Abstract

A very powerful space-variant image processing technique such as median filtering is performed using the polarization-encoded optical shadow casting (POSC) system. The POSC system is used to process two different noisy images. Two different POSC architectures and input encodings are identified and compared.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical Logic Array Processor Using Shadowgrams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 800 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Li, G. Eichmann, R. R. Alfano, “Optical Computing Using Hybrid Encoded Shadow Casting,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2636 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. A. Karim, A. A. S. Awwal, A. K. Cherri, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Logic Units: Design,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2720 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, A. K. Cherri, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Scheme: Design of Multioutput Trinary Combinational Logic Units,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4814 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Programmable Logic Array: Simultaneous Generation of Multiple Outputs,” Appl. Opt. 27, 932 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow Casting: Design of a J-K Flip-Flop,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3719 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. A. A. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Associative PolarizationEncoded Optical Shadow Casting: Gray-Level Image Encoding for Serial and Parallel Operation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 284 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical-Logic-Array Processor Using Shadowgrams. II. Optical Parallel Digital Image Processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1237 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. S. Huang, Two-Dimensional Digital Signal Processing II (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).
  10. A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing, Vol. 1 (Academic, New York, 1982), Chap. 6.
  11. E. L. Johnson, M. A. Karim, Digital Design: A Pragmatic Approach (PWS Publishers, Boston, MA, 1987).
  12. A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Design of Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Logic Units Using TruthTable Partitioning,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 841 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, T. Minami, “Nearest-Neighbor Median Filter,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3445 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. D. Goodman, W. T. Rhodes, “Symbolic Substitution Applications to Image Processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1708 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. P. Casasent, E. Botha, “Optical Symbolic Substitution for Morphological Transformations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3806 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. K. Cherri, M. A. Karim, “Modified-Signed Digit Arithmetic Using an Efficient Symbolic Substitution,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3824 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. R. Dougherty, C. R. Giardina, Matrix Structured Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1987).
  18. A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Edge Detection Using Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 1, 377 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (8)

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

Awwal, A. A. A.

Awwal, A. A. S.

Botha, E.

Casasent, D. P.

Cherri, A. K.

Dougherty, E. R.

E. R. Dougherty, C. R. Giardina, Matrix Structured Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1987).

Eichmann, G.

Giardina, C. R.

E. R. Dougherty, C. R. Giardina, Matrix Structured Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1987).

Goodman, S. D.

Huang, T. S.

T. S. Huang, Two-Dimensional Digital Signal Processing II (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).

Ichioka, Y.

Itoh, K.

Johnson, E. L.

E. L. Johnson, M. A. Karim, Digital Design: A Pragmatic Approach (PWS Publishers, Boston, MA, 1987).

Kak, A. C.

A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing, Vol. 1 (Academic, New York, 1982), Chap. 6.

Karim, M. A.

A. A. A. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Associative PolarizationEncoded Optical Shadow Casting: Gray-Level Image Encoding for Serial and Parallel Operation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 284 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Edge Detection Using Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 1, 377 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Design of Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Logic Units Using TruthTable Partitioning,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 841 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Cherri, M. A. Karim, “Modified-Signed Digit Arithmetic Using an Efficient Symbolic Substitution,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3824 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow Casting: Design of a J-K Flip-Flop,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3719 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Programmable Logic Array: Simultaneous Generation of Multiple Outputs,” Appl. Opt. 27, 932 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, A. K. Cherri, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Scheme: Design of Multioutput Trinary Combinational Logic Units,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4814 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Karim, A. A. S. Awwal, A. K. Cherri, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Logic Units: Design,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2720 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Johnson, M. A. Karim, Digital Design: A Pragmatic Approach (PWS Publishers, Boston, MA, 1987).

Li, Y.

Minami, T.

Rhodes, W. T.

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing, Vol. 1 (Academic, New York, 1982), Chap. 6.

Tanida, J.

Appl. Opt. (10)

Y. Li, G. Eichmann, R. R. Alfano, “Optical Computing Using Hybrid Encoded Shadow Casting,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2636 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Karim, A. A. S. Awwal, A. K. Cherri, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Logic Units: Design,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2720 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, A. K. Cherri, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Scheme: Design of Multioutput Trinary Combinational Logic Units,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4814 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Programmable Logic Array: Simultaneous Generation of Multiple Outputs,” Appl. Opt. 27, 932 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Goodman, W. T. Rhodes, “Symbolic Substitution Applications to Image Processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1708 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, T. Minami, “Nearest-Neighbor Median Filter,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow Casting: Design of a J-K Flip-Flop,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3719 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Casasent, E. Botha, “Optical Symbolic Substitution for Morphological Transformations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3806 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Cherri, M. A. Karim, “Modified-Signed Digit Arithmetic Using an Efficient Symbolic Substitution,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3824 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. A. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Associative PolarizationEncoded Optical Shadow Casting: Gray-Level Image Encoding for Serial and Parallel Operation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 284 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Design of Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting Logic Units Using TruthTable Partitioning,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 841 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, “Edge Detection Using Polarization-Encoded Optical Shadow-Casting,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 1, 377 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

E. R. Dougherty, C. R. Giardina, Matrix Structured Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1987).

T. S. Huang, Two-Dimensional Digital Signal Processing II (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).

A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing, Vol. 1 (Academic, New York, 1982), Chap. 6.

E. L. Johnson, M. A. Karim, Digital Design: A Pragmatic Approach (PWS Publishers, Boston, MA, 1987).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization-encoded optical shadow casting system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of (a) an uncorrupted image and (b) an image with salt-and-pepper noise.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Code for the noisy image: (a) A; (b) B; and (c) C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Filtered image using (a) a horizontal window and (b) a vertical window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Second example of (a) an uncorrupted image and (b) a corrupted image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a)–(c) Coded noisy image using design I; (d) coded image using design II.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Filtered output using a horizontal window for both designs.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Median Truth Table for Three Binary Numbers

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A 11     B 11     C 11 = V ,
A 11     B 11     C 11 = H ,
A 21     B 21     C 21 = V ,
A 21     B 21     C 21 = H ,
A = [ T H ] , B = [ T V ] , C = [ V T ]   .
A = [ T F T T ] , B = [ T T T F ] , C = [ T T F T ] ,

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