Abstract

An absolute reflectometer for the 0.8–5.5-μm wavelength region is described. It is based on integrating spheres and uses the third Taylor method in the 7°/d configuration. An improved theory for the reduction of the data is presented, and results for several diffuse gold samples are given.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Budde, “Calibration of Reflectance Standards,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 585–595 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Budde, C. X. Dodd, “Absolute Reflectance Measurements in the d/0 Geometry,” Die Farbe 19, 94–102 (1970).
  3. D. Sheffer, U. P. Oppenheim, D. Clement, A. D. Devir, “Absolute Reflectometer for the 0.8–2.5-μm Region,” Appl. Opt. 26, 583–586 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. H. Sharp, W. F. Little, “Measurement of Reflection Factors,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 15, 802–810 (1920).
  5. F. J. J. Clark, D. J. Parry, “Helmholtz Reciprocity: Its Validity and Application to Reflectometry,” Light. Res. Technol. 17, 1–11 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, Eds., The Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1978), Chap. 7, pp. 7–81.

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

F. J. J. Clark, D. J. Parry, “Helmholtz Reciprocity: Its Validity and Application to Reflectometry,” Light. Res. Technol. 17, 1–11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. Budde, “Calibration of Reflectance Standards,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 585–595 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

W. Budde, C. X. Dodd, “Absolute Reflectance Measurements in the d/0 Geometry,” Die Farbe 19, 94–102 (1970).

1920 (1)

C. H. Sharp, W. F. Little, “Measurement of Reflection Factors,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 15, 802–810 (1920).

Budde, W.

W. Budde, “Calibration of Reflectance Standards,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 585–595 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. Budde, C. X. Dodd, “Absolute Reflectance Measurements in the d/0 Geometry,” Die Farbe 19, 94–102 (1970).

Clark, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clark, D. J. Parry, “Helmholtz Reciprocity: Its Validity and Application to Reflectometry,” Light. Res. Technol. 17, 1–11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Clement, D.

Devir, A. D.

Dodd, C. X.

W. Budde, C. X. Dodd, “Absolute Reflectance Measurements in the d/0 Geometry,” Die Farbe 19, 94–102 (1970).

Little, W. F.

C. H. Sharp, W. F. Little, “Measurement of Reflection Factors,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 15, 802–810 (1920).

Oppenheim, U. P.

Parry, D. J.

F. J. J. Clark, D. J. Parry, “Helmholtz Reciprocity: Its Validity and Application to Reflectometry,” Light. Res. Technol. 17, 1–11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, C. H.

C. H. Sharp, W. F. Little, “Measurement of Reflection Factors,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 15, 802–810 (1920).

Sheffer, D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Die Farbe (1)

W. Budde, C. X. Dodd, “Absolute Reflectance Measurements in the d/0 Geometry,” Die Farbe 19, 94–102 (1970).

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A (1)

W. Budde, “Calibration of Reflectance Standards,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 585–595 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Light. Res. Technol. (1)

F. J. J. Clark, D. J. Parry, “Helmholtz Reciprocity: Its Validity and Application to Reflectometry,” Light. Res. Technol. 17, 1–11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (1)

C. H. Sharp, W. F. Little, “Measurement of Reflection Factors,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 15, 802–810 (1920).

Other (1)

W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, Eds., The Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1978), Chap. 7, pp. 7–81.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system for absolute reflectance measurements in the infrared region (schematic): S2, projection lamp; M3,M4,M7, plane mirrors; M5,M6, spherical mirrors; GB, globar; I.S.1,I.S.2, absolute integrating spheres; C.V.F.1,C.V.F.2, circular variable filters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Integrating sphere for the absolute measurement of diffuse reflectance (schematic).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured K values for NIST (formerly NBS) standard reference material No. 2019b.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance of NIST standard reference material No. 2019b as calculated at EORC according to Budde’s2 theory using the K values of Fig. 3, compared with the reflectance values provided by the NIST.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance of NIST standard reference material No. 2019b as calculated by the new theory, using the K values of Fig. 3 (dotted curve). The full curve shows results provided by the NIST.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic drawing of an integrating sphere using the third Taylor method for making absolute reflectance measurements, illustrating the various physical quantities appearing in Eqs. (3) and (4).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absolute reflectance values of several diffuse gold samples in the 0.8–5.5-μm region. Most of the error bars have been omitted for clarity. For explanation of the symbols see text.

Equations (4)

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r 1 = K A 0 - A 1 · ( r 1 - r 2 ) ( A 1 + A 2 ) .
r 1 = K A 0 ( A 1 + A 2 ) .
E · r 1 3 + F · r 1 2 + G · r 1 + H = 0 ,
a · r 2 2 + b · r 2 + c = 0 ,

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