Abstract

We investigated the average power limits of diode laser pumped slab lasers and present design calculations for several laser configurations. In the laser designs, a number of diode lasers, each one of which is coupled to an optical fiber are employed to pump a solid state laser material in a zigzag slab or a disk geometry. The systems described here can produce multiple kilowatts of average output power with currently available diode lasers in a cost-effective manner.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. L. Byer, “Diode Laser Pumped Solid State Lasers,” Science 239, 742–747 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres et al., “Advances in Diode Laser Pumps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-24, 883–894 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Begley, D. J. Krebs, “Diode-Laser-Pumped Neodymium Lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 3(13), 103 (1986).
  4. A. D. Hays, R. Burnham et al., “High-Efficiency Diode-Array Side-Pumped Neodymium lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, (Baltimore, 1989). paper PD9.
  5. J. Berger et al., “Fiber-Bundle Coupled, Diode End-Pumped Nd:YAG Laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 306–308 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Watanabe, S. Kudo et al., “Efficient and High-Power Nd:YAG Laser Multiple-Facet End Pumped by Laser Diodes,” in Technical Digest Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Baltimore, 1989), paper PD8.
  7. M. K. Reed, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, G. L. Harnagel, P. S. Cross, “Diode-Laser-Array-Pumped Neodymium Slab Oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 13, 204–206 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. M. Eggleston et al., “The Slab Geometry Laser I-Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Sakamoto et al., “76 W Monolithic Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2299–2300 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. B. Tuckerman, R. F. W. Pease, “High-Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI,” IEEE Electron. Devices Lett., EDL-2, 126–129 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Donnelly et al., “Monolithic Two-Dimensional Surface-Emitting Arrays of GaAs/AlGaAs Diode Lasers,” Appl. Phys. lett. 51, 1138–1140 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. W. Carlson et al., “High Power Seven-Element Grating Surface-Emitting Diode Laser Array with 0.012° Far Field Angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 939–941 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. K. Reed et al., “Static Gas Conduction Cooled Slab Geometry Nd:Glass Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 412–414 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Basu, R. L. Byer, “40-W Average Power, 30-Hz Moving-Slab Nd-Glass Laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 617–619 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Spectra Diode Labs, Model SDL-3490-S, Laser Diode Product Catalog (1989).
  16. C. Chang-Hasnain et al., “High-Intensity Fiber-Coupled Diode Laser Array,” Electron. Lett. 22, 65–66 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. J. Kozlovsky, T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode Pumped Continuous-Wave Nd:Glass Laser,” Opt. Lett., 11, 788–790 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Basu, R. L. Byer, “Continuous-Wave Mode-Locked Nd:Glass Laser Pumped by a Laser Diode,” Opt. Lett. 13, 458–460 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Unternahrer et al., “100-W Moving Slab Nd:glass Laser,” in SPIE Topical Conference 1021- on High Power Solid State Laser, Hamburg, F.R. Germany (1988).
  20. A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986).
  21. T. J. Kane, Coherent Laser Radar at 1.06 -Microns Using Solid State Lasers, PhD thesis, Stanford U. (1986).
  22. W. J. Tomlinson, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, “Compression of Optical Pulses by Self-Phase Modulation in Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 139–149 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Sizer, “Increase in Laser Repetition Rate by Spectral Selection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 97–103 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and Laser Characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125–132 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. A. B. Miller, “Multiple Quantum Well Optical Nonlinearities: Bistability from Increasing Absorption and the Self Electro-Optic Device,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, A313, 239–244 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. C. Brown, High Peak Power Solid State Lasers (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981).
  27. S. Basu, R. L. Byer, “Short Pulse Injection Seeding of Q-Switched Nd:Glass Laser Oscillators—Theory and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 149–157 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Maine “Generation of Ultrahigh Peak Power Pulses by Chirped Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398–403 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Basu, R. L. Byer, “Short Pulse Injection Seeding of Q-Switched Nd:Glass Laser Oscillators—Theory and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 149–157 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

T. Sizer, “Increase in Laser Repetition Rate by Spectral Selection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 97–103 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakamoto et al., “76 W Monolithic Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2299–2300 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (7)

N. W. Carlson et al., “High Power Seven-Element Grating Surface-Emitting Diode Laser Array with 0.012° Far Field Angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 939–941 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, “Diode Laser Pumped Solid State Lasers,” Science 239, 742–747 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres et al., “Advances in Diode Laser Pumps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-24, 883–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Maine “Generation of Ultrahigh Peak Power Pulses by Chirped Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398–403 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Reed, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, G. L. Harnagel, P. S. Cross, “Diode-Laser-Array-Pumped Neodymium Slab Oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 13, 204–206 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Berger et al., “Fiber-Bundle Coupled, Diode End-Pumped Nd:YAG Laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 306–308 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu, R. L. Byer, “Continuous-Wave Mode-Locked Nd:Glass Laser Pumped by a Laser Diode,” Opt. Lett. 13, 458–460 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. P. Donnelly et al., “Monolithic Two-Dimensional Surface-Emitting Arrays of GaAs/AlGaAs Diode Lasers,” Appl. Phys. lett. 51, 1138–1140 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (5)

1985 (1)

M. K. Reed et al., “Static Gas Conduction Cooled Slab Geometry Nd:Glass Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 412–414 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

J. M. Eggleston et al., “The Slab Geometry Laser I-Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, “Compression of Optical Pulses by Self-Phase Modulation in Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 139–149 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Multiple Quantum Well Optical Nonlinearities: Bistability from Increasing Absorption and the Self Electro-Optic Device,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, A313, 239–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. B. Tuckerman, R. F. W. Pease, “High-Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI,” IEEE Electron. Devices Lett., EDL-2, 126–129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Basu, S.

Begley, D. L.

D. L. Begley, D. J. Krebs, “Diode-Laser-Pumped Neodymium Lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 3(13), 103 (1986).

Berger, J.

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown, High Peak Power Solid State Lasers (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981).

Burnham, R.

A. D. Hays, R. Burnham et al., “High-Efficiency Diode-Array Side-Pumped Neodymium lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, (Baltimore, 1989). paper PD9.

Byer, R. L.

Carlson, N. W.

N. W. Carlson et al., “High Power Seven-Element Grating Surface-Emitting Diode Laser Array with 0.012° Far Field Angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 939–941 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C.

C. Chang-Hasnain et al., “High-Intensity Fiber-Coupled Diode Laser Array,” Electron. Lett. 22, 65–66 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cross, P. S.

Donnelly, J. P.

J. P. Donnelly et al., “Monolithic Two-Dimensional Surface-Emitting Arrays of GaAs/AlGaAs Diode Lasers,” Appl. Phys. lett. 51, 1138–1140 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eggleston, J. M.

J. M. Eggleston et al., “The Slab Geometry Laser I-Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Harnagel, G. L.

Hays, A. D.

A. D. Hays, R. Burnham et al., “High-Efficiency Diode-Array Side-Pumped Neodymium lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, (Baltimore, 1989). paper PD9.

Kane, T. J.

T. J. Kane, Coherent Laser Radar at 1.06 -Microns Using Solid State Lasers, PhD thesis, Stanford U. (1986).

Kozlovsky, W. J.

Krebs, D. J.

D. L. Begley, D. J. Krebs, “Diode-Laser-Pumped Neodymium Lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 3(13), 103 (1986).

Kudo, S.

S. Watanabe, S. Kudo et al., “Efficient and High-Power Nd:YAG Laser Multiple-Facet End Pumped by Laser Diodes,” in Technical Digest Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Baltimore, 1989), paper PD8.

Maine, P.

P. Maine “Generation of Ultrahigh Peak Power Pulses by Chirped Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398–403 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Multiple Quantum Well Optical Nonlinearities: Bistability from Increasing Absorption and the Self Electro-Optic Device,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, A313, 239–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Pease, R. F. W.

D. B. Tuckerman, R. F. W. Pease, “High-Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI,” IEEE Electron. Devices Lett., EDL-2, 126–129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reed, M. K.

M. K. Reed, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, G. L. Harnagel, P. S. Cross, “Diode-Laser-Array-Pumped Neodymium Slab Oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 13, 204–206 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Reed et al., “Static Gas Conduction Cooled Slab Geometry Nd:Glass Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 412–414 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, M.

M. Sakamoto et al., “76 W Monolithic Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2299–2300 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres et al., “Advances in Diode Laser Pumps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-24, 883–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986).

Sizer, T.

T. Sizer, “Increase in Laser Repetition Rate by Spectral Selection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 97–103 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres et al., “Advances in Diode Laser Pumps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-24, 883–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Tuckerman, D. B.

D. B. Tuckerman, R. F. W. Pease, “High-Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI,” IEEE Electron. Devices Lett., EDL-2, 126–129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Unternahrer, J.

J. Unternahrer et al., “100-W Moving Slab Nd:glass Laser,” in SPIE Topical Conference 1021- on High Power Solid State Laser, Hamburg, F.R. Germany (1988).

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, S. Kudo et al., “Efficient and High-Power Nd:YAG Laser Multiple-Facet End Pumped by Laser Diodes,” in Technical Digest Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Baltimore, 1989), paper PD8.

Appl. Phys. lett. (1)

J. P. Donnelly et al., “Monolithic Two-Dimensional Surface-Emitting Arrays of GaAs/AlGaAs Diode Lasers,” Appl. Phys. lett. 51, 1138–1140 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Carlson et al., “High Power Seven-Element Grating Surface-Emitting Diode Laser Array with 0.012° Far Field Angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 939–941 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakamoto et al., “76 W Monolithic Laser Diode Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2299–2300 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Chang-Hasnain et al., “High-Intensity Fiber-Coupled Diode Laser Array,” Electron. Lett. 22, 65–66 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Devices Lett. (1)

D. B. Tuckerman, R. F. W. Pease, “High-Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI,” IEEE Electron. Devices Lett., EDL-2, 126–129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

T. Sizer, “Increase in Laser Repetition Rate by Spectral Selection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 97–103 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Reed et al., “Static Gas Conduction Cooled Slab Geometry Nd:Glass Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 412–414 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres et al., “Advances in Diode Laser Pumps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-24, 883–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Eggleston et al., “The Slab Geometry Laser I-Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Basu, R. L. Byer, “Short Pulse Injection Seeding of Q-Switched Nd:Glass Laser Oscillators—Theory and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 149–157 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Maine “Generation of Ultrahigh Peak Power Pulses by Chirped Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398–403 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

D. L. Begley, D. J. Krebs, “Diode-Laser-Pumped Neodymium Lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 3(13), 103 (1986).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Multiple Quantum Well Optical Nonlinearities: Bistability from Increasing Absorption and the Self Electro-Optic Device,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, A313, 239–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. L. Byer, “Diode Laser Pumped Solid State Lasers,” Science 239, 742–747 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

A. D. Hays, R. Burnham et al., “High-Efficiency Diode-Array Side-Pumped Neodymium lasers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, (Baltimore, 1989). paper PD9.

Spectra Diode Labs, Model SDL-3490-S, Laser Diode Product Catalog (1989).

D. C. Brown, High Peak Power Solid State Lasers (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981).

J. Unternahrer et al., “100-W Moving Slab Nd:glass Laser,” in SPIE Topical Conference 1021- on High Power Solid State Laser, Hamburg, F.R. Germany (1988).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986).

T. J. Kane, Coherent Laser Radar at 1.06 -Microns Using Solid State Lasers, PhD thesis, Stanford U. (1986).

S. Watanabe, S. Kudo et al., “Efficient and High-Power Nd:YAG Laser Multiple-Facet End Pumped by Laser Diodes,” in Technical Digest Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Baltimore, 1989), paper PD8.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber-coupled diode laser pumped moving slab laser. In this configuration, a moving slab laser is pumped from both sides by two fiber modules. The fibers are coupled to high power laser diodes in diode laser banks. In the diode laser banks, sets of diode lasers with identical emission wavelengths are mounted on heat sinks which are temperature controlled to provide the maximum absorption of the diode laser light in the gain medium. The diode laser banks are connected to power supplies and cooling assemblies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a diode laser pumped moving disk laser. A circular spot on each disk is pumped by the focused output from a fiber coupled diode laser module. The disks are rotated and translated in their respective planes, which are at a fixed angle with the laser axis. A number of disks are assembled in series to generate high average power. The disks are cooled conductively, convectively, or radiatively in the unpumped region.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Proposed Design of Diode-Pumped Fixed-Slab Nd:YAG Lasers

Tables Icon

Table II Proposed Design of Diode-Pumped Moving-Slab Nd:YAG Lasers

Tables Icon

Table III Proposed Design of Diode-Pumped Moving-Slab Nd:glass Lasers

Tables Icon

Table IV Proposed Design of Diode-Pumped Moving Disk Lasers

Equations (12)

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P out = η storage η out ( P in - P th ) ,
η storage = η a η c ( λ pump / λ laser ) η u η f ,
2 g = 2 η storage P in / ( I sat w t cos θ ) ,
p th = ( I sat w t cos θ / 2 η storage ) [ ln ( 1 - T ) + ln ( 1 - L ) ] .
η out = T T + L ( 1 - T ) / ( 1 - L ) ,
A h = η h p in t / ( 12 b R s ) .
R s = ( 1 - v ) k σ fracture α E ,
d = ( 2 t / n ) cos θ ,
B = W / t .
P in = 12 b R s π r 2 / ( η h t ) .
2 g = 2 N η storage P in I sat π w p 2 sin θ B ,
N r = η h P in / ( Δ T max C p π 2 w p t r ) ,

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