Abstract

An erasable optical storage medium utilizing an AgTCNQ organometallic charge transfer complex has been demonstrated. AgTCNQ films were produced by a vacuum deposition technique in which the donor (Ag) and acceptor (TCNQ°) were reacted in the solid state. High contrast patterns were produced on the material by cw and pulsed Nd:YAG and GaAlAs lasers, and erasure was accomplished by cw Nd:YAG and GaAlAs lasers or bulk heating. Up to fifteen write–erase cycles were observed, with reflectivity increases up to 30% observed in optimum conditions.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. S. Potember et al., “Electrical Switching and Memory Phenomena in Cu-TCNQ Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 405 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. S. Potember et al., “A Reversible Field Induced Phase Transition in Semiconducting Films of Silver and Copper TNAP Radical-Ion Salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 3659 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Potember et al., “The Vibrational and X-Ray Photoelectronic Spectra of Semiconducting Copper-TCNQ Films,” Chem. Scr. 17, 219 (1981).
  4. R. S. Potember et al., “Reversible Electric Field Induced Bistability in Carbon Based Radical-Ion Semiconducting Complexes: A Model System for Molecular Information Processing and Storage,” in Molecular Electronics, F. L. Carter, Ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987).
  5. R. S. Potember et al., “Optical Switching in Semiconductor Organic Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 548 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. C. Benson et al., “Spectral Dependence of Reversible Optically Induced Transitions in Organometallic Compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 855 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. Morgan, “Dual UV/Thermally Curable Acrylate Compositions with Pinacol,” U.S. Pat.4,288,527 (1981). Although the composition of the UV curing topcoat can vary considerably, typical components include an acrylic prepolymer, a cross-linking agent such as pinacol, and one or more thermal or ultraviolet initiators.
  8. J. B. Torrance et al., “Optical Properties of Charge Transfer Salts of Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ),” Solid State Commun. 17, 1369 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Hoshino et al., “Reversible Write–Erase Properties of CuTCNQ Optical Recording Media,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, L341 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. The aluminum underlayer thickness was 100 nm, and the AgTCNQ film was ~200 nm thick and was covered with a TCNQ° doped acrylic topcoat. The write laser used was a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. Pulse energies were ~5 μJ. The erase laser was a cw Nd:YAG laser used in conjunction with an electromechanical shutter.

1986 (1)

H. Hoshino et al., “Reversible Write–Erase Properties of CuTCNQ Optical Recording Media,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, L341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. C. Benson et al., “Spectral Dependence of Reversible Optically Induced Transitions in Organometallic Compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 855 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. S. Potember et al., “Optical Switching in Semiconductor Organic Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 548 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. S. Potember et al., “The Vibrational and X-Ray Photoelectronic Spectra of Semiconducting Copper-TCNQ Films,” Chem. Scr. 17, 219 (1981).

1980 (1)

R. S. Potember et al., “A Reversible Field Induced Phase Transition in Semiconducting Films of Silver and Copper TNAP Radical-Ion Salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 3659 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. S. Potember et al., “Electrical Switching and Memory Phenomena in Cu-TCNQ Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 405 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. B. Torrance et al., “Optical Properties of Charge Transfer Salts of Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ),” Solid State Commun. 17, 1369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Benson, R. C.

R. C. Benson et al., “Spectral Dependence of Reversible Optically Induced Transitions in Organometallic Compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 855 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, H.

H. Hoshino et al., “Reversible Write–Erase Properties of CuTCNQ Optical Recording Media,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, L341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, C. R.

C. R. Morgan, “Dual UV/Thermally Curable Acrylate Compositions with Pinacol,” U.S. Pat.4,288,527 (1981). Although the composition of the UV curing topcoat can vary considerably, typical components include an acrylic prepolymer, a cross-linking agent such as pinacol, and one or more thermal or ultraviolet initiators.

Potember, R. S.

R. S. Potember et al., “Optical Switching in Semiconductor Organic Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 548 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Potember et al., “The Vibrational and X-Ray Photoelectronic Spectra of Semiconducting Copper-TCNQ Films,” Chem. Scr. 17, 219 (1981).

R. S. Potember et al., “A Reversible Field Induced Phase Transition in Semiconducting Films of Silver and Copper TNAP Radical-Ion Salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 3659 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Potember et al., “Electrical Switching and Memory Phenomena in Cu-TCNQ Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 405 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Potember et al., “Reversible Electric Field Induced Bistability in Carbon Based Radical-Ion Semiconducting Complexes: A Model System for Molecular Information Processing and Storage,” in Molecular Electronics, F. L. Carter, Ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987).

Torrance, J. B.

J. B. Torrance et al., “Optical Properties of Charge Transfer Salts of Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ),” Solid State Commun. 17, 1369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. S. Potember et al., “Electrical Switching and Memory Phenomena in Cu-TCNQ Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 405 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Potember et al., “Optical Switching in Semiconductor Organic Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 548 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Benson et al., “Spectral Dependence of Reversible Optically Induced Transitions in Organometallic Compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 855 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Scr. (1)

R. S. Potember et al., “The Vibrational and X-Ray Photoelectronic Spectra of Semiconducting Copper-TCNQ Films,” Chem. Scr. 17, 219 (1981).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. S. Potember et al., “A Reversible Field Induced Phase Transition in Semiconducting Films of Silver and Copper TNAP Radical-Ion Salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 3659 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Hoshino et al., “Reversible Write–Erase Properties of CuTCNQ Optical Recording Media,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, L341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. B. Torrance et al., “Optical Properties of Charge Transfer Salts of Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ),” Solid State Commun. 17, 1369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

The aluminum underlayer thickness was 100 nm, and the AgTCNQ film was ~200 nm thick and was covered with a TCNQ° doped acrylic topcoat. The write laser used was a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. Pulse energies were ~5 μJ. The erase laser was a cw Nd:YAG laser used in conjunction with an electromechanical shutter.

C. R. Morgan, “Dual UV/Thermally Curable Acrylate Compositions with Pinacol,” U.S. Pat.4,288,527 (1981). Although the composition of the UV curing topcoat can vary considerably, typical components include an acrylic prepolymer, a cross-linking agent such as pinacol, and one or more thermal or ultraviolet initiators.

R. S. Potember et al., “Reversible Electric Field Induced Bistability in Carbon Based Radical-Ion Semiconducting Complexes: A Model System for Molecular Information Processing and Storage,” in Molecular Electronics, F. L. Carter, Ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of an erasable AgTCNQ optical storage disk.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron micrograph of AgTCNQ film grown by the solid state method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectra of switched and unswitched AgTNCQ thin film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of an optical recording media static characterizer

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase transformation kinetics diagram for spot formation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface plot showing conditions of laser power and pulse width which cause reflectivity to increase.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photomicrograph of AgTCNQ film showing portions of spot array erased by a cw Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Number of write–erase cycles vs reflected power for AgTCNQ thin film.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

AgTCNQ/ethyl cellulose film with spot array made with a 780-nm semiconductor laser (array is 1 × 2 mm).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

AgTCNQ/ethyl cellulose film with spot array erased with a defocused 780-nm semiconductor laser (array is 1 × 2 mm).

Equations (1)

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( Ag + TCNQ ) n Δ E    ( Ag ° ) x + ( Ag + TCNQ ) n x + ( TCNQ ° ) x .

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