Abstract

A dual far infrared laser has been constructed and its properties have been exploited to probe tokamaklike discharges in the CDX toroidal device. Thermal variation of the difference frequency between the two far infrared cavities is slow, although the cavities lack thermal stabilization, simply because their assembly on the same chassis exposes them to virtually identical temperature changes. The optical arrangement beyond the laser permits conversion within minutes between interferometry and density fluctuation observation, and within an hour between different operating wavelengths. Line average densities of 2 × 1013 cm−3 and coherent fluctuations in the neighborhood of 20 kHz have been measured with this diagnostic.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Ono, G. J. Greene, D. S. Darrow, C. Forest, H. K. Park, T. H. Stix. “Steady-State Tokamak Discharge via dc Helicity Injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2165 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. C. Luhmann, W. A. Peebles, “Instrumentation for Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 279 (1984), Sec. I and references therein; D. Véron, “Submillimeter Interferometry of High Density Plasmas,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 2, K. J. Button, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Ref. 2, Sec. III.D.2.
  4. A. Semet, A. Mase, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, S. Zweben, “Study of Low-Frequency Microturbulence in the Microtor Tokamak by Far-Infrared Laser Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 445 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Goree, “The Backward Electrostatic Ion-Cyclotron Wave, Fast Wave Current Drive, and FIR Laser Scattering,” Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton U. (1985).
  6. D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, S. K. Kim, N. C. Luhmann, “Far-Infrared Scattering Measurements of Density Fluctuations in the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part III, p. 1314.
  7. S. K. Kim, D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, “High-Resolution Interferometry on the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part 1, p. 148.
  8. T. Lehecka, R. Savage, R. Dworak, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, A. Semet, “High-Power, Twin-Frequency FIR Lasers for Plasma Diagnostic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1986 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Manufactured by Buckbee-Mears, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.
  10. H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, N. R. Erickson, “Far-IR Heterodyne Radiometric Measurements with Quasioptical Schottky Diode Mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory.
  12. J. J. Gustincic, “Receiver Design Principles,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 105, 40 (1977).
  13. T. Tsukishima, I. Nishida, M. Nagatsu, H. Inuzuka, K. Mizuno, “Dual Homodyne Detection System for Measuring Asymmetric Spectra in the Far-Infrared Regime,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 560 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, C. P. Ritz, E. J. Powers, “Resolving the Propagation Direction of Tokamak Microturbulence Via Homodyne Spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1977 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. K. Park, “Tokamak Plasma Wave Studies Via Multi-Channel Far Infrared Laser Scattering,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, Los Angeles (1984).

1987

M. Ono, G. J. Greene, D. S. Darrow, C. Forest, H. K. Park, T. H. Stix. “Steady-State Tokamak Discharge via dc Helicity Injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

T. Lehecka, R. Savage, R. Dworak, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, A. Semet, “High-Power, Twin-Frequency FIR Lasers for Plasma Diagnostic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1986 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsukishima, I. Nishida, M. Nagatsu, H. Inuzuka, K. Mizuno, “Dual Homodyne Detection System for Measuring Asymmetric Spectra in the Far-Infrared Regime,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 560 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, C. P. Ritz, E. J. Powers, “Resolving the Propagation Direction of Tokamak Microturbulence Via Homodyne Spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1977 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

N. C. Luhmann, W. A. Peebles, “Instrumentation for Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 279 (1984), Sec. I and references therein; D. Véron, “Submillimeter Interferometry of High Density Plasmas,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 2, K. J. Button, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. Semet, A. Mase, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, S. Zweben, “Study of Low-Frequency Microturbulence in the Microtor Tokamak by Far-Infrared Laser Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 445 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, N. R. Erickson, “Far-IR Heterodyne Radiometric Measurements with Quasioptical Schottky Diode Mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. J. Gustincic, “Receiver Design Principles,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 105, 40 (1977).

Brower, D. L.

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, C. P. Ritz, E. J. Powers, “Resolving the Propagation Direction of Tokamak Microturbulence Via Homodyne Spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1977 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, S. K. Kim, N. C. Luhmann, “Far-Infrared Scattering Measurements of Density Fluctuations in the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part III, p. 1314.

S. K. Kim, D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, “High-Resolution Interferometry on the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part 1, p. 148.

Clifton, B. J.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, N. R. Erickson, “Far-IR Heterodyne Radiometric Measurements with Quasioptical Schottky Diode Mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, D. S.

M. Ono, G. J. Greene, D. S. Darrow, C. Forest, H. K. Park, T. H. Stix. “Steady-State Tokamak Discharge via dc Helicity Injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dworak, R.

T. Lehecka, R. Savage, R. Dworak, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, A. Semet, “High-Power, Twin-Frequency FIR Lasers for Plasma Diagnostic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1986 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, N. R.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, N. R. Erickson, “Far-IR Heterodyne Radiometric Measurements with Quasioptical Schottky Diode Mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, N. R. Erickson, “Far-IR Heterodyne Radiometric Measurements with Quasioptical Schottky Diode Mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, W. D.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, N. R. Erickson, “Far-IR Heterodyne Radiometric Measurements with Quasioptical Schottky Diode Mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Forest, C.

M. Ono, G. J. Greene, D. S. Darrow, C. Forest, H. K. Park, T. H. Stix. “Steady-State Tokamak Discharge via dc Helicity Injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goree, J. A.

J. A. Goree, “The Backward Electrostatic Ion-Cyclotron Wave, Fast Wave Current Drive, and FIR Laser Scattering,” Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton U. (1985).

Greene, G. J.

M. Ono, G. J. Greene, D. S. Darrow, C. Forest, H. K. Park, T. H. Stix. “Steady-State Tokamak Discharge via dc Helicity Injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustincic, J. J.

J. J. Gustincic, “Receiver Design Principles,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 105, 40 (1977).

Inuzuka, H.

T. Tsukishima, I. Nishida, M. Nagatsu, H. Inuzuka, K. Mizuno, “Dual Homodyne Detection System for Measuring Asymmetric Spectra in the Far-Infrared Regime,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 560 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, S. K. Kim, N. C. Luhmann, “Far-Infrared Scattering Measurements of Density Fluctuations in the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part III, p. 1314.

S. K. Kim, D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, “High-Resolution Interferometry on the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part 1, p. 148.

Lehecka, T.

T. Lehecka, R. Savage, R. Dworak, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, A. Semet, “High-Power, Twin-Frequency FIR Lasers for Plasma Diagnostic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1986 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Luhmann, N. C.

T. Lehecka, R. Savage, R. Dworak, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, A. Semet, “High-Power, Twin-Frequency FIR Lasers for Plasma Diagnostic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1986 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, C. P. Ritz, E. J. Powers, “Resolving the Propagation Direction of Tokamak Microturbulence Via Homodyne Spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1977 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Luhmann, W. A. Peebles, “Instrumentation for Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 279 (1984), Sec. I and references therein; D. Véron, “Submillimeter Interferometry of High Density Plasmas,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 2, K. J. Button, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Semet, A. Mase, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, S. Zweben, “Study of Low-Frequency Microturbulence in the Microtor Tokamak by Far-Infrared Laser Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 445 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, S. K. Kim, N. C. Luhmann, “Far-Infrared Scattering Measurements of Density Fluctuations in the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part III, p. 1314.

S. K. Kim, D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, “High-Resolution Interferometry on the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part 1, p. 148.

Mase, A.

A. Semet, A. Mase, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, S. Zweben, “Study of Low-Frequency Microturbulence in the Microtor Tokamak by Far-Infrared Laser Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 445 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, K.

T. Tsukishima, I. Nishida, M. Nagatsu, H. Inuzuka, K. Mizuno, “Dual Homodyne Detection System for Measuring Asymmetric Spectra in the Far-Infrared Regime,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 560 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsu, M.

T. Tsukishima, I. Nishida, M. Nagatsu, H. Inuzuka, K. Mizuno, “Dual Homodyne Detection System for Measuring Asymmetric Spectra in the Far-Infrared Regime,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 560 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, I.

T. Tsukishima, I. Nishida, M. Nagatsu, H. Inuzuka, K. Mizuno, “Dual Homodyne Detection System for Measuring Asymmetric Spectra in the Far-Infrared Regime,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 560 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ono, M.

M. Ono, G. J. Greene, D. S. Darrow, C. Forest, H. K. Park, T. H. Stix. “Steady-State Tokamak Discharge via dc Helicity Injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. K.

M. Ono, G. J. Greene, D. S. Darrow, C. Forest, H. K. Park, T. H. Stix. “Steady-State Tokamak Discharge via dc Helicity Injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Park, “Tokamak Plasma Wave Studies Via Multi-Channel Far Infrared Laser Scattering,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, Los Angeles (1984).

Parker, C. D.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, N. R. Erickson, “Far-IR Heterodyne Radiometric Measurements with Quasioptical Schottky Diode Mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Peebles, W. A.

T. Lehecka, R. Savage, R. Dworak, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, A. Semet, “High-Power, Twin-Frequency FIR Lasers for Plasma Diagnostic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1986 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, C. P. Ritz, E. J. Powers, “Resolving the Propagation Direction of Tokamak Microturbulence Via Homodyne Spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1977 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Luhmann, W. A. Peebles, “Instrumentation for Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 279 (1984), Sec. I and references therein; D. Véron, “Submillimeter Interferometry of High Density Plasmas,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 2, K. J. Button, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Semet, A. Mase, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, S. Zweben, “Study of Low-Frequency Microturbulence in the Microtor Tokamak by Far-Infrared Laser Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 445 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, S. K. Kim, N. C. Luhmann, “Far-Infrared Scattering Measurements of Density Fluctuations in the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part III, p. 1314.

S. K. Kim, D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, “High-Resolution Interferometry on the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part 1, p. 148.

Powers, E. J.

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, C. P. Ritz, E. J. Powers, “Resolving the Propagation Direction of Tokamak Microturbulence Via Homodyne Spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1977 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ritz, C. P.

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, C. P. Ritz, E. J. Powers, “Resolving the Propagation Direction of Tokamak Microturbulence Via Homodyne Spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1977 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Savage, R.

T. Lehecka, R. Savage, R. Dworak, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, A. Semet, “High-Power, Twin-Frequency FIR Lasers for Plasma Diagnostic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1986 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Semet, A.

T. Lehecka, R. Savage, R. Dworak, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, A. Semet, “High-Power, Twin-Frequency FIR Lasers for Plasma Diagnostic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1986 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Semet, A. Mase, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, S. Zweben, “Study of Low-Frequency Microturbulence in the Microtor Tokamak by Far-Infrared Laser Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 445 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stix, T. H.

M. Ono, G. J. Greene, D. S. Darrow, C. Forest, H. K. Park, T. H. Stix. “Steady-State Tokamak Discharge via dc Helicity Injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tannenwald, P. E.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, N. R. Erickson, “Far-IR Heterodyne Radiometric Measurements with Quasioptical Schottky Diode Mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tsukishima, T.

T. Tsukishima, I. Nishida, M. Nagatsu, H. Inuzuka, K. Mizuno, “Dual Homodyne Detection System for Measuring Asymmetric Spectra in the Far-Infrared Regime,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 560 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zweben, S.

A. Semet, A. Mase, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, S. Zweben, “Study of Low-Frequency Microturbulence in the Microtor Tokamak by Far-Infrared Laser Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 445 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, N. R. Erickson, “Far-IR Heterodyne Radiometric Measurements with Quasioptical Schottky Diode Mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Semet, A. Mase, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, S. Zweben, “Study of Low-Frequency Microturbulence in the Microtor Tokamak by Far-Infrared Laser Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 445 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Ono, G. J. Greene, D. S. Darrow, C. Forest, H. K. Park, T. H. Stix. “Steady-State Tokamak Discharge via dc Helicity Injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

J. J. Gustincic, “Receiver Design Principles,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 105, 40 (1977).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. Tsukishima, I. Nishida, M. Nagatsu, H. Inuzuka, K. Mizuno, “Dual Homodyne Detection System for Measuring Asymmetric Spectra in the Far-Infrared Regime,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 560 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, C. P. Ritz, E. J. Powers, “Resolving the Propagation Direction of Tokamak Microturbulence Via Homodyne Spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1977 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Luhmann, W. A. Peebles, “Instrumentation for Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 279 (1984), Sec. I and references therein; D. Véron, “Submillimeter Interferometry of High Density Plasmas,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 2, K. J. Button, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. Savage, R. Dworak, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, A. Semet, “High-Power, Twin-Frequency FIR Lasers for Plasma Diagnostic Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1986 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other

Manufactured by Buckbee-Mears, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

Ref. 2, Sec. III.D.2.

J. A. Goree, “The Backward Electrostatic Ion-Cyclotron Wave, Fast Wave Current Drive, and FIR Laser Scattering,” Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton U. (1985).

D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, S. K. Kim, N. C. Luhmann, “Far-Infrared Scattering Measurements of Density Fluctuations in the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part III, p. 1314.

S. K. Kim, D. L. Brower, W. A. Peebles, N. C. Luhmann, “High-Resolution Interferometry on the TEXT Tokamak,” in Proceedings, Fourteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madrid (22–26 June 1987), Part 1, p. 148.

H. K. Park, “Tokamak Plasma Wave Studies Via Multi-Channel Far Infrared Laser Scattering,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, Los Angeles (1984).

Provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dual far infrared laser and its associated CO2 pump laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far infrared optical system as seen (a) from above and (b) from the side in the plane of A and A′. Here BS denotes beam splitter, M denotes mirror, L denotes lens, D denotes Schottky diode detector, W denotes a window, and ω denotes the frequency of the beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical configuration for (a) homodyne scattering measurements and (b) heterodyne interferometry.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Line integral electron density as a function of radius and time for a CDX tokamaklike discharge.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Homodyne fluctuation spectra at several values of k from the CDX tokamaklike discharges. A strong, single-frequency mode is seen at 20 kHz, with a broadband background.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Beam Splitter Characteristics for Each Operating Wavelength (Refer to Fig. 2 for the Location of Each Beam Splitter)

Tables Icon

Table II Observed k at Various Scattering Angles for Each Laser Wavelengtha

Equations (1)

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k = 2 k 0 sin 1 2 θ ,

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