Abstract

The spectral modulation transfer function (MTF) of several architecturally identical commercial linear silicon charge coupled imagers (CCIs) was measured and compared to an MTF theory that included the effects of detector aperture and lateral diffusion in one dimension. A successful match between experimental data and theory was possible for proper choices of the detector aperture function and minority carrier lifetime. Long-wave (>800-nm) MTF and spectral quantum efficiency (QE) data were very well correlated over the set of CCIs that were measured, indicating the key role of carrier lifetime (or equivalently carrier diffusion length) in determining both characteristics. This correlation was verified by exercising the MTF and QE models, tailored for the CCIs devices, with carrier lifetime as one of the free parameters.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. H. Crowell, E. F. Labuda, “The Silicon Diode Array Camera Tube,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 1481–1528 (1969).
  2. G. F. Amelio et al., “Charge-Coupled Imaging Devices: Design Consideration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 986–991 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. F. Barbe, M. H. White, “A Tradeoff Analysis for CCD Area Imagers: Frontside Illuminated Interline Transfer vs. Backside Illuminated Frame Transfer,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 13–20.
  4. S. B. Campana, “Charged-Coupled Devices for Low Light-Level Imaging,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 235–246.
  5. R. D. Nelson, W. P. Waters, “CCD Modulation Transfer Function,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 207–216.
  6. D. H. Sieb, “Carrier Diffusion Degradation of Modulation Transfer Function in Charged Coupled Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-21, 210–217 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. R. Shortes et al., “Characteristics of Thinned Backside-Illuminated Charge-Coupled Device Imagers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 565–567 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. G. Chamberlain, D. H. Harper, “MTF Simulation Including Transmittance Effects and Experimental Results of Charge-Coupled Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 145–154 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. H. Hosack, “Aperture Response and Optical Performance of Patterned-Electrode Virtual Phase Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-28, 53–63 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Lee et al., “A Solid-State Image Sensor for Image Recording at 2000 Frames per Second,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 1469–1477 (1982).
  11. F. Chazallet, J. Glasser, “Theoretical Bases and Measurement of the MTF of Integrated Image Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 549, 131–144 (1985).
  12. G. Declerck et al., “The DEPLI Sensor: A New Structure for Very-High-Resolution Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1551–1563 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. The CCIs used were Fairchild Linear CCD 134 devices as described in the Fairchild CCD Databook (1987), pp. 59–67.
  14. M. P. Kesler, T. S. Lomheim, “Spectral Response Nonuniformity Analysis of Charge-Coupled Imagers,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3653–3663 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. W. Coltman, “The Specification of Imaging Properties by Response to Sine Wave Input,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 468–471 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, Discrete Time Systems and Signals (Reston, Reston, VA, 1983), pp. 123–125.
  17. The mirrors were fabricated by the Star Optical Co., Flagstaff, AZ.
  18. E. L. O’Neil, “Transfer Function for an Annular Aperture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 285 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986), p. 67.

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

F. Chazallet, J. Glasser, “Theoretical Bases and Measurement of the MTF of Integrated Image Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 549, 131–144 (1985).

G. Declerck et al., “The DEPLI Sensor: A New Structure for Very-High-Resolution Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1551–1563 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. Lee et al., “A Solid-State Image Sensor for Image Recording at 2000 Frames per Second,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 1469–1477 (1982).

1981 (1)

H. H. Hosack, “Aperture Response and Optical Performance of Patterned-Electrode Virtual Phase Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-28, 53–63 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

S. G. Chamberlain, D. H. Harper, “MTF Simulation Including Transmittance Effects and Experimental Results of Charge-Coupled Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 145–154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

D. H. Sieb, “Carrier Diffusion Degradation of Modulation Transfer Function in Charged Coupled Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-21, 210–217 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Shortes et al., “Characteristics of Thinned Backside-Illuminated Charge-Coupled Device Imagers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 565–567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

G. F. Amelio et al., “Charge-Coupled Imaging Devices: Design Consideration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 986–991 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. H. Crowell, E. F. Labuda, “The Silicon Diode Array Camera Tube,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 1481–1528 (1969).

1956 (1)

1954 (1)

Ahmed, N.

N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, Discrete Time Systems and Signals (Reston, Reston, VA, 1983), pp. 123–125.

Amelio, G. F.

G. F. Amelio et al., “Charge-Coupled Imaging Devices: Design Consideration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 986–991 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, D. F.

D. F. Barbe, M. H. White, “A Tradeoff Analysis for CCD Area Imagers: Frontside Illuminated Interline Transfer vs. Backside Illuminated Frame Transfer,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 13–20.

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986), p. 67.

Campana, S. B.

S. B. Campana, “Charged-Coupled Devices for Low Light-Level Imaging,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 235–246.

Chamberlain, S. G.

S. G. Chamberlain, D. H. Harper, “MTF Simulation Including Transmittance Effects and Experimental Results of Charge-Coupled Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 145–154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chazallet, F.

F. Chazallet, J. Glasser, “Theoretical Bases and Measurement of the MTF of Integrated Image Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 549, 131–144 (1985).

Coltman, J. W.

Crowell, M. H.

M. H. Crowell, E. F. Labuda, “The Silicon Diode Array Camera Tube,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 1481–1528 (1969).

Declerck, G.

G. Declerck et al., “The DEPLI Sensor: A New Structure for Very-High-Resolution Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1551–1563 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Glasser, J.

F. Chazallet, J. Glasser, “Theoretical Bases and Measurement of the MTF of Integrated Image Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 549, 131–144 (1985).

Harper, D. H.

S. G. Chamberlain, D. H. Harper, “MTF Simulation Including Transmittance Effects and Experimental Results of Charge-Coupled Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 145–154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hosack, H. H.

H. H. Hosack, “Aperture Response and Optical Performance of Patterned-Electrode Virtual Phase Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-28, 53–63 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kesler, M. P.

Labuda, E. F.

M. H. Crowell, E. F. Labuda, “The Silicon Diode Array Camera Tube,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 1481–1528 (1969).

Lee, T.

T. Lee et al., “A Solid-State Image Sensor for Image Recording at 2000 Frames per Second,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 1469–1477 (1982).

Lomheim, T. S.

Natarajan, T.

N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, Discrete Time Systems and Signals (Reston, Reston, VA, 1983), pp. 123–125.

Nelson, R. D.

R. D. Nelson, W. P. Waters, “CCD Modulation Transfer Function,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 207–216.

O’Neil, E. L.

Shortes, S. R.

S. R. Shortes et al., “Characteristics of Thinned Backside-Illuminated Charge-Coupled Device Imagers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 565–567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sieb, D. H.

D. H. Sieb, “Carrier Diffusion Degradation of Modulation Transfer Function in Charged Coupled Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-21, 210–217 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Waters, W. P.

R. D. Nelson, W. P. Waters, “CCD Modulation Transfer Function,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 207–216.

White, M. H.

D. F. Barbe, M. H. White, “A Tradeoff Analysis for CCD Area Imagers: Frontside Illuminated Interline Transfer vs. Backside Illuminated Frame Transfer,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 13–20.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. R. Shortes et al., “Characteristics of Thinned Backside-Illuminated Charge-Coupled Device Imagers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 565–567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

M. H. Crowell, E. F. Labuda, “The Silicon Diode Array Camera Tube,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 1481–1528 (1969).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (6)

G. F. Amelio et al., “Charge-Coupled Imaging Devices: Design Consideration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 986–991 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Chamberlain, D. H. Harper, “MTF Simulation Including Transmittance Effects and Experimental Results of Charge-Coupled Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 145–154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Hosack, “Aperture Response and Optical Performance of Patterned-Electrode Virtual Phase Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-28, 53–63 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Lee et al., “A Solid-State Image Sensor for Image Recording at 2000 Frames per Second,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 1469–1477 (1982).

D. H. Sieb, “Carrier Diffusion Degradation of Modulation Transfer Function in Charged Coupled Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-21, 210–217 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. Declerck et al., “The DEPLI Sensor: A New Structure for Very-High-Resolution Imagers,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1551–1563 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

F. Chazallet, J. Glasser, “Theoretical Bases and Measurement of the MTF of Integrated Image Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 549, 131–144 (1985).

Other (7)

D. F. Barbe, M. H. White, “A Tradeoff Analysis for CCD Area Imagers: Frontside Illuminated Interline Transfer vs. Backside Illuminated Frame Transfer,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 13–20.

S. B. Campana, “Charged-Coupled Devices for Low Light-Level Imaging,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 235–246.

R. D. Nelson, W. P. Waters, “CCD Modulation Transfer Function,” in Proceedings, CCD Applications Conference, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, 18–20 Sept. 1973, pp. 207–216.

The CCIs used were Fairchild Linear CCD 134 devices as described in the Fairchild CCD Databook (1987), pp. 59–67.

N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, Discrete Time Systems and Signals (Reston, Reston, VA, 1983), pp. 123–125.

The mirrors were fabricated by the Star Optical Co., Flagstaff, AZ.

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986), p. 67.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional structure of linear Fair-child 134 CCI devices Short-wavelength radiation creates signal electrons at a lesser depth than longer-wavelength light. (b) Top view of the linear CCI architecture (taken from Ref. 13, pp. 59–67). (c) CCI photosite geometry and light shield location definitions (Ref. 13, pp. 59–67).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Square-wave four-bar patterns used as input to the CCI MTF measurement system. These patterns were formed as chrome strips on a glass substrate. (b) Experimental configuration used for the CCI spectral MTF measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of measurement setup used to characterize the MTF of the reimager-based optical system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Knife-edge power S(x) and line spread function LSF(x) data collected from the reflective reimager. S(x) and LSF(x) are defined by Eq. (10).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reimager MTF at λ = 632.8 nm showing measurement noise effects as propagated from the direct S(x) measurement through to the MTF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Oscillograms that show four-bar patterns imaged onto a CCI linear device in the direction of the photosites. The four-bar patterns were translated across the pixel on the optical axis of the reimager for the actual MTF measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Quantum efficiency vs wavelength for the linear CCIs based on a model from Ref. 14. Plots show results for carrier diffusion lengths of 15, 75, and 125 μm. Data points are the measured quantum efficiency for devices A, B, C, and D.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral MTF measurements for device A at five wavelengths from 600 to 1000 nm out to a spatial frequency of 40 lp/mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral MTF measurements at λ = 600, 800, and 1000 nm with corresponding overlay of theoretical MTF curves. A trapezoidal aperture [see Fig. 10(a)] is assumed in all four cases: (a) device A data; model parameters are Ldiff =125 μm; Ldepl = 2 μm; (b) device B data; model parameters are Ldiff = 75 μm; Ldepl = 2 μm; (c) device C data; model parameters are Ldiff = 75 μm; Ldepl = 2 μm; (d) device D data; model parameters are Ldiff = 15 μm; Ldepl = 2 μm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Comparison of trapezoidal and sinc-squared photosite aperture functions in the along-photoside directions, where A = 13 μm and B = 8 μm. (b) Comparison of the MTFs for the trapezoidal and sinc-squared apertures in Fig. 10(a). F indicates the Fourier transform with A = 13 μm and B = 8 μm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral MTF measurements at λ = 600, 800, and 1000 nm with corresponding overlay of theoretical MTF curves. A sinc-squared aperture [see Fig. 10(a)] is assumed in all four cases: (a) device A data; model parameters are Ldiff = 125 μm; Ldepl = 5 μm; (b) device B data; model parameters are Ldiff = 75 μm; Ldepl = 5 μm; (c) device C data; model parameters are Ldiff = 75 μm; Ldepl = 5 μm; (d) device D data; model parameters are Ldiff =15 μm; Ldepl = 2 μm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of the MTFs of the four devices at a wavelength of 1000 nm.

Equations (17)

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MTF CCI ( f ) = MTF apt ( f ) MTF diff ( λ , f ) ,
MTF diff = 1 [ exp ( α L depl ) / ( 1 + α L ) ] 1 [ exp ( α L depl ) / ( 1 + α L diff ) ] ,
L = L diff 1 + 4 π 2 L diff 2 f 2 .
L diff = D τ ,
MTF CCI = MTF CCI ( f , λ, τ ) , QE = QE ( λ , τ ) .
CTF ( f ) = 4 π [ MTF ( f ) MTF ( 3 f ) 3 + MTF ( 5 f ) 5 MTF ( 7 f ) 7 + ] ,
MTF ( f ) = π 4 [ CTF ( f ) CTF ( 3 f ) 3 CTF ( 5 f ) 5 CTF ( 7 f ) 7 ] .
f = 2 m f N ± f meas , m = 1 , 2 , 3 , .
S ( x ) = x + PSF ( x , y ) d x d y
LSF ( x ) = PSF ( x , y ) d y ,
S ( x ) = x LSF ( x ) d x and d S / d x = LSF ( x ) .
MTF ( f x ) = | + LSF ( x ) exp ( 2 π i f x x ) d x | .
CTF ( f ) = I max I min I max + I min .
trap ( A , B ) = { 0 , | x | 2 A B , x A B + 2 A B 2 ( A B ) , A + B 2 x A B 2 , 1 , | x | B 2 , x A B + 2 A B 2 ( A B ) , B 2 x A B 2 ,
sinc 2 ( x / A ) = [ sin ( π x / A ) / ( π x / A ) ] 2 ,
MTF trap = sinc ( A f ) sinc [ ( A B ) f ] , f 0 ,
MTF sinc 2 = 1 A f , f 0 ,

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