Abstract

We describe a miniature alignment stage designed for use with semiconductor diode laser and lenslet arrays. The device achieves 0.03-mrad angular and 0.3-μm linear precision utilizing metal flexures and piezoelectric transducers in a mechanical arrangement that provides compactness and repeatability not obtainable with other types of components. It has been used successfully to coherently combine output of a linear diode laser array of five elements and can accommodate a 2-D array.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. M. Philip-Rutz, “Spatially Coherent Radiation from an Array of GaAs Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 475–477 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Rediker, R. P. Schloss, L. J. VanRuven, “Operation of Individual Diode Lasers as a Coherent Ensemble Controlled by a Spatial Filter Within an External Cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 133–135 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent Addition of AlGaAs Lasers Using Microlenses and Diffractive Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771–1773 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, M. Holz, “Efficient Side Lobe Suppression of Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1044–1046 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, D. E. Mull, “Large-Numerical-Aperture InP Lenslets by Mass Transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859–1861 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, “Surface-Emitting GaInAsP/InP Laser with Low Threshold Current and High Efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 115–117 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Diadiuk, Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. W. Caunt, R. C. Williamson, “External-Cavity Coherent Operation of InGaAsP Buried Heterostructure Laser Array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, (Nov) 2161–2163 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. K. Kreid, “Versatile Flexure Mount for Precise Positioning of Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 13, 737–738 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Free Flex Flexural Pivot Engineering Data, Allied Corp., Bendix Fluid Power Division, Utica, N.Y.

1989 (1)

V. Diadiuk, Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. W. Caunt, R. C. Williamson, “External-Cavity Coherent Operation of InGaAsP Buried Heterostructure Laser Array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, (Nov) 2161–2163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, D. E. Mull, “Large-Numerical-Aperture InP Lenslets by Mass Transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859–1861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent Addition of AlGaAs Lasers Using Microlenses and Diffractive Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, M. Holz, “Efficient Side Lobe Suppression of Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1044–1046 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

R. H. Rediker, R. P. Schloss, L. J. VanRuven, “Operation of Individual Diode Lasers as a Coherent Ensemble Controlled by a Spatial Filter Within an External Cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 133–135 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, “Surface-Emitting GaInAsP/InP Laser with Low Threshold Current and High Efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 115–117 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. M. Philip-Rutz, “Spatially Coherent Radiation from an Array of GaAs Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 475–477 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Caunt, J. W.

V. Diadiuk, Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. W. Caunt, R. C. Williamson, “External-Cavity Coherent Operation of InGaAsP Buried Heterostructure Laser Array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, (Nov) 2161–2163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Diadiuk, V.

V. Diadiuk, Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. W. Caunt, R. C. Williamson, “External-Cavity Coherent Operation of InGaAsP Buried Heterostructure Laser Array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, (Nov) 2161–2163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, D. E. Mull, “Large-Numerical-Aperture InP Lenslets by Mass Transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859–1861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, M. Holz, “Efficient Side Lobe Suppression of Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1044–1046 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kreid, D. K.

Leger, J. R.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent Addition of AlGaAs Lasers Using Microlenses and Diffractive Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, M. Holz, “Efficient Side Lobe Suppression of Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1044–1046 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Liau, Z. L.

V. Diadiuk, Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. W. Caunt, R. C. Williamson, “External-Cavity Coherent Operation of InGaAsP Buried Heterostructure Laser Array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, (Nov) 2161–2163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, D. E. Mull, “Large-Numerical-Aperture InP Lenslets by Mass Transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859–1861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, “Surface-Emitting GaInAsP/InP Laser with Low Threshold Current and High Efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 115–117 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mull, D. E.

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, D. E. Mull, “Large-Numerical-Aperture InP Lenslets by Mass Transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859–1861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Philip-Rutz, E. M.

E. M. Philip-Rutz, “Spatially Coherent Radiation from an Array of GaAs Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 475–477 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rediker, R. H.

R. H. Rediker, R. P. Schloss, L. J. VanRuven, “Operation of Individual Diode Lasers as a Coherent Ensemble Controlled by a Spatial Filter Within an External Cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 133–135 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schloss, R. P.

R. H. Rediker, R. P. Schloss, L. J. VanRuven, “Operation of Individual Diode Lasers as a Coherent Ensemble Controlled by a Spatial Filter Within an External Cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 133–135 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Scott, M. L.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent Addition of AlGaAs Lasers Using Microlenses and Diffractive Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G. J.

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, M. Holz, “Efficient Side Lobe Suppression of Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1044–1046 (1987).
[CrossRef]

VanRuven, L. J.

R. H. Rediker, R. P. Schloss, L. J. VanRuven, “Operation of Individual Diode Lasers as a Coherent Ensemble Controlled by a Spatial Filter Within an External Cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 133–135 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent Addition of AlGaAs Lasers Using Microlenses and Diffractive Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Walpole, J. N.

V. Diadiuk, Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. W. Caunt, R. C. Williamson, “External-Cavity Coherent Operation of InGaAsP Buried Heterostructure Laser Array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, (Nov) 2161–2163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, D. E. Mull, “Large-Numerical-Aperture InP Lenslets by Mass Transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859–1861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, “Surface-Emitting GaInAsP/InP Laser with Low Threshold Current and High Efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 115–117 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

V. Diadiuk, Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. W. Caunt, R. C. Williamson, “External-Cavity Coherent Operation of InGaAsP Buried Heterostructure Laser Array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, (Nov) 2161–2163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

E. M. Philip-Rutz, “Spatially Coherent Radiation from an Array of GaAs Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 475–477 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Rediker, R. P. Schloss, L. J. VanRuven, “Operation of Individual Diode Lasers as a Coherent Ensemble Controlled by a Spatial Filter Within an External Cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 133–135 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent Addition of AlGaAs Lasers Using Microlenses and Diffractive Coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, M. Holz, “Efficient Side Lobe Suppression of Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1044–1046 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, V. Diadiuk, J. N. Walpole, D. E. Mull, “Large-Numerical-Aperture InP Lenslets by Mass Transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1859–1861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, “Surface-Emitting GaInAsP/InP Laser with Low Threshold Current and High Efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 115–117 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. Diadiuk, Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. W. Caunt, R. C. Williamson, “External-Cavity Coherent Operation of InGaAsP Buried Heterostructure Laser Array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, (Nov) 2161–2163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Free Flex Flexural Pivot Engineering Data, Allied Corp., Bendix Fluid Power Division, Utica, N.Y.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an external cavity containing the alignment device, showing the overall dimensions of the cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the laser and lenslet arrays showing in-plane and parallel beam axes obtained with the six degrees of adjustment freedom of the lenslet array relative to the laser array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light output power vs laser current (IL) characteristics for three alignment conditions of the lenslet array. An angular misalignment of 0.35 mrad (curve 3) increases lasing threshold by ~83%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the alignment device assembly showing the translation stage, affixed to a plate, and the positions of the adjusting screws, PZTs, and flexures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Flexure center shifts caused by rotational motion: (a) typical shift vs the angle of rotation; and (b) typical hysteresis of the shift vs the angle of rotation. Adapted from Ref. 9.

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