Abstract

A method is described for determining the refractive indices of magnetooptical thin films. The films are deposited in a multilayer stack so that they can be protected from the environment. A thick, transparent substrate is used so that both air incident and substrate incident optical measurements can be performed. The normal incidence reflectance, transmittance, and magnetooptical rotation and ellipticity are used to compute the complex refractive index of the thin film. This technique is applied to a TbFe and a TbFeCo alloy. The addition of Co is found to significantly enhance the magnetooptic indices at long wavelengths.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. A. N. Connell, “Measurement of the Magnetooptical Constants of Reactive Metals,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3155–3159(1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965).
  3. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988) pp. 113–114.
  4. N. Imamura, Y. Mimura, T. Kobayashi, “Magnetic Writing on Co-evaporated Tb–Fe Alloy Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 179–180 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Tsujimoto, M. Shouji, Y. Sakurai, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Properties of Amorphous TbFeCo Magnetic Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 1757–1759 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. L. Grove, W. A. Challener, “Optical Properties of TbFeCo Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, Supp. 28-3, 51–53 (1989).
  7. K. Sato, “Measurement of Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Using Piezo-Birefringent Modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 2403–2409 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Prinz, J. J. Krebs, D. W. Forester, W. G. Maisch, “Magneto-Optical Characterization of Fe and Co-based Alloy Films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 15–18, 779–781 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. K. Haynes, N. J. Jubb, “Experimental Determination of the Magneto-Optic Constants of Rare-earth Transition-Metal Alloys,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 2784–2786 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ruane, M. Mansuripur, R. Rosenvold, “Measurement of Reflectivities for Magnetooptical Media,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1946–1951 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1969) p. E-255.
  12. J. L. Erskine, “Magneto-optical Studies of Ferromagnetic Metals,” AIP Conf. Proc. 24, 190–194 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Hansen, C. Clausen, G. Much, M. Rosenkranz, K. Witter, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Alloys Containing Gd, Tb, Fe, Co,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 756–767 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. A. N. Connell, private communication.

1989 (2)

S. L. Grove, W. A. Challener, “Optical Properties of TbFeCo Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, Supp. 28-3, 51–53 (1989).

P. Hansen, C. Clausen, G. Much, M. Rosenkranz, K. Witter, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Alloys Containing Gd, Tb, Fe, Co,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 756–767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. K. Haynes, N. J. Jubb, “Experimental Determination of the Magneto-Optic Constants of Rare-earth Transition-Metal Alloys,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 2784–2786 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1983 (2)

H. Tsujimoto, M. Shouji, Y. Sakurai, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Properties of Amorphous TbFeCo Magnetic Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 1757–1759 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. A. N. Connell, “Measurement of the Magnetooptical Constants of Reactive Metals,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3155–3159(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

K. Sato, “Measurement of Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Using Piezo-Birefringent Modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 2403–2409 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

G. A. Prinz, J. J. Krebs, D. W. Forester, W. G. Maisch, “Magneto-Optical Characterization of Fe and Co-based Alloy Films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 15–18, 779–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

N. Imamura, Y. Mimura, T. Kobayashi, “Magnetic Writing on Co-evaporated Tb–Fe Alloy Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 179–180 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. L. Erskine, “Magneto-optical Studies of Ferromagnetic Metals,” AIP Conf. Proc. 24, 190–194 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Challener, W. A.

S. L. Grove, W. A. Challener, “Optical Properties of TbFeCo Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, Supp. 28-3, 51–53 (1989).

Clausen, C.

P. Hansen, C. Clausen, G. Much, M. Rosenkranz, K. Witter, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Alloys Containing Gd, Tb, Fe, Co,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 756–767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Connell, G. A. N.

Erskine, J. L.

J. L. Erskine, “Magneto-optical Studies of Ferromagnetic Metals,” AIP Conf. Proc. 24, 190–194 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Forester, D. W.

G. A. Prinz, J. J. Krebs, D. W. Forester, W. G. Maisch, “Magneto-Optical Characterization of Fe and Co-based Alloy Films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 15–18, 779–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Grove, S. L.

S. L. Grove, W. A. Challener, “Optical Properties of TbFeCo Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, Supp. 28-3, 51–53 (1989).

Hansen, P.

P. Hansen, C. Clausen, G. Much, M. Rosenkranz, K. Witter, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Alloys Containing Gd, Tb, Fe, Co,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 756–767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, M. K.

M. K. Haynes, N. J. Jubb, “Experimental Determination of the Magneto-Optic Constants of Rare-earth Transition-Metal Alloys,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 2784–2786 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965).

Imamura, N.

N. Imamura, Y. Mimura, T. Kobayashi, “Magnetic Writing on Co-evaporated Tb–Fe Alloy Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 179–180 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jubb, N. J.

M. K. Haynes, N. J. Jubb, “Experimental Determination of the Magneto-Optic Constants of Rare-earth Transition-Metal Alloys,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 2784–2786 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

N. Imamura, Y. Mimura, T. Kobayashi, “Magnetic Writing on Co-evaporated Tb–Fe Alloy Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 179–180 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, J. J.

G. A. Prinz, J. J. Krebs, D. W. Forester, W. G. Maisch, “Magneto-Optical Characterization of Fe and Co-based Alloy Films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 15–18, 779–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Maisch, W. G.

G. A. Prinz, J. J. Krebs, D. W. Forester, W. G. Maisch, “Magneto-Optical Characterization of Fe and Co-based Alloy Films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 15–18, 779–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Mimura, Y.

N. Imamura, Y. Mimura, T. Kobayashi, “Magnetic Writing on Co-evaporated Tb–Fe Alloy Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 179–180 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Much, G.

P. Hansen, C. Clausen, G. Much, M. Rosenkranz, K. Witter, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Alloys Containing Gd, Tb, Fe, Co,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 756–767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prinz, G. A.

G. A. Prinz, J. J. Krebs, D. W. Forester, W. G. Maisch, “Magneto-Optical Characterization of Fe and Co-based Alloy Films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 15–18, 779–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkranz, M.

P. Hansen, C. Clausen, G. Much, M. Rosenkranz, K. Witter, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Alloys Containing Gd, Tb, Fe, Co,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 756–767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rosenvold, R.

Ruane, M.

Sakurai, Y.

H. Tsujimoto, M. Shouji, Y. Sakurai, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Properties of Amorphous TbFeCo Magnetic Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 1757–1759 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

K. Sato, “Measurement of Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Using Piezo-Birefringent Modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 2403–2409 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shouji, M.

H. Tsujimoto, M. Shouji, Y. Sakurai, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Properties of Amorphous TbFeCo Magnetic Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 1757–1759 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tsujimoto, H.

H. Tsujimoto, M. Shouji, Y. Sakurai, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Properties of Amorphous TbFeCo Magnetic Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 1757–1759 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Witter, K.

P. Hansen, C. Clausen, G. Much, M. Rosenkranz, K. Witter, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Alloys Containing Gd, Tb, Fe, Co,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 756–767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988) pp. 113–114.

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

J. L. Erskine, “Magneto-optical Studies of Ferromagnetic Metals,” AIP Conf. Proc. 24, 190–194 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Magn. (2)

H. Tsujimoto, M. Shouji, Y. Sakurai, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Properties of Amorphous TbFeCo Magnetic Films,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 1757–1759 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Haynes, N. J. Jubb, “Experimental Determination of the Magneto-Optic Constants of Rare-earth Transition-Metal Alloys,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 2784–2786 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Hansen, C. Clausen, G. Much, M. Rosenkranz, K. Witter, “Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Alloys Containing Gd, Tb, Fe, Co,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 756–767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

G. A. Prinz, J. J. Krebs, D. W. Forester, W. G. Maisch, “Magneto-Optical Characterization of Fe and Co-based Alloy Films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 15–18, 779–781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

N. Imamura, Y. Mimura, T. Kobayashi, “Magnetic Writing on Co-evaporated Tb–Fe Alloy Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 179–180 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Grove, W. A. Challener, “Optical Properties of TbFeCo Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, Supp. 28-3, 51–53 (1989).

K. Sato, “Measurement of Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Using Piezo-Birefringent Modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 2403–2409 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965).

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988) pp. 113–114.

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1969) p. E-255.

G. A. N. Connell, private communication.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of a thin film stack on a thick substrate defining the reflectance and transmittance amplitudes and intensities for the light waves in the sample for (a) air incidence and (b) substrate incidence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of n vs wavelength for TbFe (+) and TbFeCo (○).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of K vs wavelength for TbFe (+) and TbFeCo (○).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of Δn vs wavelength for TbFe (+) and TbFeCo (○).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of ΔK vs wavelength for TbFe (+) and TbFeCo (○).

Equations (33)

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θ = 1 2 { tan - 1 ( Im ( A - ) Re ( A - ) ) - tan - 1 ( Im ( A + ) Re ( A + ) ) } ,
= tan - 1 { A + - A - A + + A - } .
θ eff = n I n θ n n I n ,
eff = n I n n n I n ,
s exp ( i n s k o d s ) ,
R 1 ( AI ) = r 1 2 ,
R n > 1 ( AI ) = t 1 t 2 s 2 n - 2 r 3 n - 1 r 2 n - 2 2 ,
T n > 1 ( AI ) = t 1 t 3 s 2 n - 1 r 2 n - 1 r 3 n - 1 2 .
R tot ( AI ) = n R n = r 1 2 + t 1 t 2 s 2 r 3 2 1 - s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 ,
T tot ( AI ) = n T n = t 1 t 3 s 2 1 - s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 .
R 1 ± ( AI ) = r 1 ±
R n ± > 1 ( AI ) = t 1 ± t 2 ± s 2 n - 2 r 3 n - 1 r 2 ± n - 2 .
θ n > 1 ( AI ) = θ 2 + ( n - 2 ) ϕ ,
n > 1 ( AI ) = 2 + ( n - 2 ) δ ,
θ eff ( AI ) = r 1 2 θ 1 + t 1 t 2 2 [ s 4 r 3 2 θ 2 1 - s 4 r 3 2 r 2 2 + s 8 r 3 4 r 2 2 ϕ ( 1 - s 4 r 3 2 r 2 2 ) 2 ] [ r 1 2 + t 1 t 2 s 2 r 3 2 1 - s 4 r 3 2 r 2 2 ] .
T n ± ( AI ) = t 1 ± t 3 s 2 n - 1 r 2 ± n - 1 r 3 n - 1 .
θ n ( AI ) = θ 1 + ( n - 1 ) α
n ( AI ) = 1 + ( n - 1 ) β .
{ θ eff eff } AI = { θ 1 1 } AI + [ s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 1 - s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 ] { α β } AI .
R 1 ( SI ) = r 4 2 ,
R n > 1 ( SI ) = t 4 t 3 s 2 n - 1 r 2 n - 1 r 3 n - 2 2 ,
T n ( SI ) = t 4 t 2 s 2 n - 1 r 2 n - 1 r 3 n - 1 2 .
R tot ( SI ) = r 4 2 + t 4 t 3 s 2 r 2 2 1 - s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 ,
T tot ( SI ) = t 4 t 2 s 2 1 - s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 .
t 1 ± t 3 = t 2 ± t 4 .
R 1 ( SI ) = r 4
R n > 1 ( SI ) = t 4 t 3 s 2 n - 1 r 2 ± n - 1 r 3 n - 2 .
{ θ eff eff } SI = C { θ 2 2 } SI ,
C [ t 4 t 3 s 2 r 2 2 ( 1 - s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 ) 2 ] [ r 4 2 + t 4 t 3 s 2 r 2 2 1 - s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 ] .
T n ± ( SI ) = t 4 t 2 ± s 2 n - 1 r 2 ± n - 1 r 3 n - 1 .
{ θ eff eff } SI = { θ 1 1 } SI + [ s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 1 - s 4 r 2 2 r 3 2 ] { α β } SI .
N ± = ( n ave ± Δ n ) + i ( K ave ± Δ K ) .
˜ = [ x x - x y 0 x y x x 0 0 0 z z ] , M z .

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