Abstract

Waveguide grating couplers have been under study as a method of focusing laser diode radiation on the surface of an optical data storage device. In this letter, we describe a simple method of holographically constructing a waveguide grating coupler at visible wavelengths which may be used with collimated infrared laser radiation to form high numerical aperture, diffraction limited beams. The design method includes the necessary compensation aberrations to offset the effects of differences between construction and end-use wavelengths.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyana, “An Integrated-Optic Disk Pickup Device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Sogawa, Y. Hori, M. Kato, “Fabrication of Almost Aberration Free Focusing Grating Coupler with Large Numerical Aperture,” MOC/GRIN ‘89, Tokyo, pp. 126–129 (1989).
  3. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide Holograms: A New Approach to Hologram Integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–000 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional Focusing Holographic Grating Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–000 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Heitmann, C. Ortiz, “Calculation and Experimental Verification of Two-Dimensional Focusing Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1257–1263 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Cronkite, G. Lawrence, “Aberration Minimization of Focusing Grating Coupler under Wavelength Shift,” Appl. Opt. 27, 679–683 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Kuwayama, Y. Nakamura, N. Taniguchi, S. Suda, “Aberration Corrected Off-Axis Holographic Lens,” in Conference Digest, ICO-13 Sapporo ’84 C6-6 (1984), p. 520.
  8. S. Hasegawa, M. Kato, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, “Holographic Lens (3)—Aberration Correction Method,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 32nd Spring Meeting, 31p-P-7 (1985), p. 103.
  9. M. Kato, T. Iimura, S. Hasegawa, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, “Holographic Lens (5)—Two-layer holographic lens,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 46th Autumn Meeting, 2p-H-8, (1985), p. 55.
  10. T. Tamir, Integrated Optics, Topics in Applied Physics Series, Vol. 7, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), p. 102.
  11. G. Lawrence, P. Cronkite, “Practical Design Methods for Holographic Construction of Waveguide Focusing Grating Couplers,” in Technical Digest, Course on Opto Electronics & Laser Applications (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1989); p. 1051–20.
  12. SYNOPSYS is a proprietary product of Optical Systems Design, East Boothbay, Maine.
  13. Code V is a proprietary product of Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, California.

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyana, “An Integrated-Optic Disk Pickup Device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

S. Hasegawa, M. Kato, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, “Holographic Lens (3)—Aberration Correction Method,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 32nd Spring Meeting, 31p-P-7 (1985), p. 103.

M. Kato, T. Iimura, S. Hasegawa, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, “Holographic Lens (5)—Two-layer holographic lens,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 46th Autumn Meeting, 2p-H-8, (1985), p. 55.

1984 (1)

T. Kuwayama, Y. Nakamura, N. Taniguchi, S. Suda, “Aberration Corrected Off-Axis Holographic Lens,” in Conference Digest, ICO-13 Sapporo ’84 C6-6 (1984), p. 520.

1981 (1)

D. Heitmann, C. Ortiz, “Calculation and Experimental Verification of Two-Dimensional Focusing Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1257–1263 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional Focusing Holographic Grating Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide Holograms: A New Approach to Hologram Integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cronkite, P.

P. Cronkite, G. Lawrence, “Aberration Minimization of Focusing Grating Coupler under Wavelength Shift,” Appl. Opt. 27, 679–683 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lawrence, P. Cronkite, “Practical Design Methods for Holographic Construction of Waveguide Focusing Grating Couplers,” in Technical Digest, Course on Opto Electronics & Laser Applications (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1989); p. 1051–20.

Hasegawa, S.

S. Hasegawa, M. Kato, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, “Holographic Lens (3)—Aberration Correction Method,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 32nd Spring Meeting, 31p-P-7 (1985), p. 103.

M. Kato, T. Iimura, S. Hasegawa, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, “Holographic Lens (5)—Two-layer holographic lens,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 46th Autumn Meeting, 2p-H-8, (1985), p. 55.

Heitmann, D.

D. Heitmann, C. Ortiz, “Calculation and Experimental Verification of Two-Dimensional Focusing Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1257–1263 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional Focusing Holographic Grating Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hori, Y.

F. Sogawa, Y. Hori, M. Kato, “Fabrication of Almost Aberration Free Focusing Grating Coupler with Large Numerical Aperture,” MOC/GRIN ‘89, Tokyo, pp. 126–129 (1989).

Iimura, T.

M. Kato, T. Iimura, S. Hasegawa, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, “Holographic Lens (5)—Two-layer holographic lens,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 46th Autumn Meeting, 2p-H-8, (1985), p. 55.

Ikeda, H.

M. Kato, T. Iimura, S. Hasegawa, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, “Holographic Lens (5)—Two-layer holographic lens,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 46th Autumn Meeting, 2p-H-8, (1985), p. 55.

S. Hasegawa, M. Kato, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, “Holographic Lens (3)—Aberration Correction Method,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 32nd Spring Meeting, 31p-P-7 (1985), p. 103.

Inagaki, T.

S. Hasegawa, M. Kato, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, “Holographic Lens (3)—Aberration Correction Method,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 32nd Spring Meeting, 31p-P-7 (1985), p. 103.

Kato, M.

M. Kato, T. Iimura, S. Hasegawa, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, “Holographic Lens (5)—Two-layer holographic lens,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 46th Autumn Meeting, 2p-H-8, (1985), p. 55.

S. Hasegawa, M. Kato, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, “Holographic Lens (3)—Aberration Correction Method,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 32nd Spring Meeting, 31p-P-7 (1985), p. 103.

F. Sogawa, Y. Hori, M. Kato, “Fabrication of Almost Aberration Free Focusing Grating Coupler with Large Numerical Aperture,” MOC/GRIN ‘89, Tokyo, pp. 126–129 (1989).

Koyama, J.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide Holograms: A New Approach to Hologram Integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Koyana, J.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyana, “An Integrated-Optic Disk Pickup Device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kuwayama, T.

T. Kuwayama, Y. Nakamura, N. Taniguchi, S. Suda, “Aberration Corrected Off-Axis Holographic Lens,” in Conference Digest, ICO-13 Sapporo ’84 C6-6 (1984), p. 520.

Lawrence, G.

P. Cronkite, G. Lawrence, “Aberration Minimization of Focusing Grating Coupler under Wavelength Shift,” Appl. Opt. 27, 679–683 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lawrence, P. Cronkite, “Practical Design Methods for Holographic Construction of Waveguide Focusing Grating Couplers,” in Technical Digest, Course on Opto Electronics & Laser Applications (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1989); p. 1051–20.

Nakamura, Y.

T. Kuwayama, Y. Nakamura, N. Taniguchi, S. Suda, “Aberration Corrected Off-Axis Holographic Lens,” in Conference Digest, ICO-13 Sapporo ’84 C6-6 (1984), p. 520.

Nishihara, H.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyana, “An Integrated-Optic Disk Pickup Device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide Holograms: A New Approach to Hologram Integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, C.

D. Heitmann, C. Ortiz, “Calculation and Experimental Verification of Two-Dimensional Focusing Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1257–1263 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pole, R. V.

D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional Focusing Holographic Grating Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sogawa, F.

F. Sogawa, Y. Hori, M. Kato, “Fabrication of Almost Aberration Free Focusing Grating Coupler with Large Numerical Aperture,” MOC/GRIN ‘89, Tokyo, pp. 126–129 (1989).

Suda, S.

T. Kuwayama, Y. Nakamura, N. Taniguchi, S. Suda, “Aberration Corrected Off-Axis Holographic Lens,” in Conference Digest, ICO-13 Sapporo ’84 C6-6 (1984), p. 520.

Suhara, T.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyana, “An Integrated-Optic Disk Pickup Device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide Holograms: A New Approach to Hologram Integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir, Integrated Optics, Topics in Applied Physics Series, Vol. 7, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), p. 102.

Taniguchi, N.

T. Kuwayama, Y. Nakamura, N. Taniguchi, S. Suda, “Aberration Corrected Off-Axis Holographic Lens,” in Conference Digest, ICO-13 Sapporo ’84 C6-6 (1984), p. 520.

Ura, S.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyana, “An Integrated-Optic Disk Pickup Device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, F.

S. Hasegawa, M. Kato, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, “Holographic Lens (3)—Aberration Correction Method,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 32nd Spring Meeting, 31p-P-7 (1985), p. 103.

M. Kato, T. Iimura, S. Hasegawa, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, “Holographic Lens (5)—Two-layer holographic lens,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 46th Autumn Meeting, 2p-H-8, (1985), p. 55.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional Focusing Holographic Grating Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–000 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Conference Digest, ICO-13 Sapporo ’84 (1)

T. Kuwayama, Y. Nakamura, N. Taniguchi, S. Suda, “Aberration Corrected Off-Axis Holographic Lens,” in Conference Digest, ICO-13 Sapporo ’84 C6-6 (1984), p. 520.

Extended Abstract, JSAP, 32nd Spring Meeting (1)

S. Hasegawa, M. Kato, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, “Holographic Lens (3)—Aberration Correction Method,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 32nd Spring Meeting, 31p-P-7 (1985), p. 103.

Extended Abstract, JSAP, 46th Autumn Meeting (1)

M. Kato, T. Iimura, S. Hasegawa, F. Yamagishi, H. Ikeda, “Holographic Lens (5)—Two-layer holographic lens,” in Extended Abstract, JSAP, 46th Autumn Meeting, 2p-H-8, (1985), p. 55.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyana, “An Integrated-Optic Disk Pickup Device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Heitmann, C. Ortiz, “Calculation and Experimental Verification of Two-Dimensional Focusing Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1257–1263 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Waveguide Holograms: A New Approach to Hologram Integration,” Opt. Commun. 19, 353–000 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

F. Sogawa, Y. Hori, M. Kato, “Fabrication of Almost Aberration Free Focusing Grating Coupler with Large Numerical Aperture,” MOC/GRIN ‘89, Tokyo, pp. 126–129 (1989).

T. Tamir, Integrated Optics, Topics in Applied Physics Series, Vol. 7, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), p. 102.

G. Lawrence, P. Cronkite, “Practical Design Methods for Holographic Construction of Waveguide Focusing Grating Couplers,” in Technical Digest, Course on Opto Electronics & Laser Applications (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1989); p. 1051–20.

SYNOPSYS is a proprietary product of Optical Systems Design, East Boothbay, Maine.

Code V is a proprietary product of Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, California.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Focusing grating coupler optical data head. A laser diode is butt coupled into a waveguide. The guided mode propagates in the waveguide until it encounters a grating consisting of a corrugation of the surface of the waveguide. The grating out-couples light into a focused beam if the grating period is properly chirped. In principal, the grating may be constructed from two points at visible wavelengths for use in the infrared. In practice severe aberration will result from the wavelength shift if two simple points are used for construction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration for forming a waveguide hologram using rotationally symmetric optics. Light from a laser diode at U1 is injected into the edge of the waveguide. A waveguide lens is used to collimate the waveguide mode. A grating consisting of corrugations in the waveguide diffracts some of the light into a beam focused at point U2. The construction beams must create an interference pattern which exactly matches the frequency needed for the waveguide grating. One of the construction beams is collimated at a specific angle of incidence. The other is a rotationally symmetric beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of holographic construction design using a fictious glass. The source point of the laser is focused with special aberration construction optics to achieve the divergence and aberration compensation. At the surface of the grating, the diverging light enters a fictious medium of index <1. The diverging beam is analyzed at the virtual focus in the fictious glass at U2. When good correction is achieved in the fictious glass at U2, the system will create the correct hologram when used with a collimated beam at the proper angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gratings that form skewed focusing beams may be constructed with the rotationally symmetric construction optics by using a decentered aperture to limit the beam. The origin of the construction beam (with suitable aberrations) is point C2. The resulting grating will cause the laser diode to come to a focus at point U2. The skewed section must fall inside the cone defined by the numerical aperture of the construction optics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical schematic for grating construction through substrate. By coupling the collimated beam C1 in to the substrate through a 45° prism, incident angles can be achieved that are beyond the critical angle for the waveguide. The shortened construction wavelength in the substrate permits the use of shorter and end-use wavelengths than would be possible if the grating were constructed in air.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical layout of a sample holographic construction lens. The source point is indicated by S. This should consist of a pinhole aperture illuminated by a focused laser beam of λ = 0.48 μm. The two element objective lens adds the requisite aberration and reimages S to Point C2. The light diverging from C2 strikes a plane surface at the position of the grating substrate. For the purposes of design, the grating surface is modeled as the boundary between air and a fictious glass of index n = λcu. The design is optimized to form a well corrected virtual image in the fictious glass. The resulting design will work correctly for holographic construction. A full layout is shown as well as an enlarged view of the elements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of wavefront aberration versus aperture position for the design of Fig. 5 at a maximum scale of 0.1 wavelengths. The aberration is measured in air at 0.48 microns. At 0.78 microns the aberration will be only 61% of the amount shown. The design exhibits high order spherical aberration which causes a small drop in the Strehl ratio.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Parameters of Sample Design

Equations (13)

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1 λ u n ^ X ( r ^ u 1 - n 0 r ^ u 2 ) = 1 λ c n ^ X ( r ^ c 1 - r ^ c 2 ) ,
y λ c sin θ - Γ ( x , y ) + R c λ c [ 1 + r 2 R c 2 - 1 ] = 0 ,
- y n 0 λ u - m Γ ( x , y ) - R u λ u [ 1 + r 2 R u 2 - 1 ] = 0 ,
1 λ c sin θ = n 0 λ u ,
R c λ c [ 1 + r 2 R c 2 - 1 ] = R u λ u [ 1 + r 2 R u 2 - 1 ] ,
n o < λ u λ c .
ϕ u - ϕ c = 0 = 2 π [ r 2 2 ( 1 λ u R u - 1 λ c R c ) - r 4 8 ( 1 λ u R u 3 - 1 λ c R c 3 ) + ] .
λ u R u = λ c R c .
A = - 1 8 λ u R u ( 1 R u 2 - 1 R c 2 ) ,
n f R u λ c [ 1 + r 2 R u 2 - 1 ] = R u λ u [ 1 + r 2 R u 2 - 1 ] ,
n f = λ c λ u .
n s λ c sin θ = n 0 λ u ,
n 0 < λ u λ c n s ,

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