Abstract

A method of measuring S cone pathway sensitivity which corrects internally for media absorption, flicker sensitivity variations, and diffuse losses in retinal sensitivity is presented. Foveal S cone pathway sensitivity was measured in elderly subjects who had no ophthalmoscopically detectable retinal abnormality other than the presence of drusen. S cone pathway sensitivity was decreased in the elderly group compared with a group of young normals. The elderly group was subdivided by drusen characteristics present in fundus photographs into a group felt to be at high risk of developing age-related macular degeneration and a group judged to be at low risk. There was a mean difference in age of 7 yr between the groups. There was a weak association between a lower S cone pathway sensitivity and the presence of high risk drusen characteristics not attributable to the age difference. Yellow flicker sensitivity better separated the high risk group from the low risk group, but this was attributable to the mean difference in age between the groups. The limited usefulness of the drusen risk classification in assessing the likelihood of developing severe age-related macular degeneration highlights the need for following a group of drusen patients prospectively to assess the true worth of S cone pathway sensitivity in this disease.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Krueger, L. R. Maunder et al., “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl), 335 (1980).
    [PubMed]
  2. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group, “Argon Laser Photocoagulation for Senile Macular Degeneration: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 912 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  3. D. A. Newsome, M. Swartz, N. C. Leone et al., “Oral Zinc in Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 192 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. L. Ferris, “Senile Macular Degeneration: Review of Epidemiologic Features,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 118, 132 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  5. Z. Gregor, A. C. Bird, I. H. Chisholm, “Senile Disciform Macular Degeneration in the Second Eye,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 141 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. S. Gragoudas, S. R. Chandra, E. Friedman et al., “Disciform Degeneration of the Macula: II. Pathogenesis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 755 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The Second Eye of Patients with Senile Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 1191 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. E. Smiddy, S. L. Fine, “Prognosis of Patients with Bilateral Macular Drusen,” Ophthalmology 91, 271 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  9. W. R. Green, P. H. McDonnell, J. H. Yeo, “Pathologic Features of Senile Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 92, 615 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  10. S. H. Sarks, “Drusen and their Relationship to Senile Macular Degeneration,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 8, 117 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, J. M. Seddon, E. S. Gragoudas, L. Jacobson, “Drusen Characteristics in Patients with Exudative versus Nonexudative Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Retina 8, 109 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, L. A. Hyman, “Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Blindness due to Neovascular Maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1640 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979).
  14. S. L. Alvarez, P. E. King-Smith, S. K. Bhargava, “Spectral Thresholds in Macular Degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 67, 508 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, B. Brown, “Two-Color Increment Thresholds in Early Age-Related Maculopathy,” Clin. Vis. Sci (in press).
  16. R. A. Applegate, A. J. Adams, J. C. Cavender, F. Zisman, “Early Color Vision Changes in Age-Related Maculopathy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1458 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Eyes whose Fellow Eye had Exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  18. A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and Luminosity Changes in Glaucoma and Diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413 (1982).
  19. A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Cross-Sectional Norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  20. M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-Cone System Sensitivity and Ocular Media Absorption,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (Suppl.), 301 (1988).
  21. E. Simonson, N. Enzer, S. S. Blankstein, “The Influence of Age on the Fusion Frequency of Flicker,” J. Exp. Psychol. 29, 252 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. E. King-Smith, D. Carden, “Luminance and Opponent-Color Contributions to Visual Detection and Adaptation and toTemporal and Spatial Integration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 709 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. R. Ingling, B. H.-P. Tsou, “Orthogonal Combinations of the Three Visual Channels,” Vis. Res. 17, 1075 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  25. W. S. Stiles, “Color Vision: The Approach through Increment-Threshold Sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 45, 229 (1959).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (3)

D. A. Newsome, M. Swartz, N. C. Leone et al., “Oral Zinc in Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, J. M. Seddon, E. S. Gragoudas, L. Jacobson, “Drusen Characteristics in Patients with Exudative versus Nonexudative Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Retina 8, 109 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-Cone System Sensitivity and Ocular Media Absorption,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (Suppl.), 301 (1988).

1987 (3)

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Eyes whose Fellow Eye had Exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832 (1987).
[PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, A. J. Adams, J. C. Cavender, F. Zisman, “Early Color Vision Changes in Age-Related Maculopathy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1458 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Cross-Sectional Norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824 (1987).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

W. R. Green, P. H. McDonnell, J. H. Yeo, “Pathologic Features of Senile Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 92, 615 (1985).
[PubMed]

1984 (2)

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, L. A. Hyman, “Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Blindness due to Neovascular Maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1640 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Smiddy, S. L. Fine, “Prognosis of Patients with Bilateral Macular Drusen,” Ophthalmology 91, 271 (1984).
[PubMed]

1983 (3)

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The Second Eye of Patients with Senile Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 1191 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. L. Ferris, “Senile Macular Degeneration: Review of Epidemiologic Features,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 118, 132 (1983).
[PubMed]

S. L. Alvarez, P. E. King-Smith, S. K. Bhargava, “Spectral Thresholds in Macular Degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 67, 508 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and Luminosity Changes in Glaucoma and Diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413 (1982).

Macular Photocoagulation Study Group, “Argon Laser Photocoagulation for Senile Macular Degeneration: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 912 (1982).
[PubMed]

1980 (2)

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Krueger, L. R. Maunder et al., “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl), 335 (1980).
[PubMed]

S. H. Sarks, “Drusen and their Relationship to Senile Macular Degeneration,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 8, 117 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (2)

Z. Gregor, A. C. Bird, I. H. Chisholm, “Senile Disciform Macular Degeneration in the Second Eye,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Ingling, B. H.-P. Tsou, “Orthogonal Combinations of the Three Visual Channels,” Vis. Res. 17, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

P. E. King-Smith, D. Carden, “Luminance and Opponent-Color Contributions to Visual Detection and Adaptation and toTemporal and Spatial Integration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 709 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Gragoudas, S. R. Chandra, E. Friedman et al., “Disciform Degeneration of the Macula: II. Pathogenesis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 755 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Color Vision: The Approach through Increment-Threshold Sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 45, 229 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

E. Simonson, N. Enzer, S. S. Blankstein, “The Influence of Age on the Fusion Frequency of Flicker,” J. Exp. Psychol. 29, 252 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. J.

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-Cone System Sensitivity and Ocular Media Absorption,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (Suppl.), 301 (1988).

R. A. Applegate, A. J. Adams, J. C. Cavender, F. Zisman, “Early Color Vision Changes in Age-Related Maculopathy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1458 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and Luminosity Changes in Glaucoma and Diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413 (1982).

Alvarez, S. L.

S. L. Alvarez, P. E. King-Smith, S. K. Bhargava, “Spectral Thresholds in Macular Degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 67, 508 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

Bhargava, S. K.

S. L. Alvarez, P. E. King-Smith, S. K. Bhargava, “Spectral Thresholds in Macular Degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 67, 508 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, A. C.

Z. Gregor, A. C. Bird, I. H. Chisholm, “Senile Disciform Macular Degeneration in the Second Eye,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blankstein, S. S.

E. Simonson, N. Enzer, S. S. Blankstein, “The Influence of Age on the Fusion Frequency of Flicker,” J. Exp. Psychol. 29, 252 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Bressler, N. M.

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, J. M. Seddon, E. S. Gragoudas, L. Jacobson, “Drusen Characteristics in Patients with Exudative versus Nonexudative Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Retina 8, 109 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressler, S. B.

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, J. M. Seddon, E. S. Gragoudas, L. Jacobson, “Drusen Characteristics in Patients with Exudative versus Nonexudative Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Retina 8, 109 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, B.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, B. Brown, “Two-Color Increment Thresholds in Early Age-Related Maculopathy,” Clin. Vis. Sci (in press).

Carden, D.

Cavender, J. C.

R. A. Applegate, A. J. Adams, J. C. Cavender, F. Zisman, “Early Color Vision Changes in Age-Related Maculopathy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1458 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and Luminosity Changes in Glaucoma and Diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413 (1982).

Chandra, S. R.

E. S. Gragoudas, S. R. Chandra, E. Friedman et al., “Disciform Degeneration of the Macula: II. Pathogenesis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 755 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chisholm, I. H.

Z. Gregor, A. C. Bird, I. H. Chisholm, “Senile Disciform Macular Degeneration in the Second Eye,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Eyes whose Fellow Eye had Exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Cross-Sectional Norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824 (1987).
[PubMed]

Enzer, N.

E. Simonson, N. Enzer, S. S. Blankstein, “The Influence of Age on the Fusion Frequency of Flicker,” J. Exp. Psychol. 29, 252 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Ferris, F. L.

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, L. A. Hyman, “Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Blindness due to Neovascular Maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1640 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. L. Ferris, “Senile Macular Degeneration: Review of Epidemiologic Features,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 118, 132 (1983).
[PubMed]

Fine, S. L.

W. E. Smiddy, S. L. Fine, “Prognosis of Patients with Bilateral Macular Drusen,” Ophthalmology 91, 271 (1984).
[PubMed]

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, L. A. Hyman, “Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Blindness due to Neovascular Maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1640 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The Second Eye of Patients with Senile Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 1191 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Eyes whose Fellow Eye had Exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Cross-Sectional Norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824 (1987).
[PubMed]

Friedman, E.

E. S. Gragoudas, S. R. Chandra, E. Friedman et al., “Disciform Degeneration of the Macula: II. Pathogenesis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 755 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gragoudas, E. S.

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, J. M. Seddon, E. S. Gragoudas, L. Jacobson, “Drusen Characteristics in Patients with Exudative versus Nonexudative Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Retina 8, 109 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Gragoudas, S. R. Chandra, E. Friedman et al., “Disciform Degeneration of the Macula: II. Pathogenesis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 755 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. R.

W. R. Green, P. H. McDonnell, J. H. Yeo, “Pathologic Features of Senile Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 92, 615 (1985).
[PubMed]

Gregor, Z.

Z. Gregor, A. C. Bird, I. H. Chisholm, “Senile Disciform Macular Degeneration in the Second Eye,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, B. Brown, “Two-Color Increment Thresholds in Early Age-Related Maculopathy,” Clin. Vis. Sci (in press).

Hillis, A.

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The Second Eye of Patients with Senile Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 1191 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyman, L. A.

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, L. A. Hyman, “Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Blindness due to Neovascular Maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1640 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling, B. H.-P. Tsou, “Orthogonal Combinations of the Three Visual Channels,” Vis. Res. 17, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, L.

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, J. M. Seddon, E. S. Gragoudas, L. Jacobson, “Drusen Characteristics in Patients with Exudative versus Nonexudative Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Retina 8, 109 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King-Smith, P. E.

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Eyes whose Fellow Eye had Exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Cross-Sectional Norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824 (1987).
[PubMed]

Krueger, D. E.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Krueger, L. R. Maunder et al., “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl), 335 (1980).
[PubMed]

Leibowitz, H. M.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Krueger, L. R. Maunder et al., “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl), 335 (1980).
[PubMed]

Leone, N. C.

D. A. Newsome, M. Swartz, N. C. Leone et al., “Oral Zinc in Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauldin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Cross-Sectional Norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Eyes whose Fellow Eye had Exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832 (1987).
[PubMed]

Maunder, L. R.

H. M. Leibowitz, D. E. Krueger, L. R. Maunder et al., “The Framingham Eye Study Monograph,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 24 (Suppl), 335 (1980).
[PubMed]

McDonnell, P. H.

W. R. Green, P. H. McDonnell, J. H. Yeo, “Pathologic Features of Senile Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 92, 615 (1985).
[PubMed]

Newsome, D. A.

D. A. Newsome, M. Swartz, N. C. Leone et al., “Oral Zinc in Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinckers, A. J. L. G.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979).

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979).

Rodic, R.

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and Luminosity Changes in Glaucoma and Diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413 (1982).

Sarks, S. H.

S. H. Sarks, “Drusen and their Relationship to Senile Macular Degeneration,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 8, 117 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneck, M. E.

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-Cone System Sensitivity and Ocular Media Absorption,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (Suppl.), 301 (1988).

Seddon, J. M.

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, J. M. Seddon, E. S. Gragoudas, L. Jacobson, “Drusen Characteristics in Patients with Exudative versus Nonexudative Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Retina 8, 109 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonson, E.

E. Simonson, N. Enzer, S. S. Blankstein, “The Influence of Age on the Fusion Frequency of Flicker,” J. Exp. Psychol. 29, 252 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Smiddy, W. E.

W. E. Smiddy, S. L. Fine, “Prognosis of Patients with Bilateral Macular Drusen,” Ophthalmology 91, 271 (1984).
[PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, “Color Vision: The Approach through Increment-Threshold Sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 45, 229 (1959).
[CrossRef]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Strahlman, E. R.

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The Second Eye of Patients with Senile Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 1191 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartz, M.

D. A. Newsome, M. Swartz, N. C. Leone et al., “Oral Zinc in Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsou, B. H.-P.

C. R. Ingling, B. H.-P. Tsou, “Orthogonal Combinations of the Three Visual Channels,” Vis. Res. 17, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verriest, G.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yeo, J. H.

W. R. Green, P. H. McDonnell, J. H. Yeo, “Pathologic Features of Senile Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 92, 615 (1985).
[PubMed]

Zisman, F.

R. A. Applegate, A. J. Adams, J. C. Cavender, F. Zisman, “Early Color Vision Changes in Age-Related Maculopathy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1458 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and Luminosity Changes in Glaucoma and Diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413 (1982).

Am. J. Epidemiol. (1)

F. L. Ferris, “Senile Macular Degeneration: Review of Epidemiologic Features,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 118, 132 (1983).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (5)

Macular Photocoagulation Study Group, “Argon Laser Photocoagulation for Senile Macular Degeneration: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 912 (1982).
[PubMed]

D. A. Newsome, M. Swartz, N. C. Leone et al., “Oral Zinc in Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Gragoudas, S. R. Chandra, E. Friedman et al., “Disciform Degeneration of the Macula: II. Pathogenesis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 755 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Strahlman, S. L. Fine, A. Hillis, “The Second Eye of Patients with Senile Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 1191 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. L. Ferris, S. L. Fine, L. A. Hyman, “Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Blindness due to Neovascular Maculopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1640 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aust. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. H. Sarks, “Drusen and their Relationship to Senile Macular Degeneration,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 8, 117 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

S. L. Alvarez, P. E. King-Smith, S. K. Bhargava, “Spectral Thresholds in Macular Degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 67, 508 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Gregor, A. C. Bird, I. H. Chisholm, “Senile Disciform Macular Degeneration in the Second Eye,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. (1)

A. J. Adams, F. Zisman, R. Rodic, J. C. Cavender, “Chromaticity and Luminosity Changes in Glaucoma and Diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 413 (1982).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Cross-Sectional Norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824 (1987).
[PubMed]

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-Cone System Sensitivity and Ocular Media Absorption,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29 (Suppl.), 301 (1988).

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in Older Eyes with Good Acuity: Eyes whose Fellow Eye had Exudative AMD,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1832 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

E. Simonson, N. Enzer, S. S. Blankstein, “The Influence of Age on the Fusion Frequency of Flicker,” J. Exp. Psychol. 29, 252 (1941).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Ophthalmology (2)

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[PubMed]

W. R. Green, P. H. McDonnell, J. H. Yeo, “Pathologic Features of Senile Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 92, 615 (1985).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Color Vision: The Approach through Increment-Threshold Sensitivity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 45, 229 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Retina (1)

N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, J. M. Seddon, E. S. Gragoudas, L. Jacobson, “Drusen Characteristics in Patients with Exudative versus Nonexudative Age-related Macular Degeneration,” Retina 8, 109 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

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[PubMed]

Vis. Res. (1)

C. R. Ingling, B. H.-P. Tsou, “Orthogonal Combinations of the Three Visual Channels,” Vis. Res. 17, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, B. Brown, “Two-Color Increment Thresholds in Early Age-Related Maculopathy,” Clin. Vis. Sci (in press).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

S cone pathway sensitivity vs blue difference for all elderly subjects. There is a good correlation between S cone pathway sensitivity and the blue difference.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

S cone pathway sensitivity vs yellow difference for all elderly subjects. There is low correlation between S cone pathway sensitivity and the yellow difference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

S cone pathway sensitivity measurements divided into low risk and high risk drusen groups. The mean for the high risk group is slightly lower, but the difference is not significant and there is considerable overlap in the sensitivity measurements obtained in the two groups.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

S cone pathway sensitivity as a function of age for the elderly subjects. There was not a significant correlation with age within the elderly group.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Age distribution of subjects in the low risk and high risk drusen groups. There is a 7-yr difference between the mean age in each group.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Yellow flicker sensitivity vs age. The subjects in the low risk drusen group are shown as squares; those in the high risk drusen group are shown as diamonds.

Tables (2)

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Table I Clinical Description of Subjects

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Table II Data for Each Subject

Equations (1)

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S cone pathway sensitivity  ( in log units ) =  log [ ( blue flash / blue flicker ) / ( yellow flash / yellow flicker ) ] =   ( log blue flash log blue flicker )     ( log yellow flash log yellow flicker ) =  blue difference yellow difference .

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