Abstract

A steady state model is presented which describes the vertical structure of aerosol particle size distributions in the marine mixed layer. A balance is assumed between the fluxes at the top of the mixed layer and at the air–sea interface. Effects of surface stability and entrainment are taken into account. The concentration gradients are further determined by the interaction of the aerosol size distribution and the humidity field. Results of numerical calculations are compared to profiles of 1.06-μm backscatter coefficients which were measured with lidar over the North Atlantic. The correct trends are predicted in 65% of the cases.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. E. Junge, “The Vertical Distribution of Aerosols over the Ocean,” in Artificial Stimulation of Rain, H. Weickmann, Ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1957).
  2. Y. Toba, “On the Giant Sea-Salt Particles in the Atmosphere,” Tellus 17, 131 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. C. Wells, G. Gal, M. W. Munn, “Aerosol Distributions in Maritime Air and Predicted Scattering Coefficients in the Infrared,” Appl. Opt. 16, 654 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” Report AFGL-TR-79-0214 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1979).
  5. D. C. Blanchard, A. H. Woodcock, “The Production, Concentration, and Vertical Distribution of the Sea-Salt Aerosol,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 338, 330 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. G. Hughes, J. H. Richter, “Extinction Coefficients Calculated from Aerosol Size Distributions Measured in a Marine Environment,” Opt. Eng. 19, 616 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. R. Noonkester, “Extinction Coefficients Calculated from Aerosol Spectra Measured in a Convective Marine Layer with Stratus,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1275 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. W. Fairall, “Total Optical Depth and Mixed-Layer Visibility in the Marine Regime,” Opt. Eng. 22, 50 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Goroch, S. Burk, K. L. Davidson, “Stability Effects on Aerosol Size and Height Distributions,” Tellus 32, 245 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. L. Davidson, L. Schutz, “Observational Results on the Influence of Surface Layer Stability and Inversion Entrainment on Surface Layer Marine Aerosol Number Density (1 Micrometer),” Opt. Eng. 22, 45 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. J. Kunz, “Vertical Atmospheric Profiles Measured with Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1955 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Meteorological Models for Optical Properties in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Opt. Eng. 21, 847 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Businger, “Turbulent Transfer in the Atmospheric Surface Layer,” in Workshop on Micrometeorology, D. A. Haugen, Ed. (American Meteorologic Society, Boston, 1973).
  14. J. Wu, “Spray in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Review and Analysis of Laboratory and Oceanic Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1693 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Fitzgerald, “Approximation Formulas for the Equilibrium Size of an Aerosol Particle as a Function of Its Dry Size and Composition and the Ambient Relative Humidity,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1044 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. G. Gathman, “Optical Properties of Marine Aerosol as Predicted by the NAVY Aerosol Model,” Opt. Eng. 22, 57 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. G. Hughes, “An Evaluation of the LOWTRAN 6 Navy Maritime Aerosol Model Using 8- to 12-μm Sky Radiances,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1155 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. T. Liu, K. B. Katsaros, J. A. Businger, “Bulk Parameterization of Air–Sea Exchanges of Heat and Water Vapor Including the Molecular Constraints at the Interface,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 1722 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Application of a Mixed-Layer Model to Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer,” Tellus 36B, 203 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. L. Davidson, C. W. Fairall, P. J. Boyle, G. E. Schacher, “Verification of an Atmospheric Mixed-Layer Model for a Coastal Region,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 617 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1987

H. G. Hughes, “An Evaluation of the LOWTRAN 6 Navy Maritime Aerosol Model Using 8- to 12-μm Sky Radiances,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Application of a Mixed-Layer Model to Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer,” Tellus 36B, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Davidson, C. W. Fairall, P. J. Boyle, G. E. Schacher, “Verification of an Atmospheric Mixed-Layer Model for a Coastal Region,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 617 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

C. W. Fairall, “Total Optical Depth and Mixed-Layer Visibility in the Marine Regime,” Opt. Eng. 22, 50 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Gathman, “Optical Properties of Marine Aerosol as Predicted by the NAVY Aerosol Model,” Opt. Eng. 22, 57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Davidson, L. Schutz, “Observational Results on the Influence of Surface Layer Stability and Inversion Entrainment on Surface Layer Marine Aerosol Number Density (1 Micrometer),” Opt. Eng. 22, 45 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kunz, “Vertical Atmospheric Profiles Measured with Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1955 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Meteorological Models for Optical Properties in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Opt. Eng. 21, 847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

A. Goroch, S. Burk, K. L. Davidson, “Stability Effects on Aerosol Size and Height Distributions,” Tellus 32, 245 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Blanchard, A. H. Woodcock, “The Production, Concentration, and Vertical Distribution of the Sea-Salt Aerosol,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 338, 330 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Hughes, J. H. Richter, “Extinction Coefficients Calculated from Aerosol Size Distributions Measured in a Marine Environment,” Opt. Eng. 19, 616 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. Wu, “Spray in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Review and Analysis of Laboratory and Oceanic Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1693 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Liu, K. B. Katsaros, J. A. Businger, “Bulk Parameterization of Air–Sea Exchanges of Heat and Water Vapor Including the Molecular Constraints at the Interface,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 1722 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

1975

J. W. Fitzgerald, “Approximation Formulas for the Equilibrium Size of an Aerosol Particle as a Function of Its Dry Size and Composition and the Ambient Relative Humidity,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1044 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1965

Y. Toba, “On the Giant Sea-Salt Particles in the Atmosphere,” Tellus 17, 131 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, D. C.

D. C. Blanchard, A. H. Woodcock, “The Production, Concentration, and Vertical Distribution of the Sea-Salt Aerosol,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 338, 330 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, P. J.

K. L. Davidson, C. W. Fairall, P. J. Boyle, G. E. Schacher, “Verification of an Atmospheric Mixed-Layer Model for a Coastal Region,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 617 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Burk, S.

A. Goroch, S. Burk, K. L. Davidson, “Stability Effects on Aerosol Size and Height Distributions,” Tellus 32, 245 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Businger, J. A.

W. T. Liu, K. B. Katsaros, J. A. Businger, “Bulk Parameterization of Air–Sea Exchanges of Heat and Water Vapor Including the Molecular Constraints at the Interface,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 1722 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Businger, “Turbulent Transfer in the Atmospheric Surface Layer,” in Workshop on Micrometeorology, D. A. Haugen, Ed. (American Meteorologic Society, Boston, 1973).

Davidson, K. L.

K. L. Davidson, C. W. Fairall, P. J. Boyle, G. E. Schacher, “Verification of an Atmospheric Mixed-Layer Model for a Coastal Region,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 617 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Application of a Mixed-Layer Model to Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer,” Tellus 36B, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Davidson, L. Schutz, “Observational Results on the Influence of Surface Layer Stability and Inversion Entrainment on Surface Layer Marine Aerosol Number Density (1 Micrometer),” Opt. Eng. 22, 45 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Meteorological Models for Optical Properties in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Opt. Eng. 21, 847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Goroch, S. Burk, K. L. Davidson, “Stability Effects on Aerosol Size and Height Distributions,” Tellus 32, 245 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fairall, C. W.

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Application of a Mixed-Layer Model to Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer,” Tellus 36B, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Davidson, C. W. Fairall, P. J. Boyle, G. E. Schacher, “Verification of an Atmospheric Mixed-Layer Model for a Coastal Region,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 617 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, “Total Optical Depth and Mixed-Layer Visibility in the Marine Regime,” Opt. Eng. 22, 50 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Meteorological Models for Optical Properties in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Opt. Eng. 21, 847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” Report AFGL-TR-79-0214 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1979).

Fitzgerald, J. W.

J. W. Fitzgerald, “Approximation Formulas for the Equilibrium Size of an Aerosol Particle as a Function of Its Dry Size and Composition and the Ambient Relative Humidity,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1044 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gal, G.

Gathman, S. G.

S. G. Gathman, “Optical Properties of Marine Aerosol as Predicted by the NAVY Aerosol Model,” Opt. Eng. 22, 57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Goroch, A.

A. Goroch, S. Burk, K. L. Davidson, “Stability Effects on Aerosol Size and Height Distributions,” Tellus 32, 245 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, H. G.

H. G. Hughes, “An Evaluation of the LOWTRAN 6 Navy Maritime Aerosol Model Using 8- to 12-μm Sky Radiances,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Hughes, J. H. Richter, “Extinction Coefficients Calculated from Aerosol Size Distributions Measured in a Marine Environment,” Opt. Eng. 19, 616 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Junge, C. E.

C. E. Junge, “The Vertical Distribution of Aerosols over the Ocean,” in Artificial Stimulation of Rain, H. Weickmann, Ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1957).

Katsaros, K. B.

W. T. Liu, K. B. Katsaros, J. A. Businger, “Bulk Parameterization of Air–Sea Exchanges of Heat and Water Vapor Including the Molecular Constraints at the Interface,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 1722 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, G. J.

Liu, W. T.

W. T. Liu, K. B. Katsaros, J. A. Businger, “Bulk Parameterization of Air–Sea Exchanges of Heat and Water Vapor Including the Molecular Constraints at the Interface,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 1722 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Munn, M. W.

Noonkester, V. R.

Richter, J. H.

H. G. Hughes, J. H. Richter, “Extinction Coefficients Calculated from Aerosol Size Distributions Measured in a Marine Environment,” Opt. Eng. 19, 616 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schacher, G. E.

K. L. Davidson, C. W. Fairall, P. J. Boyle, G. E. Schacher, “Verification of an Atmospheric Mixed-Layer Model for a Coastal Region,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 617 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Application of a Mixed-Layer Model to Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer,” Tellus 36B, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Meteorological Models for Optical Properties in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Opt. Eng. 21, 847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schutz, L.

K. L. Davidson, L. Schutz, “Observational Results on the Influence of Surface Layer Stability and Inversion Entrainment on Surface Layer Marine Aerosol Number Density (1 Micrometer),” Opt. Eng. 22, 45 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” Report AFGL-TR-79-0214 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1979).

Toba, Y.

Y. Toba, “On the Giant Sea-Salt Particles in the Atmosphere,” Tellus 17, 131 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wells, W. C.

Woodcock, A. H.

D. C. Blanchard, A. H. Woodcock, “The Production, Concentration, and Vertical Distribution of the Sea-Salt Aerosol,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 338, 330 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, “Spray in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Review and Analysis of Laboratory and Oceanic Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1693 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.

D. C. Blanchard, A. H. Woodcock, “The Production, Concentration, and Vertical Distribution of the Sea-Salt Aerosol,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 338, 330 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Meteorol.

J. W. Fitzgerald, “Approximation Formulas for the Equilibrium Size of an Aerosol Particle as a Function of Its Dry Size and Composition and the Ambient Relative Humidity,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1044 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

W. T. Liu, K. B. Katsaros, J. A. Businger, “Bulk Parameterization of Air–Sea Exchanges of Heat and Water Vapor Including the Molecular Constraints at the Interface,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 1722 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol.

K. L. Davidson, C. W. Fairall, P. J. Boyle, G. E. Schacher, “Verification of an Atmospheric Mixed-Layer Model for a Coastal Region,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 617 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. Wu, “Spray in the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Review and Analysis of Laboratory and Oceanic Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1693 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

K. L. Davidson, L. Schutz, “Observational Results on the Influence of Surface Layer Stability and Inversion Entrainment on Surface Layer Marine Aerosol Number Density (1 Micrometer),” Opt. Eng. 22, 45 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Meteorological Models for Optical Properties in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Opt. Eng. 21, 847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Hughes, J. H. Richter, “Extinction Coefficients Calculated from Aerosol Size Distributions Measured in a Marine Environment,” Opt. Eng. 19, 616 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, “Total Optical Depth and Mixed-Layer Visibility in the Marine Regime,” Opt. Eng. 22, 50 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Gathman, “Optical Properties of Marine Aerosol as Predicted by the NAVY Aerosol Model,” Opt. Eng. 22, 57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Hughes, “An Evaluation of the LOWTRAN 6 Navy Maritime Aerosol Model Using 8- to 12-μm Sky Radiances,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tellus

C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, “Application of a Mixed-Layer Model to Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer,” Tellus 36B, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Goroch, S. Burk, K. L. Davidson, “Stability Effects on Aerosol Size and Height Distributions,” Tellus 32, 245 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Y. Toba, “On the Giant Sea-Salt Particles in the Atmosphere,” Tellus 17, 131 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. Businger, “Turbulent Transfer in the Atmospheric Surface Layer,” in Workshop on Micrometeorology, D. A. Haugen, Ed. (American Meteorologic Society, Boston, 1973).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” Report AFGL-TR-79-0214 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1979).

C. E. Junge, “The Vertical Distribution of Aerosols over the Ocean,” in Artificial Stimulation of Rain, H. Weickmann, Ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1957).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Comparison of the calculated vertical variation of the concentration of 2-μm diam particles (n/n0) with a 1.06-μm backscatter profile measured with lidar (β): wind speed u = 13.8 m/s, RH = 88%, L = −513 m. (b) Radiosonde sounding of temperature and relative humidity profiles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Comparison of the calculated vertical variation of the concentration of 2-μm diam particles (n/n0) with a 1.06-μm backscatter profile measured with lidar (β): wind speed u = 4.1 m/s, RH = 86%, L = −49 m. (b) Radiosonde sounding of temperature and relative humidity profiles.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α 0 = f α m ,
h  d n d t = F 0 ( W e + W s ) n  ,
κ u * z ϕ ( z / L ) d n d z + ( W s + W e ) n = 0 ,
F 0 = K t d n d z = κ u * z ϕ ( z / L ) d n d z ,
n n 0 = exp [ z 0 z ( W s + W e ) κ u * ϕ ( z / L ) z d z ] .
n n 0 = exp [ ( W s + W e ) κ u * { 0.74  ln  z z 0 + 4.7 L ( z z 0 ) } ]
n n 0 =  exp [ ( W s + W e ) κ u * { 0.74  ln  z z 0 1.48  ln  1   +   ( 1     9 z / L ) 0.5 2 } ] .
W s = ρ D 2 g 18 η ,
D = D d g ( S ) ,
g ( S ) = 1.2  exp [ 0.066 S / ( 1.058 S ) ]  ,
ρ = ρ w + ( ρ d ρ w ) g ( S ) 3 ,
n n 0 = exp z 0 z [ { g D d 2 18 η g ( S ) 2 [ ρ w + ( ρ d ρ w ) g ( S ) 3 ] } + W e ] × ( 1 κ u ) ϕ ( z / L ) z d z ,
D 0 = D g ( S 0 ) g ( S z ) .
F ( z ) = ( D 0 D z ) ν ,

Metrics