Abstract

The performance of twin injection seeded Nd:YAG lasers is compared with the performance of an argon-ion laser for recording dual-reference-beam holograms in Agfa 8E56 emulsion. Optical heterodyning is used to measure interference and the results are expressed in terms of heterodyning signal level and intensity signal to noise. The Nd:YAG laser system is to be used for optical inspections of structures for cracks, defects, gas leaks, and structural changes.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, Ed., Vol. 17 (North-Holland, New York, 1980), pp. 1–84.
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Dandliker, D. Eliasson, D. Ineichen, F. M. Mottier, “Quantitative Determination of Bending and Torsion Through Holographic Interferometry,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, R. Robertson, Ed. (Cambridge U. P., London, 1976), pp. 99–117.
  3. R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, “Heterodyne and Quasi-Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 24, 824–831 (1985).
  4. D. Swain, R. Tansey, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” in Automated Reduction of Data from Images and Holograms (NASA CP-2477, Jan., 1985), pp. 249–260.
  5. J. W. Wagner, “Triple-Exposure Dual-Reference Holographic Recording for Heterodyne Analysis of Transient Phenomena,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2937–2940 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. J. Decker, J. Stricker, “A Comparison of Electronic Heterodyne Moire Deflectometry and Electronic Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry for Flow Measurements,” in Transactions, 1985 SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA), paper 851896.
  7. A. J. Decker, “Beam-Modulation Methods in Quantitative and Flow Visualization Holographic Interferometry,” in Advanced Instrumentation for Aero Engine Components (AGARD-CP-399, May, 1986), pp. 34-1–34-16.
  8. F. C. Way, “The Pulsed Nd:YAG Holographic Laser–Present Status and Applications,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference and International Laser Exposition (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc, Chicago, 1975), pp. 760–766.
  9. A. J. Decker, “Holographic Cinematography of Time-Varying Reflecting and Time-Varying Phase Objects Using a Nd:YAG Laser,” Opt. Lett. 7, 122–123 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. J. Decker, “Evaluation of Diffuse-Illumination Holographic Cinematography in a Flutter Cascade,” NASA-TP-2593 (July, 1986).
  11. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 311–336.
  12. Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Stable Single-Axial-Mode Operation of an Unstable-Resonator Nd:YAG Oscillator by Injection Locking,” Opt. Lett. 5, 96–98 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. W. Gladden, R. D. Leighty, “Recording Media,” in Handbook of Optical Holography, H. J. Caulfield, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 277–298.

1986 (2)

A. J. Decker, “Beam-Modulation Methods in Quantitative and Flow Visualization Holographic Interferometry,” in Advanced Instrumentation for Aero Engine Components (AGARD-CP-399, May, 1986), pp. 34-1–34-16.

A. J. Decker, “Evaluation of Diffuse-Illumination Holographic Cinematography in a Flutter Cascade,” NASA-TP-2593 (July, 1986).

1985 (2)

J. W. Wagner, “Triple-Exposure Dual-Reference Holographic Recording for Heterodyne Analysis of Transient Phenomena,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2937–2940 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, “Heterodyne and Quasi-Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 24, 824–831 (1985).

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 311–336.

Byer, R. L.

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 311–336.

Dandliker, R.

R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, “Heterodyne and Quasi-Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 24, 824–831 (1985).

R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, Ed., Vol. 17 (North-Holland, New York, 1980), pp. 1–84.
[CrossRef]

R. Dandliker, D. Eliasson, D. Ineichen, F. M. Mottier, “Quantitative Determination of Bending and Torsion Through Holographic Interferometry,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, R. Robertson, Ed. (Cambridge U. P., London, 1976), pp. 99–117.

Decker, A. J.

A. J. Decker, “Evaluation of Diffuse-Illumination Holographic Cinematography in a Flutter Cascade,” NASA-TP-2593 (July, 1986).

A. J. Decker, “Beam-Modulation Methods in Quantitative and Flow Visualization Holographic Interferometry,” in Advanced Instrumentation for Aero Engine Components (AGARD-CP-399, May, 1986), pp. 34-1–34-16.

A. J. Decker, “Holographic Cinematography of Time-Varying Reflecting and Time-Varying Phase Objects Using a Nd:YAG Laser,” Opt. Lett. 7, 122–123 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Decker, J. Stricker, “A Comparison of Electronic Heterodyne Moire Deflectometry and Electronic Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry for Flow Measurements,” in Transactions, 1985 SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA), paper 851896.

Eliasson, D.

R. Dandliker, D. Eliasson, D. Ineichen, F. M. Mottier, “Quantitative Determination of Bending and Torsion Through Holographic Interferometry,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, R. Robertson, Ed. (Cambridge U. P., London, 1976), pp. 99–117.

Giuliani, G.

Gladden, J. W.

J. W. Gladden, R. D. Leighty, “Recording Media,” in Handbook of Optical Holography, H. J. Caulfield, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 277–298.

Ineichen, D.

R. Dandliker, D. Eliasson, D. Ineichen, F. M. Mottier, “Quantitative Determination of Bending and Torsion Through Holographic Interferometry,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, R. Robertson, Ed. (Cambridge U. P., London, 1976), pp. 99–117.

Leighty, R. D.

J. W. Gladden, R. D. Leighty, “Recording Media,” in Handbook of Optical Holography, H. J. Caulfield, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 277–298.

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 311–336.

Mottier, F. M.

R. Dandliker, D. Eliasson, D. Ineichen, F. M. Mottier, “Quantitative Determination of Bending and Torsion Through Holographic Interferometry,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, R. Robertson, Ed. (Cambridge U. P., London, 1976), pp. 99–117.

Park, Y. K.

Stricker, J.

A. J. Decker, J. Stricker, “A Comparison of Electronic Heterodyne Moire Deflectometry and Electronic Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry for Flow Measurements,” in Transactions, 1985 SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA), paper 851896.

Swain, D.

D. Swain, R. Tansey, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” in Automated Reduction of Data from Images and Holograms (NASA CP-2477, Jan., 1985), pp. 249–260.

Tansey, R.

D. Swain, R. Tansey, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” in Automated Reduction of Data from Images and Holograms (NASA CP-2477, Jan., 1985), pp. 249–260.

Thalmann, R.

R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, “Heterodyne and Quasi-Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 24, 824–831 (1985).

Wagner, J. W.

Way, F. C.

F. C. Way, “The Pulsed Nd:YAG Holographic Laser–Present Status and Applications,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference and International Laser Exposition (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc, Chicago, 1975), pp. 760–766.

Advanced Instrumentation for Aero Engine Components (1)

A. J. Decker, “Beam-Modulation Methods in Quantitative and Flow Visualization Holographic Interferometry,” in Advanced Instrumentation for Aero Engine Components (AGARD-CP-399, May, 1986), pp. 34-1–34-16.

Appl. Opt. (1)

NASA-TP-2593 (1)

A. J. Decker, “Evaluation of Diffuse-Illumination Holographic Cinematography in a Flutter Cascade,” NASA-TP-2593 (July, 1986).

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, “Heterodyne and Quasi-Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 24, 824–831 (1985).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (7)

J. W. Gladden, R. D. Leighty, “Recording Media,” in Handbook of Optical Holography, H. J. Caulfield, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 277–298.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 311–336.

D. Swain, R. Tansey, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” in Automated Reduction of Data from Images and Holograms (NASA CP-2477, Jan., 1985), pp. 249–260.

R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, Ed., Vol. 17 (North-Holland, New York, 1980), pp. 1–84.
[CrossRef]

R. Dandliker, D. Eliasson, D. Ineichen, F. M. Mottier, “Quantitative Determination of Bending and Torsion Through Holographic Interferometry,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, R. Robertson, Ed. (Cambridge U. P., London, 1976), pp. 99–117.

A. J. Decker, J. Stricker, “A Comparison of Electronic Heterodyne Moire Deflectometry and Electronic Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry for Flow Measurements,” in Transactions, 1985 SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA), paper 851896.

F. C. Way, “The Pulsed Nd:YAG Holographic Laser–Present Status and Applications,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference and International Laser Exposition (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc, Chicago, 1975), pp. 760–766.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Crack detection from second derivatives of raw interference phase measured by optical heterodyning of double exposure, dual-reference-beam holograms of sample in bending. Second derivatives are estimated with respect to x using central differences and measurements separated by 3 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Figures of merit (product of heterodyne signal level and intensity SNR) for argon-ion and Nd:YAG dual-reference-beam holograms in Agfa 8E56 as a function of beam irradiance ratio. The argon-ion holograms were exposed at about 33 μJ/cm2 and developed at 68°F. The Nd:YAG holograms were exposed at about 125 μJ/cm2 and developed from 68°–78°F.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity SNR for argon-ion and Nd:YAG dual-reference-beam holograms as a function of the beam irradiance ratio. Exposures and development times are the same as in Fig. 2.

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