Abstract

Laser holographic techniques offer a sensitive means of detecting small displacements. This paper describes the use of holographic interference to study the movements of an embryo in an intact incubating egg. The method is noninvasive and enables one to monitor the development of behavior in the chick embryo. Movements are displayed in the form of fringes on a TV screen and recorded on videocassettes as a function of time. This is the first report of the use of an optical interference phenomenon to detect movements of an embryo. Besides being useful in the study of the prenatal motility cycle, the method allows one to discriminate diverse types of movement, their onset, duration, and frequency of repetition. Examples are provided to illustrate some movements. The spectacular holographic aided visioning of the pipping behavior of the chick embryo is then briefly described.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Z. Y. Kuo, “Ontogeny of Embryonic Behavior in Aves: the Chronology and General Nature of the Behavior of the Chick Embryo,” J. Exp. Zool. 61, 395 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Tuge, “The Development of Behavior in Avian Embryos,” J. Comp. Neurol. 66, 157 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Hamburger, R. Oppenheim, “Prehatching Motility and Hatching Behavior in the Chick,” J. Exp. Zool. 166, 171 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Gottlieb, “Prenatal Behavior of Birds,” Q. Rev. Biol. 43, 148 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. W. Oppenheim, H. L. Levin, M. S. Harth, “An Investigation of Various Egg-Opening Techniques for Use in Avian Behavioral Embryology,” Dev. Psychobiol. 6, 53 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. F. Becker, “Experimental Analysis of the Vaseline Technique of Kuo for Studying Behavioral Development in Chick Embryos,” J. Genet. Psychol. 60, 153 (1942).
  7. S. H. Salter, “A Note on the Recording of Egg Activity,” Anim. Behav. 14, 41 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. K. Kovach, “Development and Mechanisms of Behavior in the Chick Embryo During the Last Five Days of Incubation,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 73, 392 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

R. W. Oppenheim, H. L. Levin, M. S. Harth, “An Investigation of Various Egg-Opening Techniques for Use in Avian Behavioral Embryology,” Dev. Psychobiol. 6, 53 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

J. K. Kovach, “Development and Mechanisms of Behavior in the Chick Embryo During the Last Five Days of Incubation,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 73, 392 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

G. Gottlieb, “Prenatal Behavior of Birds,” Q. Rev. Biol. 43, 148 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967

V. Hamburger, R. Oppenheim, “Prehatching Motility and Hatching Behavior in the Chick,” J. Exp. Zool. 166, 171 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

S. H. Salter, “A Note on the Recording of Egg Activity,” Anim. Behav. 14, 41 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1942

R. F. Becker, “Experimental Analysis of the Vaseline Technique of Kuo for Studying Behavioral Development in Chick Embryos,” J. Genet. Psychol. 60, 153 (1942).

1937

H. Tuge, “The Development of Behavior in Avian Embryos,” J. Comp. Neurol. 66, 157 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1932

Z. Y. Kuo, “Ontogeny of Embryonic Behavior in Aves: the Chronology and General Nature of the Behavior of the Chick Embryo,” J. Exp. Zool. 61, 395 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. F.

R. F. Becker, “Experimental Analysis of the Vaseline Technique of Kuo for Studying Behavioral Development in Chick Embryos,” J. Genet. Psychol. 60, 153 (1942).

Gottlieb, G.

G. Gottlieb, “Prenatal Behavior of Birds,” Q. Rev. Biol. 43, 148 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamburger, V.

V. Hamburger, R. Oppenheim, “Prehatching Motility and Hatching Behavior in the Chick,” J. Exp. Zool. 166, 171 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harth, M. S.

R. W. Oppenheim, H. L. Levin, M. S. Harth, “An Investigation of Various Egg-Opening Techniques for Use in Avian Behavioral Embryology,” Dev. Psychobiol. 6, 53 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovach, J. K.

J. K. Kovach, “Development and Mechanisms of Behavior in the Chick Embryo During the Last Five Days of Incubation,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 73, 392 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Kuo, “Ontogeny of Embryonic Behavior in Aves: the Chronology and General Nature of the Behavior of the Chick Embryo,” J. Exp. Zool. 61, 395 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Levin, H. L.

R. W. Oppenheim, H. L. Levin, M. S. Harth, “An Investigation of Various Egg-Opening Techniques for Use in Avian Behavioral Embryology,” Dev. Psychobiol. 6, 53 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oppenheim, R.

V. Hamburger, R. Oppenheim, “Prehatching Motility and Hatching Behavior in the Chick,” J. Exp. Zool. 166, 171 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oppenheim, R. W.

R. W. Oppenheim, H. L. Levin, M. S. Harth, “An Investigation of Various Egg-Opening Techniques for Use in Avian Behavioral Embryology,” Dev. Psychobiol. 6, 53 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salter, S. H.

S. H. Salter, “A Note on the Recording of Egg Activity,” Anim. Behav. 14, 41 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuge, H.

H. Tuge, “The Development of Behavior in Avian Embryos,” J. Comp. Neurol. 66, 157 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Anim. Behav.

S. H. Salter, “A Note on the Recording of Egg Activity,” Anim. Behav. 14, 41 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dev. Psychobiol.

R. W. Oppenheim, H. L. Levin, M. S. Harth, “An Investigation of Various Egg-Opening Techniques for Use in Avian Behavioral Embryology,” Dev. Psychobiol. 6, 53 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol.

H. Tuge, “The Development of Behavior in Avian Embryos,” J. Comp. Neurol. 66, 157 (1937).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.

J. K. Kovach, “Development and Mechanisms of Behavior in the Chick Embryo During the Last Five Days of Incubation,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 73, 392 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Zool.

Z. Y. Kuo, “Ontogeny of Embryonic Behavior in Aves: the Chronology and General Nature of the Behavior of the Chick Embryo,” J. Exp. Zool. 61, 395 (1932).
[CrossRef]

V. Hamburger, R. Oppenheim, “Prehatching Motility and Hatching Behavior in the Chick,” J. Exp. Zool. 166, 171 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Genet. Psychol.

R. F. Becker, “Experimental Analysis of the Vaseline Technique of Kuo for Studying Behavioral Development in Chick Embryos,” J. Genet. Psychol. 60, 153 (1942).

Q. Rev. Biol.

G. Gottlieb, “Prenatal Behavior of Birds,” Q. Rev. Biol. 43, 148 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagrammatic representation of the interferometry setup used to sense embryonic activities in an intact incubating egg.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(c) A set of holographic reconstructions chosen arbitrarily from recorded sequences to illustrate the evolution of the patterns of embryonic movements as a function of time. The intervals separating interferograms (b) from (a), and (c) from (b) are 0′48″ and 23′32″, respectively. (d) An interferogram taken from another film demonstrates a specific limb movement near the airspace.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observation of a specific repetitive movement. The interferograms are separated by successive intervals of 1′14″ and 8′17″ in the order (a)–(c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Visualization of pipping behavior in an embryo about to hatch. (a) and (b) The closed peach shaped fringe pulsates at an average rate of 49 times min−1 preceding the formation of microcracks. (c) Fringe pattern indicates the formation of microcracks subsequent to repeated blows to the shell, (d) First pipping crack appears at the point of impact of the beak blows on the shell. This photograph was made by shining a pocket lamp on the shell from outside the incubator.

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