Abstract

A secondary standard silicon photodiode matched with a V-lambda filter was calibrated against primary standard, self-calibrated inversion layer silicon photodiodes, to achieve a high accuracy photometer, according to the new definition of the canadela (the photometric base unit). The measured several percent/year specular spectral reflectance change of the windowless primary standard photodiodes was eliminated by their repeated self-calibration. This self-calibration also eliminated the measured several tenth of a percent/year spectral response change of the secondary standard silicon photodiode. The secondary standard detector could be a nonunity quantum efficiency light detector. The spectral response calibration of the V-lambda matched detector of medium spectral mismatch ( f1=3.0%) against the absolute spectral responses of three self-calibrated photodiodes resulted in a standard deviation of 0.17% in luminous flux (lumen) calibration. Also illuminance (lux) and light intensity (candela) calibrations were derived from the above primary photometric calibration. It is shown that the V-lambda matched photometer with the above spectral calibration can be used for accurate photometric measurements for all kinds of light sources of known spectral power distribution.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Eppeldauer, “Temperature Dependent Inversion Layer Photodiode Self-Calibration,” in Proceedings Twelfth International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Varna, Bulgaria, 1986).
  2. K. D. Stock, “Temporal Stability of Silicon Photodiodes,” in Proceedings Twelfth International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Varna, Bulgaria, 1986).
  3. K. D. Stock, R. Heine, “On the Aging of Photovoltaic Cells,” Optik (Weimar) 71, 137–142 (1985).
  4. E. F. Zalewski, J. Geist, “Silicon Photodiode Absolute Spectral Response Self-Calibration,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1214–1216 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, A. R. Schaefer, “Spectral Response Self-Calibration and Interpolation of Silicon Photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3795–3799 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. J. Key, N. P. Fox, M. L. Rastello, “Oxide-Bias Measurements in the Silicon Photodiode Self-Calibration Technique,” Metrologia 21, 81–87 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. R. Schaefer, E. F. Zalewski, J. Geist: Silicon Detector Nonlinearity and Related Effects,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1232–1236 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. L. Gardner, F. J. Wilkinson, “Response Time and Linearity of Inversion Layer Silicon Photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1531–1534 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Eppeldauer, “High Sensitivity Absolute Radiometer,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Berlin(W), 1982), pp. 145–146.
  10. G. Eppeldauer, “Measurement of Very Low Light Intensities by Photovoltaic Cells,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Weimar, 1984), proc. 182.
  11. G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, “Compact Self-Calibarating Setup for High Sensitivity Absolute Light Measurements,” in Transactions, Twentieth CIE Session, Amsterdam (1983) 1, paper E19/1–3.
  12. G. Eppeldauer, “Simple Realization of the Radiometric and Photometric Scales,” in Proceedings, Tenth IMEKO Congress (IMEKO, Praha, 1985) 4, p. 208.
  13. Methods of Characterizing Illuminance Meters and Luminance Meters (CIE Publication 69, 1987) p. 9.
  14. Certain commercial components are identified in this paper to adequately specify the experimental procedure. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology nor does it imply that the components identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.
  15. R. L. Booker, D. A. McSparron, NBS Measurement Services: Photometric Calibrations (NBS Special Publication 250-15, October, 1987), pp. 3–6.
  16. J. Bonhoure, “Photometric Standards of the National Laboratories,” Metrologia 25, 125-(1988).
    [CrossRef]

1988

J. Bonhoure, “Photometric Standards of the National Laboratories,” Metrologia 25, 125-(1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. L. Gardner, F. J. Wilkinson, “Response Time and Linearity of Inversion Layer Silicon Photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1531–1534 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Stock, R. Heine, “On the Aging of Photovoltaic Cells,” Optik (Weimar) 71, 137–142 (1985).

P. J. Key, N. P. Fox, M. L. Rastello, “Oxide-Bias Measurements in the Silicon Photodiode Self-Calibration Technique,” Metrologia 21, 81–87 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

1980

Bonhoure, J.

J. Bonhoure, “Photometric Standards of the National Laboratories,” Metrologia 25, 125-(1988).
[CrossRef]

Booker, R. L.

R. L. Booker, D. A. McSparron, NBS Measurement Services: Photometric Calibrations (NBS Special Publication 250-15, October, 1987), pp. 3–6.

Eppeldauer, G.

G. Eppeldauer, “Simple Realization of the Radiometric and Photometric Scales,” in Proceedings, Tenth IMEKO Congress (IMEKO, Praha, 1985) 4, p. 208.

G. Eppeldauer, “High Sensitivity Absolute Radiometer,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Berlin(W), 1982), pp. 145–146.

G. Eppeldauer, “Measurement of Very Low Light Intensities by Photovoltaic Cells,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Weimar, 1984), proc. 182.

G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, “Compact Self-Calibarating Setup for High Sensitivity Absolute Light Measurements,” in Transactions, Twentieth CIE Session, Amsterdam (1983) 1, paper E19/1–3.

G. Eppeldauer, “Temperature Dependent Inversion Layer Photodiode Self-Calibration,” in Proceedings Twelfth International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Varna, Bulgaria, 1986).

Fox, N. P.

P. J. Key, N. P. Fox, M. L. Rastello, “Oxide-Bias Measurements in the Silicon Photodiode Self-Calibration Technique,” Metrologia 21, 81–87 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. L.

Geist, J.

Heine, R.

K. D. Stock, R. Heine, “On the Aging of Photovoltaic Cells,” Optik (Weimar) 71, 137–142 (1985).

Key, P. J.

P. J. Key, N. P. Fox, M. L. Rastello, “Oxide-Bias Measurements in the Silicon Photodiode Self-Calibration Technique,” Metrologia 21, 81–87 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McSparron, D. A.

R. L. Booker, D. A. McSparron, NBS Measurement Services: Photometric Calibrations (NBS Special Publication 250-15, October, 1987), pp. 3–6.

Racz, M.

G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, “Compact Self-Calibarating Setup for High Sensitivity Absolute Light Measurements,” in Transactions, Twentieth CIE Session, Amsterdam (1983) 1, paper E19/1–3.

Rastello, M. L.

P. J. Key, N. P. Fox, M. L. Rastello, “Oxide-Bias Measurements in the Silicon Photodiode Self-Calibration Technique,” Metrologia 21, 81–87 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, A. R.

Stock, K. D.

K. D. Stock, R. Heine, “On the Aging of Photovoltaic Cells,” Optik (Weimar) 71, 137–142 (1985).

K. D. Stock, “Temporal Stability of Silicon Photodiodes,” in Proceedings Twelfth International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Varna, Bulgaria, 1986).

Wilkinson, F. J.

Zalewski, E. F.

Appl. Opt.

Metrologia

P. J. Key, N. P. Fox, M. L. Rastello, “Oxide-Bias Measurements in the Silicon Photodiode Self-Calibration Technique,” Metrologia 21, 81–87 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonhoure, “Photometric Standards of the National Laboratories,” Metrologia 25, 125-(1988).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Weimar)

K. D. Stock, R. Heine, “On the Aging of Photovoltaic Cells,” Optik (Weimar) 71, 137–142 (1985).

Other

G. Eppeldauer, “Temperature Dependent Inversion Layer Photodiode Self-Calibration,” in Proceedings Twelfth International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Varna, Bulgaria, 1986).

K. D. Stock, “Temporal Stability of Silicon Photodiodes,” in Proceedings Twelfth International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Varna, Bulgaria, 1986).

G. Eppeldauer, “High Sensitivity Absolute Radiometer,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Berlin(W), 1982), pp. 145–146.

G. Eppeldauer, “Measurement of Very Low Light Intensities by Photovoltaic Cells,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Photon Detectors (IMEKO, Weimar, 1984), proc. 182.

G. Eppeldauer, M. Racz, “Compact Self-Calibarating Setup for High Sensitivity Absolute Light Measurements,” in Transactions, Twentieth CIE Session, Amsterdam (1983) 1, paper E19/1–3.

G. Eppeldauer, “Simple Realization of the Radiometric and Photometric Scales,” in Proceedings, Tenth IMEKO Congress (IMEKO, Praha, 1985) 4, p. 208.

Methods of Characterizing Illuminance Meters and Luminance Meters (CIE Publication 69, 1987) p. 9.

Certain commercial components are identified in this paper to adequately specify the experimental procedure. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology nor does it imply that the components identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

R. L. Booker, D. A. McSparron, NBS Measurement Services: Photometric Calibrations (NBS Special Publication 250-15, October, 1987), pp. 3–6.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Change of the specular spectral reflectance ρ of a UDT UV 100 detector during 1 yr while the temperature was controlled at 35°C ±0.1°C. The left-hand scale refers to the average ρ (solid curve) and the right-hand scale refers to the vertical bars which show the magnitude of the long term changes of ρρ) in %. The 1985 average is marked by triangles, the Feb. 1986 results are marked by squares, and the May 1986 results are marked by circles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change of the internal quantum efficiency of a UDT UV 100 detector during 1 yr while the temperature was controlled at 35°C ±0.1°C. The left-hand scale refers to the average (solid curve) and the right-hand scale refers to the vertical bars, which show the magnitude of the long term changes of ) in %. The 1985 average is marked by triangles, the Feb. 1986 results are marked by squares, and the May 1986 results are marked by circles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change of the absolute spectral response s of a UDT UV 100 detector during 1 yr while the temperature was controlled at 35°C ±0.1°C. The left-hand scale refers to the averages s (solid curve) and the right-hand scale refers to the vertical bars which show the magnitude of the long term changes of ss) in %. The 1985 average is marked by triangles, the Feb. 1986 results are marked by squares, and the May 1986 results are marked by circles.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Absolute and Relative Spectral Responsivities and Relative Spectral Errors of the V-lambda Matched UV 444B Detector Calibrated Against the Simultaneously Self-Calibrated UDT UV 100 Inversion Layer Photodiode at Two Different Times

Tables Icon

Table II Absolute Spectral Responsivity of the UV 444B Detector In the Dominant Photopic Wavelength Range Measured at Two Different Times at 35°C

Tables Icon

Table III Luminous Flux Sensitivities of the V-Lambda Matched UV 444B Detector Calibrated to Three Different Primary Detectors at 35°C

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s ( λ ) = Q e λ h c ,
Q = ( 1 - ρ ( λ ) ) ( λ ) ,
I ( λ ) = λ s ( λ ) N ( λ ) d λ ,             { A }
Φ = K m λ N ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ ,             { lm }
S f = λ s ( λ ) A ( λ ) K m λ V ( λ ) A ( λ ) .             { A / lm }
s ¯ ( 555 ) = s 1 ( 550 ) + s 1 ( 560 ) + s 2 ( 550 ) + s 2 ( 570 ) 4 K = 0.1849 ,
K = V ( 550 ) + V ( 560 ) 2 = 0.995.
s r ( λ ) = s 1 ( λ ) + s 2 ( λ ) 2 s ¯ ( 555 ) .
f 1 = λ s r * ( λ ) - V ( λ ) λ V ( λ ) × 100 % ,
s r * ( λ ) = λ A ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ λ A ( λ ) × s 1 ( λ ) + s 2 ( λ ) 2 d λ × s 1 ( λ ) + s 2 ( λ ) 2 .
f 1 = 0.3251 10.686 × 100 % = 3.04 % ;
S f 1 = S f 2 = 0.2696 mA / lm .
S m = S f × F ,
S m 1 = S m 2 = 13.49 nA / lux .
S m = 13.49 nA / lux , with a standard deviation of 0.26 % .
0.26 % ( 1 σ ) = 3 × 0.26 n ( 3 σ mean ) , where n = 3.
S m * = 13.58 nA / lux .
S m * S m = 13.58 13.49 = 1.0067.

Metrics