Abstract

We have developed a device whereby a laser beam is converted to a square and uniform output intensity distribution. This device consists of a square pillar. The laser beam enters the square pillar at a specified incident angle, and uniform output intensity distribution is obtained at the end of the pillar. We describe the theory and the characteristics and uses of this device. Furthermore, we developed the ruby and argon laser systems in which this device is incorporated as the handpiece. It is mainly for clinical use, but also for industrial purposes such as soldering and marking.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. E. Grojean et al., “Production of Flat Top Beam Profiles for High Energy Lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 375–376 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Iwasaki et al., “Development of New Ruby Laser System for Treatment of Nevus,” in Abstracts, Sixth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1985), p. 6.
  3. R. Tanino et al., “New Ruby Laser System with Kaleidoscope,” in Abstracts, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1981), paper 24.10~24.13.
  4. K. Iwasaki et al., “Development of Argon Laser System with Kaleidoscanner,” in Abstracts, Sixth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1985), p. 4.
  5. N. Hosina et al., “Uniform Laser Output Intensity Transmission System and Its Applications,” in Abstracts, the Precision Engineering Society Spring Meeting (1985), pp. 155–156 in Japanese.

1985 (3)

K. Iwasaki et al., “Development of New Ruby Laser System for Treatment of Nevus,” in Abstracts, Sixth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1985), p. 6.

K. Iwasaki et al., “Development of Argon Laser System with Kaleidoscanner,” in Abstracts, Sixth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1985), p. 4.

N. Hosina et al., “Uniform Laser Output Intensity Transmission System and Its Applications,” in Abstracts, the Precision Engineering Society Spring Meeting (1985), pp. 155–156 in Japanese.

1980 (1)

R. E. Grojean et al., “Production of Flat Top Beam Profiles for High Energy Lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 375–376 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grojean, R. E.

R. E. Grojean et al., “Production of Flat Top Beam Profiles for High Energy Lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 375–376 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosina, N.

N. Hosina et al., “Uniform Laser Output Intensity Transmission System and Its Applications,” in Abstracts, the Precision Engineering Society Spring Meeting (1985), pp. 155–156 in Japanese.

Iwasaki, K.

K. Iwasaki et al., “Development of Argon Laser System with Kaleidoscanner,” in Abstracts, Sixth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1985), p. 4.

K. Iwasaki et al., “Development of New Ruby Laser System for Treatment of Nevus,” in Abstracts, Sixth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1985), p. 6.

Tanino, R.

R. Tanino et al., “New Ruby Laser System with Kaleidoscope,” in Abstracts, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1981), paper 24.10~24.13.

Abstracts, Sixth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (2)

K. Iwasaki et al., “Development of New Ruby Laser System for Treatment of Nevus,” in Abstracts, Sixth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1985), p. 6.

K. Iwasaki et al., “Development of Argon Laser System with Kaleidoscanner,” in Abstracts, Sixth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1985), p. 4.

Abstracts, the Precision Engineering Society Spring Meeting (1)

N. Hosina et al., “Uniform Laser Output Intensity Transmission System and Its Applications,” in Abstracts, the Precision Engineering Society Spring Meeting (1985), pp. 155–156 in Japanese.

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. E. Grojean et al., “Production of Flat Top Beam Profiles for High Energy Lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 375–376 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Tanino et al., “New Ruby Laser System with Kaleidoscope,” in Abstracts, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine (1981), paper 24.10~24.13.

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Figures (23)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of construction showing the principle of laser beam flattening.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship of light propagation in air and between the parallel plates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between length of the hollow square pillar and the light transmission ratio as a function of the reflection ratio (K) of the pillar surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between length of the hollow square pillar and variation of the light output laser distribution as a function of the reflection ratio (K) of the pillar surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between length of the square pillar and variation of output laser distribution in the case of total reflection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output distribution calculated by Eq. (5).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

He–Ne laser beam profiles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ruby laser beam profiles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Outlook of the ruby laser system.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cross section of the ruby laser handpiece.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relationship between the focal length of the lens and the size of the rod.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Irradiation pattern in various fields.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Clinical application (during treatment).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Example of clinical data: top, before treatment; bottom, 1 yr after treatment.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Construction of the Kaleidoscanner.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Outlook of the argon laser system and Kaleidoscanner handpiece.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Distribution of output at the ends of the square pillars of the Kaleidoscanner handpiece (numerals represent output in watts).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Pictures showing the treatment procedure: left to right, before treatment, during treatment, immediately after treatment. The white lines show the treated area; the red (dark) area will be treated later (zebra method).

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Example of clinical data, left, before treatment; right, 1 yr after treatment.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Experimental YAG laser system for laser processing.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Rectangular irradiation field.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Laser soldering by a rectangular laser beam.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Laser marking on an IC package using the laser beam flattening technique.

Tables (2)

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Table I Specifications of the Ruby Laser System (LRT-301A)

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Table II Specifications of the Argon Laser System (LAT-101A)

Equations (10)

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y = ( - 1 ) n [ res ( Y + a 2 Y Y ) / a - a 2 Y Y ] .
x = ( - 1 ) m [ res ( X + b 2 X X ) / b - b 2 X X ] ,
n = ( Y + a 2 · Y Y ) - res ( Y + a 2 · Y Y ) / a - a ,
m = ( X + b 2 · X X ) - res ( X + b 2 · X X ) / b - b .
I ( x , y ) = W 0 exp - ( x 2 + y 2 S ) ,
W ( ϕ ) = I ( f tan ϕ ) · f 2 cos 3 ϕ .
σ X · Y = f 2 B W 0 exp · [ - f 2 ( X 2 + Y 2 ) S 2 B 2 ] ,
σ x y = f 2 B 2 W 0 exp [ - f 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) S 2 B 2 ] + f 2 B 2 W 0 m = 1 ( K m exp { - f 2 y 2 + [ m b × ( - 1 ) m x ] 2 S 2 B 2 } + K m exp { - f 2 y 2 + [ - m b + ( - 1 ) m x ] 2 S 2 B 2 } ) + f 2 B 2 W 0 n = 1 ( K n exp { - f 2 x 2 + [ n a + ( - 1 ) n y ] 2 S 2 B 2 } + K n exp { - f 2 x 2 + [ - n a + ( - 1 ) n y ] 2 S 2 B 2 } ) + f 2 B 2 W 0 n = 1 m = 1 ( k n + m exp { - f 2 S 2 B 2 [ m b + ( - 1 ) m x ] 2 + [ n a + ( - 1 ) n y ] 2 } + K n + m exp { - f 2 S 2 B 2 [ - m b + ( - 1 ) m x ] 2 + [ n a + ( - 1 ) n y ] 2 } + K n + m exp { - f 2 S 2 B 2 [ - m b + ( - 1 ) m x ] 2 + [ - n a + ( - 1 ) n y ] 2 } + K n + m exp { - f 2 S 2 B 2 [ m b + ( - 1 ) m x ] 2 + [ - n a + ( - 1 ) n y ] 2 } ) ,
ϕ = N 1 N 2 sin - 1 θ ,
N 2 sin ϕ = N 1 sin θ .

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