkali metal ion in the glass has a major effect on the exchange process and on the optical quality of the ensuing guides. Guides made in one of these glasses have been used for demonstrations of spatial soliton propagation, which can be used as the basis of an all-optical switch.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear Optical Glasses for Ultrafast Optical Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089–2094 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, “Two-Photon Absorption as a Limitation to All-Optical Switching Demonstrated in a Lead Glass Fiber,” in Postdeadline Papers, Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper 4.
  3. I. Thomazeau, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Electronic Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of Silicate Glasses,” Opt. Lett. 10, 223–225 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. M. Vogel, “Glasses as Nonlinear Photonic Materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 719–724 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, “Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Glasses for Photonic Switching,” MRS Symp. Proc. Opt. Mater. 152, 83–87 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: A Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985); and R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 984–1002 (1988) both provide a useful overview of this field.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical Waveguide Refractive Index Profiles Determined from Measurement of Mode Indices: a Simple Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151–155 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “A Quick Method for the Determination of Refractive Index Profiles for Diffused Optical Waveguides,” J. Phys. D 10, 645–654 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguide Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584–586 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Ross, H. J. Lilienhof, H. Holscher, H. F. Schlaak, A. Brandenburg, “Improved Substrate Glass for Planar Waveguides by Cs-Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper ThBB.
  11. R. H. Doremus, “Exchange and Diffusion of Ions in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. 68, 2212–2218 (1964); F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics: a Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418–425 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. E. Day, “Mixed Alkali Glasses—Their Properties and Uses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 21, 343–372 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Neuman, O. Parriaux, L. M. Walpita, “Double-Alkali Effect: Influence on Index Profile of Ion-Exchanged Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 15, 704–706 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Aitchison et al., “Observation of Spatial Optical Solitons in a Nonlinear Glass Waveguide,” to be submitted to Opt. Lett.

1989

E. M. Vogel, “Glasses as Nonlinear Photonic Materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 719–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, “Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Glasses for Photonic Switching,” MRS Symp. Proc. Opt. Mater. 152, 83–87 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear Optical Glasses for Ultrafast Optical Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

I. Thomazeau, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Electronic Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of Silicate Glasses,” Opt. Lett. 10, 223–225 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: A Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985); and R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 984–1002 (1988) both provide a useful overview of this field.
[CrossRef]

1979

V. Neuman, O. Parriaux, L. M. Walpita, “Double-Alkali Effect: Influence on Index Profile of Ion-Exchanged Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 15, 704–706 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “A Quick Method for the Determination of Refractive Index Profiles for Diffused Optical Waveguides,” J. Phys. D 10, 645–654 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1972

T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguide Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584–586 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1964

R. H. Doremus, “Exchange and Diffusion of Ions in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. 68, 2212–2218 (1964); F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics: a Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418–425 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, “Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Glasses for Photonic Switching,” MRS Symp. Proc. Opt. Mater. 152, 83–87 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison et al., “Observation of Spatial Optical Solitons in a Nonlinear Glass Waveguide,” to be submitted to Opt. Lett.

Andrejco, M. J.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, “Two-Photon Absorption as a Limitation to All-Optical Switching Demonstrated in a Lead Glass Fiber,” in Postdeadline Papers, Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper 4.

Brandenburg, A.

L. Ross, H. J. Lilienhof, H. Holscher, H. F. Schlaak, A. Brandenburg, “Improved Substrate Glass for Planar Waveguides by Cs-Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper ThBB.

Chartier, G. H.

P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “A Quick Method for the Determination of Refractive Index Profiles for Diffused Optical Waveguides,” J. Phys. D 10, 645–654 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Day, D. E.

D. E. Day, “Mixed Alkali Glasses—Their Properties and Uses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 21, 343–372 (1976).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, “Two-Photon Absorption as a Limitation to All-Optical Switching Demonstrated in a Lead Glass Fiber,” in Postdeadline Papers, Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper 4.

Doremus, R. H.

R. H. Doremus, “Exchange and Diffusion of Ions in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. 68, 2212–2218 (1964); F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics: a Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418–425 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Etchepare, J.

Findakly, T.

T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: A Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985); and R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 984–1002 (1988) both provide a useful overview of this field.
[CrossRef]

Friberg, S. R.

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear Optical Glasses for Ultrafast Optical Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

Heidrich, P. F.

Holscher, H.

L. Ross, H. J. Lilienhof, H. Holscher, H. F. Schlaak, A. Brandenburg, “Improved Substrate Glass for Planar Waveguides by Cs-Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper ThBB.

Izawa, T.

T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguide Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584–586 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, “Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Glasses for Photonic Switching,” MRS Symp. Proc. Opt. Mater. 152, 83–87 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jaussaud, P. C.

P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “A Quick Method for the Determination of Refractive Index Profiles for Diffused Optical Waveguides,” J. Phys. D 10, 645–654 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, “Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Glasses for Photonic Switching,” MRS Symp. Proc. Opt. Mater. 152, 83–87 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lilienhof, H. J.

L. Ross, H. J. Lilienhof, H. Holscher, H. F. Schlaak, A. Brandenburg, “Improved Substrate Glass for Planar Waveguides by Cs-Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper ThBB.

Migus, A.

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, “Two-Photon Absorption as a Limitation to All-Optical Switching Demonstrated in a Lead Glass Fiber,” in Postdeadline Papers, Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper 4.

Nakagome, H.

T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguide Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584–586 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Neuman, V.

V. Neuman, O. Parriaux, L. M. Walpita, “Double-Alkali Effect: Influence on Index Profile of Ion-Exchanged Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 15, 704–706 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

V. Neuman, O. Parriaux, L. M. Walpita, “Double-Alkali Effect: Influence on Index Profile of Ion-Exchanged Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 15, 704–706 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ross, L.

L. Ross, H. J. Lilienhof, H. Holscher, H. F. Schlaak, A. Brandenburg, “Improved Substrate Glass for Planar Waveguides by Cs-Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper ThBB.

Saifi, M. A.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, “Two-Photon Absorption as a Limitation to All-Optical Switching Demonstrated in a Lead Glass Fiber,” in Postdeadline Papers, Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper 4.

Schlaak, H. F.

L. Ross, H. J. Lilienhof, H. Holscher, H. F. Schlaak, A. Brandenburg, “Improved Substrate Glass for Planar Waveguides by Cs-Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper ThBB.

Smith, P. W.

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear Optical Glasses for Ultrafast Optical Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, “Two-Photon Absorption as a Limitation to All-Optical Switching Demonstrated in a Lead Glass Fiber,” in Postdeadline Papers, Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper 4.

Thomazeau, I.

Vogel, E. M.

E. M. Vogel, “Glasses as Nonlinear Photonic Materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 719–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, “Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Glasses for Photonic Switching,” MRS Symp. Proc. Opt. Mater. 152, 83–87 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Walpita, L. M.

V. Neuman, O. Parriaux, L. M. Walpita, “Double-Alkali Effect: Influence on Index Profile of Ion-Exchanged Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 15, 704–706 (1979).
[CrossRef]

White, J. M.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguide Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584–586 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

V. Neuman, O. Parriaux, L. M. Walpita, “Double-Alkali Effect: Influence on Index Profile of Ion-Exchanged Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 15, 704–706 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear Optical Glasses for Ultrafast Optical Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

E. M. Vogel, “Glasses as Nonlinear Photonic Materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 719–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

D. E. Day, “Mixed Alkali Glasses—Their Properties and Uses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 21, 343–372 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

R. H. Doremus, “Exchange and Diffusion of Ions in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. 68, 2212–2218 (1964); F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics: a Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418–425 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “A Quick Method for the Determination of Refractive Index Profiles for Diffused Optical Waveguides,” J. Phys. D 10, 645–654 (1977).
[CrossRef]

MRS Symp. Proc. Opt. Mater.

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, “Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Glasses for Photonic Switching,” MRS Symp. Proc. Opt. Mater. 152, 83–87 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: A Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985); and R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 984–1002 (1988) both provide a useful overview of this field.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. S. Aitchison et al., “Observation of Spatial Optical Solitons in a Nonlinear Glass Waveguide,” to be submitted to Opt. Lett.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, “Two-Photon Absorption as a Limitation to All-Optical Switching Demonstrated in a Lead Glass Fiber,” in Postdeadline Papers, Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper 4.

L. Ross, H. J. Lilienhof, H. Holscher, H. F. Schlaak, A. Brandenburg, “Improved Substrate Glass for Planar Waveguides by Cs-Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper ThBB.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Index profiles for Na-glass E0095 exchanged in melts containing AgNO3 at T = 255°C: (a) Sample exchanged in AgNO3 for 1 h. The dashed line shows a steplike index profile for the sample; the solid line shows a smoothed profile after 1-h anneal at T = 350°C; (b) index profiles for E0095 samples exchanged 24.5 h in KNO3:NaNO3 eutectic melt with 5-mole % (solid line) and 0.5-mole % (dotted line) AgNO3 added. The substrate index ns = 1.93 is indicated in both plots.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Index profiles for K-glass E0184 exchanged in melts containing TlNO3. Data for 9- and 16-mole % TlNO3 are for 100-h exchanges, and the profile for 100-mole % TlNO3 is an extrapolation to 100 h from data for a 19-h exchange: TlNO3 melt (sold line); 16-mole % TlNO3 in KNO3 (dotted line); and 9-mole % TlNO3 in KNO3 (dashed line).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Properties of Glasses E0095 and E0184

Tables Icon

Table II Radius and Mass of Indiffusing Monovalent Ions

Tables Icon

Table III Tl+–K+ Exchange in E0184 Glass

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C i t = x [ D eff ( C i ) C i X ] ,
D eff ( C i , j ) = D i D j / ( D i C i + D j C j ) ,

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