Abstract

The feasibility of making multilayer optical filters using polymerized solgel solutions was demonstrated. Theoretical modeling was done to determine the expected optical response of multilayer coatings with various index profiles to select a coating design which was achievable using current technology and which would demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The selected design consisted of a multilayer film whose index profile approximated a sine function, simulating the rugate concept for maximum reflection at 1.5 μm using a silicon substrate. Samples were prepared with 21, 29, and 37 layers. Agreement between the actual and the predicted optical performance of these films was good, showing that this method can be used to produce optical coatings having complicated index profiles.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965).
  2. C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate Filters by Laser Flash Evaporation of SiOxNy on Room Temperature Polycarbonate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 821, 198–204 (1987).
  3. P. Baumeister, “Simulation of a Rugate Filter Via a Stepped-Index Dielectric Multilayer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2644–2645 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Laser-Induced Surface and Coating Damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1888–1903 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Milam, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Private Communication, October (1988).
  6. B. E. Yoldas, T. W. O’Keeffe, “Antireflective Coatings Applied from Metal-Organic Derived Liquid Precursors,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3133–3138 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. I.M. Thomas, “HR Coatings Prepared from ColloidalSuspensions,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Annual Symposium on OpticalMaterials for High Power Lasers (Boulder, CO, Oct. 1987).

1987 (1)

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate Filters by Laser Flash Evaporation of SiOxNy on Room Temperature Polycarbonate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 821, 198–204 (1987).

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Laser-Induced Surface and Coating Damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1888–1903 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

Bartholomew, C. S.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate Filters by Laser Flash Evaporation of SiOxNy on Room Temperature Polycarbonate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 821, 198–204 (1987).

Baumeister, P.

Betz, H. T.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate Filters by Laser Flash Evaporation of SiOxNy on Room Temperature Polycarbonate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 821, 198–204 (1987).

Grieser, J. L.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate Filters by Laser Flash Evaporation of SiOxNy on Room Temperature Polycarbonate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 821, 198–204 (1987).

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965).

Lowdermilk, W. H.

W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Laser-Induced Surface and Coating Damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1888–1903 (1981).
[Crossref]

Milam, D.

W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Laser-Induced Surface and Coating Damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1888–1903 (1981).
[Crossref]

D. Milam, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Private Communication, October (1988).

Murarka, N. P.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate Filters by Laser Flash Evaporation of SiOxNy on Room Temperature Polycarbonate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 821, 198–204 (1987).

O’Keeffe, T. W.

Spence, R. A.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate Filters by Laser Flash Evaporation of SiOxNy on Room Temperature Polycarbonate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 821, 198–204 (1987).

Thomas, I.M.

I.M. Thomas, “HR Coatings Prepared from ColloidalSuspensions,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Annual Symposium on OpticalMaterials for High Power Lasers (Boulder, CO, Oct. 1987).

Yoldas, B. E.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Laser-Induced Surface and Coating Damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1888–1903 (1981).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate Filters by Laser Flash Evaporation of SiOxNy on Room Temperature Polycarbonate,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 821, 198–204 (1987).

Other (3)

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965).

D. Milam, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Private Communication, October (1988).

I.M. Thomas, “HR Coatings Prepared from ColloidalSuspensions,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Annual Symposium on OpticalMaterials for High Power Lasers (Boulder, CO, Oct. 1987).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation in the refractive index of thin films prepared by the solgel process using different compositions within the SiO2–TiO2 binary system (from Ref. 6 with permission).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index and thickness of the layers comprising one cycle of the stepped-profile rugate coating design used in this work.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index and thickness of a multicycle stepped-profile rugate as in Fig. 2, including the silicon substrate as well as the layers which compensate for the transitions into the substrate and into the air medium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the experimental (top) and the theoretical (bottom) spectral reflectivity of a completed 37-layer stepped-index film. The experimental curve was measured using a gold reference mirror and the back surface of the substrate was roughened prior to the measurement to suppress reflection from this face.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral transmission of the completed 37-layer film from Fig. 4.

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