Abstract

An optical network made from two 3-dB and one 1.76-dB 2 × 2 single-mode couplers can perform as a 3 × 3 star coupler. One version is particularly suitable for polarization-preserving components and requires adjustment of the phase in one arm; it can also perform the three-point discrete Fourier transform by suitable adjustment of other phases. Experimental verification of the principle is presented.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. E. Marhic, “Hierarchic and Combinatorial Star Couplers,” Opt. Lett. 9, 368–370 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. T. Hermes, J. Saniter, F. Schmidt, “Der Aufbau grosser, monomodaler Sternkoppler,” Nachrichtentech. Z. 37, 636–638 (1984).
  3. M. E. Marhic, “Discrete Fourier Transforms by Single-Mode Star Networks,” Opt. Lett. 12, 63–65 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. E. Marhic, “Passive Single-Mode Optical Networks for Coherent Processing,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 209.
  5. Gould Electronics, Bulletin GD-36; Canstar type SM 3 × 3.
  6. R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, “Integrated Optics Eight-Port 90° Hybrid on LiNbO3,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 794–798 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. H. Rediker, B. G. Zollars, T. A. Lind, R. E. Hatch, B. E. Burke, “Measurement of the Wave Front of a Pulsed Dye Laser Using an Integrated-Optics Sensor with a 200–nsec Temporal Resolution,” Opt. Lett. 14, 381–383 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, “Integrated Optics Eight-Port 90° Hybrid on LiNbO3,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 794–798 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. H. Rediker, B. G. Zollars, T. A. Lind, R. E. Hatch, B. E. Burke, “Measurement of the Wave Front of a Pulsed Dye Laser Using an Integrated-Optics Sensor with a 200–nsec Temporal Resolution,” Opt. Lett. 14, 381–383 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1984 (2)

M. E. Marhic, “Hierarchic and Combinatorial Star Couplers,” Opt. Lett. 9, 368–370 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hermes, J. Saniter, F. Schmidt, “Der Aufbau grosser, monomodaler Sternkoppler,” Nachrichtentech. Z. 37, 636–638 (1984).

1980 (1)

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

Bergh, R. A.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

Burke, B. E.

Dietrich, E.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, “Integrated Optics Eight-Port 90° Hybrid on LiNbO3,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 794–798 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hatch, R. E.

Heidrich, H.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, “Integrated Optics Eight-Port 90° Hybrid on LiNbO3,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 794–798 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hermes, T.

T. Hermes, J. Saniter, F. Schmidt, “Der Aufbau grosser, monomodaler Sternkoppler,” Nachrichtentech. Z. 37, 636–638 (1984).

Hoffmann, D.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, “Integrated Optics Eight-Port 90° Hybrid on LiNbO3,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 794–798 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kotler, G.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

Langenhorst, R.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, “Integrated Optics Eight-Port 90° Hybrid on LiNbO3,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 794–798 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lind, T. A.

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic, “Discrete Fourier Transforms by Single-Mode Star Networks,” Opt. Lett. 12, 63–65 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Marhic, “Hierarchic and Combinatorial Star Couplers,” Opt. Lett. 9, 368–370 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Marhic, “Passive Single-Mode Optical Networks for Coherent Processing,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 209.

Rediker, R. H.

Saniter, J.

T. Hermes, J. Saniter, F. Schmidt, “Der Aufbau grosser, monomodaler Sternkoppler,” Nachrichtentech. Z. 37, 636–638 (1984).

Schmidt, F.

T. Hermes, J. Saniter, F. Schmidt, “Der Aufbau grosser, monomodaler Sternkoppler,” Nachrichtentech. Z. 37, 636–638 (1984).

Shaw, H. J.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wenke, G.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, “Integrated Optics Eight-Port 90° Hybrid on LiNbO3,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 794–798 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zollars, B. G.

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, E. Dietrich, “Integrated Optics Eight-Port 90° Hybrid on LiNbO3,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 794–798 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nachrichtentech. Z. (1)

T. Hermes, J. Saniter, F. Schmidt, “Der Aufbau grosser, monomodaler Sternkoppler,” Nachrichtentech. Z. 37, 636–638 (1984).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

M. E. Marhic, “Passive Single-Mode Optical Networks for Coherent Processing,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), p. 209.

Gould Electronics, Bulletin GD-36; Canstar type SM 3 × 3.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of a 3 × 3 PPF optical network made from three 2 × 2 couplers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Layout of a 3 × 3 NPPF optical network made from three 2 × 2 couplers: C1–C3 = 2 × 2 couplers; PZT = piezoelectric phase shifter; S1–S4 = splices; PC = polarization controllers.

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β 1 = x α 1 + y α 2 ,
β 2 = - y α 1 + x α 2 ,
b 1 = x 1 a 1 + y 1 a 2 ,
b 2 = - y 1 a 1 + x 1 a 2 ,
b 3 = a 3 ,
c 1 = u b 1 ,
c 2 = x 2 b 2 + y 2 b 3 ,
c 3 = - y 2 b 2 + x 2 b 3 ,
d 1 = x 3 c 1 + y 3 c 2 ,
d 2 = - y 3 c 1 + x 3 c 2 ,
d 3 = c 3 .
d 1 = ( u x 3 x 1 - y 3 x 2 y 1 ) a 1 + ( u x 3 y 1 + y 3 x 2 x 1 ) a 2 + y 3 y 2 a 3 ,
d 2 = - ( u y 3 x 1 - y 3 x 2 y 1 ) a 1 - ( u y 3 y 1 + x 3 x 2 x 1 ) a 2 + x 3 y 2 a 3 ,
d 3 = y 2 y 1 a 1 - y 2 x 1 a 2 + x 2 a 3 ,
d l = k = 1 3 C l k a k             l = 1 , 2 , 3.
C l k = 1 3 ,             l , k = 1 , 2 , 3.
x 1 = y 1 = x 3 = y 3 = 1 / 2 ,
C l k 1 2 ( ± u ± 1 3 , )             l , k = 1 , 2.
u = i .
B l = 1 3 k = 0 2 j k l A k ,             l = 0 , 1 , 2 ,
j = exp ( i 2 π 3 ) .
A 0 = a 3 ,             A 1 = - a 2 ,             A 2 = a 1 ,
B 0 = d 3 ,             B 1 = - d 2 ,             B 2 = d 1 .

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