Abstract

Rehalogenating bleaches produce a phase hologram by material transfer from the exposed areas to neighboring unexposed areas. Efficient material transfer requires the bath to contain an excess of bromide, suggesting that a process similar to Ostwald ripening is involved.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).
  2. P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating Bleaches for Photographic Phase Holograms: the Influence of Halide Type and Concentration on Diffraction Efficiency and Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3895–3898 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Joly, “Grain Growth During Rehalogenating Bleaching,” J. Photogr. Sci. 31, 143–147 (1983).
  4. D. J. Cooke, A. A. Ward, “Reflection-Hologram Processing for High Efficiency in Silver-Halide Emulsions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 934–941 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. J. Phillips, R. A. J. van der Werf, “The Creation of Efficient Reflective Lippmann Layers in Ultra-Fine Grain Silver Halide Materials Using Non-Laser Sources,” J. Photogr. Sci. 33, 22–28 (1985).
  6. P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating Bleaches for Photographic Phase Holograms. 2: Spatial Frequency Effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3852–3854 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. J. Philips, “Colour Reflection Holography,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 402, 19–24 (1983).
  8. P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Bleached Reflection Holograms: a Study of Color Shifts Due to Processing,” Appl. Opt. 28, 422–424 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Photographic Phase Holograms: the Influence of Developer Composition on Scattering and Diffraction Efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1230–1234 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. I. P. Levenson, “Complementary Processes,” in The Theory of the Photographic Process, T. H. James, Ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1977), p. 437.
  11. C. R. Berry, “Precipitation and Growth of Silver-Halide Emulsion Grains,” in The Theory of the Photographic Process, T. H. James, Ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1977), p. 88.
  12. H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 32, 66.

1989

1988

1987

1985

N. J. Phillips, R. A. J. van der Werf, “The Creation of Efficient Reflective Lippmann Layers in Ultra-Fine Grain Silver Halide Materials Using Non-Laser Sources,” J. Photogr. Sci. 33, 22–28 (1985).

1984

1983

N. J. Philips, “Colour Reflection Holography,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 402, 19–24 (1983).

L. Joly, “Grain Growth During Rehalogenating Bleaching,” J. Photogr. Sci. 31, 143–147 (1983).

1980

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Berry, C. R.

C. R. Berry, “Precipitation and Growth of Silver-Halide Emulsion Grains,” in The Theory of the Photographic Process, T. H. James, Ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1977), p. 88.

Chidley, C. M.

Cooke, D. J.

Cullen, R.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Hariharan, P.

Joly, L.

L. Joly, “Grain Growth During Rehalogenating Bleaching,” J. Photogr. Sci. 31, 143–147 (1983).

Levenson, G. I. P.

G. I. P. Levenson, “Complementary Processes,” in The Theory of the Photographic Process, T. H. James, Ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1977), p. 437.

Philips, N. J.

N. J. Philips, “Colour Reflection Holography,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 402, 19–24 (1983).

Phillips, N. J.

N. J. Phillips, R. A. J. van der Werf, “The Creation of Efficient Reflective Lippmann Layers in Ultra-Fine Grain Silver Halide Materials Using Non-Laser Sources,” J. Photogr. Sci. 33, 22–28 (1985).

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Porter, D.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 32, 66.

van der Werf, R. A. J.

N. J. Phillips, R. A. J. van der Werf, “The Creation of Efficient Reflective Lippmann Layers in Ultra-Fine Grain Silver Halide Materials Using Non-Laser Sources,” J. Photogr. Sci. 33, 22–28 (1985).

Ward, A. A.

D. J. Cooke, A. A. Ward, “Reflection-Hologram Processing for High Efficiency in Silver-Halide Emulsions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 934–941 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Appl. Opt.

J. Photogr. Sci.

L. Joly, “Grain Growth During Rehalogenating Bleaching,” J. Photogr. Sci. 31, 143–147 (1983).

N. J. Phillips, R. A. J. van der Werf, “The Creation of Efficient Reflective Lippmann Layers in Ultra-Fine Grain Silver Halide Materials Using Non-Laser Sources,” J. Photogr. Sci. 33, 22–28 (1985).

Photogr. Sci. Eng.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

N. J. Philips, “Colour Reflection Holography,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 402, 19–24 (1983).

Other

G. I. P. Levenson, “Complementary Processes,” in The Theory of the Photographic Process, T. H. James, Ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1977), p. 437.

C. R. Berry, “Precipitation and Growth of Silver-Halide Emulsion Grains,” in The Theory of the Photographic Process, T. H. James, Ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1977), p. 88.

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 32, 66.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Peak diffraction efficiency plotted as a function of potassium bromide molarity for reflection phase gratings produced with a rehalogenating bleach containing 30 g/liter (0.075 M) of ferric sulfate. The broken vertical line indicates the point at which the molarities of the two reagents are equal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Peak diffraction efficiency plotted as a function of ferric sulfate molarity for reflection phase gratings produced with a rehalogenating bleach containing 8 g/liter (0.067 M) of potassium bromide. The broken vertical line indicates the point at which the molarities of the two reagents are equal.

Tables (2)

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Equations (1)

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ln ( S r / S ) = 2 M γ / R T ρ r ,

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