Abstract

A method is described for obtaining size, velocity, and optical properties of transparent spherical droplets employing the polarization characteristics of scattered light. A preliminary analysis of the Lorenz-Mie solution, in comparison with geometrical optics, points out the importance of surface waves in the side scattering region between θ = 85° and θ = 120°. Here the horizontal component of scattered light due to surface waves prevails over that due to external reflection for droplets smaller than 100 μm and the polarization ratio γ = CHH/CVV can be employed for determining the particle size. A dual-beam system is made of two equal intensity circularly counterotating polarized laser beams which generate a polarized fringe pattern in the interference volume. The polarization ratio of scattered light, at a fixed scattering angle θ, and velocity is obtained by analysis of the bursts produced by individual droplets. The method was tested by determining the size and velocity distribution functions of droplet arrays produced by a Berglund-Liu atomizer operated either in monodisperse or in bidisperse regimes. The angular pattern of the polarization ratio was determined on calibrated streams of transparent droplets with different refractive indices, and the influence of this parameter on the role of surface waves in different angular scattering regions is discussed.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Angular Pattern Distribution and Polarization State of the Light Scattered by Isothermal Sprays and Oil Flames,” Combust. Flame 49, 183 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Drop Size and Concentration in a Spray by Sideward Laser Light Scattering Measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 36, 19 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Ensemble Laser Light Scattering Diagnostics for the Study of Fuel Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions,” in Proceedings, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1984), p. 1249.
  4. F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Characterization of Heavy Oil Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions with Laser Light Scattering Measurements in the Sideward Region,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 353, 35 (1983).
  5. F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Soot and PAH Distributions in Oil Spray Flames, Inferred by Elastic and Inelastic Laser Light Scattering,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium (Internationali) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1982), p. 1359.
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Beretta, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Spray Vaporization and Soot Formation in Flames Generated by Light Oils with Different Chemical Composition,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 1133.
  7. F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, P. Massoli, R. Ragucci, “A Spectral Scattering Method for Determining Size Distribution Functions and Optical Characteristics of Droplets Ensembles in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 675.
  8. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).
  9. H. M. Nussenzveig, “High-Frequency Scattering by a Transparent Sphere,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 82 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. M. Nussenzveig, “Complex Angular Momentum Theory of the Rainbow and the Glory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1068 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. M. Nussenzveig, W. J. Wiscombe, “Forward Optical Glory,” Opt. Lett. 5, 455 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. S. Atakan, A. R. Jones, “Measurement of Particle Size and Refractive Index Using Crossed-Beam Laser Anemometry,” J. Phys. D 15, 1 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. N. Berglund, B. Y. H. Liu, “Generation of Monodisperse Aerosol Standards,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 147 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Drop Size and Concentration in a Spray by Sideward Laser Light Scattering Measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 36, 19 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Characterization of Heavy Oil Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions with Laser Light Scattering Measurements in the Sideward Region,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 353, 35 (1983).

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Angular Pattern Distribution and Polarization State of the Light Scattered by Isothermal Sprays and Oil Flames,” Combust. Flame 49, 183 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. S. Atakan, A. R. Jones, “Measurement of Particle Size and Refractive Index Using Crossed-Beam Laser Anemometry,” J. Phys. D 15, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1973 (1)

R. N. Berglund, B. Y. H. Liu, “Generation of Monodisperse Aerosol Standards,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. M. Nussenzveig, “High-Frequency Scattering by a Transparent Sphere,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 82 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Atakan, M. S.

M. S. Atakan, A. R. Jones, “Measurement of Particle Size and Refractive Index Using Crossed-Beam Laser Anemometry,” J. Phys. D 15, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Beretta, F.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Drop Size and Concentration in a Spray by Sideward Laser Light Scattering Measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 36, 19 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Characterization of Heavy Oil Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions with Laser Light Scattering Measurements in the Sideward Region,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 353, 35 (1983).

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Angular Pattern Distribution and Polarization State of the Light Scattered by Isothermal Sprays and Oil Flames,” Combust. Flame 49, 183 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Soot and PAH Distributions in Oil Spray Flames, Inferred by Elastic and Inelastic Laser Light Scattering,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium (Internationali) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1982), p. 1359.
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Ensemble Laser Light Scattering Diagnostics for the Study of Fuel Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions,” in Proceedings, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1984), p. 1249.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, P. Massoli, R. Ragucci, “A Spectral Scattering Method for Determining Size Distribution Functions and Optical Characteristics of Droplets Ensembles in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 675.

F. Beretta, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Spray Vaporization and Soot Formation in Flames Generated by Light Oils with Different Chemical Composition,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 1133.

Berglund, R. N.

R. N. Berglund, B. Y. H. Liu, “Generation of Monodisperse Aerosol Standards,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cavaliere, A.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Drop Size and Concentration in a Spray by Sideward Laser Light Scattering Measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 36, 19 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Characterization of Heavy Oil Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions with Laser Light Scattering Measurements in the Sideward Region,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 353, 35 (1983).

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Angular Pattern Distribution and Polarization State of the Light Scattered by Isothermal Sprays and Oil Flames,” Combust. Flame 49, 183 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Ensemble Laser Light Scattering Diagnostics for the Study of Fuel Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions,” in Proceedings, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1984), p. 1249.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Soot and PAH Distributions in Oil Spray Flames, Inferred by Elastic and Inelastic Laser Light Scattering,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium (Internationali) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1982), p. 1359.
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, P. Massoli, R. Ragucci, “A Spectral Scattering Method for Determining Size Distribution Functions and Optical Characteristics of Droplets Ensembles in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 675.

D’Alessio, A.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Drop Size and Concentration in a Spray by Sideward Laser Light Scattering Measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 36, 19 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Characterization of Heavy Oil Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions with Laser Light Scattering Measurements in the Sideward Region,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 353, 35 (1983).

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Angular Pattern Distribution and Polarization State of the Light Scattered by Isothermal Sprays and Oil Flames,” Combust. Flame 49, 183 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Soot and PAH Distributions in Oil Spray Flames, Inferred by Elastic and Inelastic Laser Light Scattering,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium (Internationali) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1982), p. 1359.
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Ensemble Laser Light Scattering Diagnostics for the Study of Fuel Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions,” in Proceedings, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1984), p. 1249.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, P. Massoli, R. Ragucci, “A Spectral Scattering Method for Determining Size Distribution Functions and Optical Characteristics of Droplets Ensembles in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 675.

F. Beretta, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Spray Vaporization and Soot Formation in Flames Generated by Light Oils with Different Chemical Composition,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 1133.

Jones, A. R.

M. S. Atakan, A. R. Jones, “Measurement of Particle Size and Refractive Index Using Crossed-Beam Laser Anemometry,” J. Phys. D 15, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B. Y. H.

R. N. Berglund, B. Y. H. Liu, “Generation of Monodisperse Aerosol Standards,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Massoli, P.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, P. Massoli, R. Ragucci, “A Spectral Scattering Method for Determining Size Distribution Functions and Optical Characteristics of Droplets Ensembles in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 675.

Noviello, C.

F. Beretta, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Spray Vaporization and Soot Formation in Flames Generated by Light Oils with Different Chemical Composition,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 1133.

Nussenzveig, H. M.

Ragucci, R.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, P. Massoli, R. Ragucci, “A Spectral Scattering Method for Determining Size Distribution Functions and Optical Characteristics of Droplets Ensembles in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 675.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Wiscombe, W. J.

AGARD Conf. Proc. (1)

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Characterization of Heavy Oil Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions with Laser Light Scattering Measurements in the Sideward Region,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 353, 35 (1983).

Combust. Flame (1)

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Angular Pattern Distribution and Polarization State of the Light Scattered by Isothermal Sprays and Oil Flames,” Combust. Flame 49, 183 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Drop Size and Concentration in a Spray by Sideward Laser Light Scattering Measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 36, 19 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. N. Berglund, B. Y. H. Liu, “Generation of Monodisperse Aerosol Standards,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Math. Phys. (1)

H. M. Nussenzveig, “High-Frequency Scattering by a Transparent Sphere,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 82 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

M. S. Atakan, A. R. Jones, “Measurement of Particle Size and Refractive Index Using Crossed-Beam Laser Anemometry,” J. Phys. D 15, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Ensemble Laser Light Scattering Diagnostics for the Study of Fuel Sprays in Isothermal and Burning Conditions,” in Proceedings, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1984), p. 1249.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, “Soot and PAH Distributions in Oil Spray Flames, Inferred by Elastic and Inelastic Laser Light Scattering,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium (Internationali) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1982), p. 1359.
[CrossRef]

F. Beretta, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Spray Vaporization and Soot Formation in Flames Generated by Light Oils with Different Chemical Composition,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 1133.

F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio, P. Massoli, R. Ragucci, “A Spectral Scattering Method for Determining Size Distribution Functions and Optical Characteristics of Droplets Ensembles in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twenty-First Symposium (International) (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986), p. 675.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Angular patterns of the polarization ratio γ for water droplets of different diameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarized light scattering cross sections CVV and CHH as functions of particle diameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization ratio γ at θ= 90° vs the diameter for water droplets.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical signal generated by a single droplet.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Size distribution function vs particle diameter (upper part) and velocity distribution function vs the vertical component of the velocity (lower part) for water droplets emerging from the orifice operated in the calibrated procedure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Velocity–diameter correlation for a bimodal water droplet array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Angular patterns of the polarization ratio γ for 42-μm diam droplets of water (m = 1.33), isopropyl alcohol (m = 1.38), and tetradecane (m = 1.43).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q HH = 0 N C HH F ( D ) d D N 0 D F ( D ) d D ,
Q VV = 0 N C VV F ( D ) d D N 0 D 2 F ( D ) d D ,
D 21 = 0 D 2 F ( D ) d D 0 D F ( D ) d D .

Metrics