Abstract

Graded-index plastic optical fiber whose transmission attenuation is 143 dB/km at 651-nm wavelength was fabricated by heat-drawing the corresponding GI preform rod. This rod is prepared by the interfacial-gel copolymerization technique of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and vinyl phenylacetate (VPAc). The total scattering loss of the GI preform rod is ~60 dB/km at 633 nm. The graded-index profiles of the optical fibers are almost the same as those of the corresponding preforms with cladding sheaths. The index distributions of their core regions are quadratic against the distance from the center axis. The numerical aperture estimated from the index difference is ~0.20.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Kaino, “Preparation of Plastic Optical Fibers for Near-IR Region Transmission,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 25, 37–46 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. 18: Control of Refractive-Index Distribution of Plastic Radial Gradient-Index Rod by Photocopolymerization,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4316–4320 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. L. Blyler, K. A. Cogan, J. A. Ferrara, “Plastics and Polymers for Optical Transmission,” in Technical Digest, Symposium on Optical Fiber Materials and Properties (Materials Research Society, city, 1987), p. 3.
  4. C. Emslie, “Review Polymer Optical Fibers,” J. Mater. Sci. 23, 2281–2293 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Sorm, “Polymeric Optical Fibers: Present and Future,” Tech. Mod. 80, 19–22 (1988).
  6. F. W. Scholl, M. H. Coden, S. J. Anderson, B. V. Dutt, “Applications of Plastic Optical Fiber to LANs,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 991, 190 (1988).
  7. MITSUBISHI RAYON Co., Technical Bulletin on Eska Cables.
  8. S. Fujimoto, “Recent Advances in Plastic Optical Fibers in Japan,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 139–142 (1987).
  9. A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, N. Wakatsuki, “New Plastic Optical Fiber Using Polycarbonate Core,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 23, 166–176 (1987).
  10. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. 10: A Light-Focusing Plastic Fiber of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Benzoate Copolymer,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2726–2730 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. 12: The GRIN Fiber Lens of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Phenylacetate Copolymer,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1057–1062 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, Y. Ohtsuka, “New Interfacial-Gel Copolymerization Technique for Steric GRIN Polymer Optical Waveguides and Lens Arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 486–491 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Koike, X. Kobunshi, “Refractive Index, Refractive Index Distribution, Birefringence,” 37, 768–771 (1988); Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, “Determination of the Refractive-Index Profile of Light-Focusing Rods: Accuracy of a Method Using Interphako Interference Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2866–2872 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light Scattering and Heterogeneities in Low-Loss Poly(methyl methacrylate) Glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Dettenmaier, E. W. Fischer, “Untersuchungen zu den Orientierungsund Dichtefluktuationen in amorhen Polymeren mit Hilfe der Lichtstreuung,” Macromol. Chem. 177, 1185–1197 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. J. Brumberger, “Scattering by an Inhomogeneous Solid. II. The Correlation Function and Its Application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. XIII: Photocopolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Esters of Aromatic Carboxylic Acid,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253–3264 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent Light Scattering Losses by Amorphous Optical Polymer Glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Grok, “Overtone Absorption in Macromolecules for Polymer Optical Fibers,” Makromol. Chem. 189, 2861–2874 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1989

N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent Light Scattering Losses by Amorphous Optical Polymer Glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light Scattering and Heterogeneities in Low-Loss Poly(methyl methacrylate) Glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, Y. Ohtsuka, “New Interfacial-Gel Copolymerization Technique for Steric GRIN Polymer Optical Waveguides and Lens Arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 486–491 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Grok, “Overtone Absorption in Macromolecules for Polymer Optical Fibers,” Makromol. Chem. 189, 2861–2874 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Emslie, “Review Polymer Optical Fibers,” J. Mater. Sci. 23, 2281–2293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorm, “Polymeric Optical Fibers: Present and Future,” Tech. Mod. 80, 19–22 (1988).

F. W. Scholl, M. H. Coden, S. J. Anderson, B. V. Dutt, “Applications of Plastic Optical Fiber to LANs,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 991, 190 (1988).

1987

S. Fujimoto, “Recent Advances in Plastic Optical Fibers in Japan,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 139–142 (1987).

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, N. Wakatsuki, “New Plastic Optical Fiber Using Polycarbonate Core,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 23, 166–176 (1987).

T. Kaino, “Preparation of Plastic Optical Fibers for Near-IR Region Transmission,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 25, 37–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

1982

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. XIII: Photocopolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Esters of Aromatic Carboxylic Acid,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253–3264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. 12: The GRIN Fiber Lens of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Phenylacetate Copolymer,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1057–1062 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

1976

M. Dettenmaier, E. W. Fischer, “Untersuchungen zu den Orientierungsund Dichtefluktuationen in amorhen Polymeren mit Hilfe der Lichtstreuung,” Macromol. Chem. 177, 1185–1197 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1957

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. J. Brumberger, “Scattering by an Inhomogeneous Solid. II. The Correlation Function and Its Application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, H. R.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. J. Brumberger, “Scattering by an Inhomogeneous Solid. II. The Correlation Function and Its Application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. J.

F. W. Scholl, M. H. Coden, S. J. Anderson, B. V. Dutt, “Applications of Plastic Optical Fiber to LANs,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 991, 190 (1988).

Blyler, L. L.

L. L. Blyler, K. A. Cogan, J. A. Ferrara, “Plastics and Polymers for Optical Transmission,” in Technical Digest, Symposium on Optical Fiber Materials and Properties (Materials Research Society, city, 1987), p. 3.

Brumberger, H. J.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. J. Brumberger, “Scattering by an Inhomogeneous Solid. II. The Correlation Function and Its Application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Coden, M. H.

F. W. Scholl, M. H. Coden, S. J. Anderson, B. V. Dutt, “Applications of Plastic Optical Fiber to LANs,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 991, 190 (1988).

Cogan, K. A.

L. L. Blyler, K. A. Cogan, J. A. Ferrara, “Plastics and Polymers for Optical Transmission,” in Technical Digest, Symposium on Optical Fiber Materials and Properties (Materials Research Society, city, 1987), p. 3.

Debye, P.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. J. Brumberger, “Scattering by an Inhomogeneous Solid. II. The Correlation Function and Its Application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Dettenmaier, M.

M. Dettenmaier, E. W. Fischer, “Untersuchungen zu den Orientierungsund Dichtefluktuationen in amorhen Polymeren mit Hilfe der Lichtstreuung,” Macromol. Chem. 177, 1185–1197 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dutt, B. V.

F. W. Scholl, M. H. Coden, S. J. Anderson, B. V. Dutt, “Applications of Plastic Optical Fiber to LANs,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 991, 190 (1988).

Emslie, C.

C. Emslie, “Review Polymer Optical Fibers,” J. Mater. Sci. 23, 2281–2293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, J. A.

L. L. Blyler, K. A. Cogan, J. A. Ferrara, “Plastics and Polymers for Optical Transmission,” in Technical Digest, Symposium on Optical Fiber Materials and Properties (Materials Research Society, city, 1987), p. 3.

Fischer, E. W.

M. Dettenmaier, E. W. Fischer, “Untersuchungen zu den Orientierungsund Dichtefluktuationen in amorhen Polymeren mit Hilfe der Lichtstreuung,” Macromol. Chem. 177, 1185–1197 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, S.

S. Fujimoto, “Recent Advances in Plastic Optical Fibers in Japan,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 139–142 (1987).

Grok, W.

W. Grok, “Overtone Absorption in Macromolecules for Polymer Optical Fibers,” Makromol. Chem. 189, 2861–2874 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, “Preparation of Plastic Optical Fibers for Near-IR Region Transmission,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 25, 37–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kimoto, Y.

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. 12: The GRIN Fiber Lens of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Phenylacetate Copolymer,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1057–1062 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. XIII: Photocopolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Esters of Aromatic Carboxylic Acid,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253–3264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kobunshi, X.

Y. Koike, X. Kobunshi, “Refractive Index, Refractive Index Distribution, Birefringence,” 37, 768–771 (1988); Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, “Determination of the Refractive-Index Profile of Light-Focusing Rods: Accuracy of a Method Using Interphako Interference Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2866–2872 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koike, Y.

N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent Light Scattering Losses by Amorphous Optical Polymer Glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light Scattering and Heterogeneities in Low-Loss Poly(methyl methacrylate) Glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, Y. Ohtsuka, “New Interfacial-Gel Copolymerization Technique for Steric GRIN Polymer Optical Waveguides and Lens Arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 486–491 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. 18: Control of Refractive-Index Distribution of Plastic Radial Gradient-Index Rod by Photocopolymerization,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4316–4320 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. XIII: Photocopolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Esters of Aromatic Carboxylic Acid,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253–3264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. 12: The GRIN Fiber Lens of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Phenylacetate Copolymer,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1057–1062 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. 10: A Light-Focusing Plastic Fiber of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Benzoate Copolymer,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2726–2730 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, X. Kobunshi, “Refractive Index, Refractive Index Distribution, Birefringence,” 37, 768–771 (1988); Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, “Determination of the Refractive-Index Profile of Light-Focusing Rods: Accuracy of a Method Using Interphako Interference Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2866–2872 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Sawada, H.

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, N. Wakatsuki, “New Plastic Optical Fiber Using Polycarbonate Core,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 23, 166–176 (1987).

Scholl, F. W.

F. W. Scholl, M. H. Coden, S. J. Anderson, B. V. Dutt, “Applications of Plastic Optical Fiber to LANs,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 991, 190 (1988).

Sorm, M.

M. Sorm, “Polymeric Optical Fibers: Present and Future,” Tech. Mod. 80, 19–22 (1988).

Takezawa, Y.

Tanaka, A.

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, N. Wakatsuki, “New Plastic Optical Fiber Using Polycarbonate Core,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 23, 166–176 (1987).

Tanio, N.

Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light Scattering and Heterogeneities in Low-Loss Poly(methyl methacrylate) Glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent Light Scattering Losses by Amorphous Optical Polymer Glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wakatsuki, N.

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, N. Wakatsuki, “New Plastic Optical Fiber Using Polycarbonate Core,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 23, 166–176 (1987).

Yamazaki, H.

Appl. Opt.

Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J.

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, N. Wakatsuki, “New Plastic Optical Fiber Using Polycarbonate Core,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 23, 166–176 (1987).

J. Appl. Phys.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. J. Brumberger, “Scattering by an Inhomogeneous Solid. II. The Correlation Function and Its Application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. XIII: Photocopolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate-Vinyl Esters of Aromatic Carboxylic Acid,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253–3264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

C. Emslie, “Review Polymer Optical Fibers,” J. Mater. Sci. 23, 2281–2293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Part A

T. Kaino, “Preparation of Plastic Optical Fibers for Near-IR Region Transmission,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 25, 37–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Chem.

M. Dettenmaier, E. W. Fischer, “Untersuchungen zu den Orientierungsund Dichtefluktuationen in amorhen Polymeren mit Hilfe der Lichtstreuung,” Macromol. Chem. 177, 1185–1197 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light Scattering and Heterogeneities in Low-Loss Poly(methyl methacrylate) Glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Makromol. Chem.

W. Grok, “Overtone Absorption in Macromolecules for Polymer Optical Fibers,” Makromol. Chem. 189, 2861–2874 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Polym. J.

N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent Light Scattering Losses by Amorphous Optical Polymer Glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

F. W. Scholl, M. H. Coden, S. J. Anderson, B. V. Dutt, “Applications of Plastic Optical Fiber to LANs,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 991, 190 (1988).

S. Fujimoto, “Recent Advances in Plastic Optical Fibers in Japan,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 139–142 (1987).

Tech. Mod.

M. Sorm, “Polymeric Optical Fibers: Present and Future,” Tech. Mod. 80, 19–22 (1988).

Other

MITSUBISHI RAYON Co., Technical Bulletin on Eska Cables.

L. L. Blyler, K. A. Cogan, J. A. Ferrara, “Plastics and Polymers for Optical Transmission,” in Technical Digest, Symposium on Optical Fiber Materials and Properties (Materials Research Society, city, 1987), p. 3.

Y. Koike, X. Kobunshi, “Refractive Index, Refractive Index Distribution, Birefringence,” 37, 768–771 (1988); Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, “Determination of the Refractive-Index Profile of Light-Focusing Rods: Accuracy of a Method Using Interphako Interference Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2866–2872 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of interfacial-gel copolymerization technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index distribution of the GI preform rod (P) and GI fiber (F): BPO = 0.50 wt.%; nBM = 0.15 wt.%; polymerized at 70°C for 16 h and at 80°C under 0.2-mm Hg for 8 h; Drawing temperature = 275°C. Subscript: MMA/VPAc (wt./wt.).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of V v and H v scattering from the Poly(MMA-co-VPAc) GI preform rod: ○, MMA/VPAc = 3 (wt./wt.); □ MMA/VPAc 4 (wt./wt.).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Total attenuation spectrum of poly(MMA-co-VPAc) plastic optical fibers: F3, MMA/VPAc = 3 (wt./wt.), 340.0 dB/km at 652 nm, N.A. = 0.21; F4, MMA/VPAc = 4 (wt./wt.), 142.5 dB/km at 651 nm, N.A. = 0.18.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between birefringence and drawing temperature: A, 230°C; B, 260°C; and C, 275°C.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Properties of the Monomer and Polymer Used

Tables Icon

Table II Scattering Parameters of PoIy(MMA-co-VPAc) GI Preform Rod at 633 nm

Equations (7)

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n ( r ) = n 0 ( 1 - 1 / 2 A r 2 ) ,
n 1 < n 2             and             r 1 > 1 , r 2 < 1.
V V iso = V V - ( 4 / 3 ) H V .
α t = 1.36 × 10 6 0 π [ ( 1 + cos 2 θ ) ( V V 1 iso + V V 2 iso ) + ( 13 + cos 2 θ ) H V / 3 ] sin θ d θ
α t = α 1 iso + α 2 iso + α aniso
V V 2 iso = 8 π 3 < η 2 > a 3 ( λ 0 2 + 4 π 2 n 2 S 2 a 2 ) 2 ,
η 2 = ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ( n 1 2 - n 2 2 ) 2 = 4 ϕ 1 ϕ 2 n 2 ( Δ n ) 2 ,

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