Abstract

Telescopes are coherently coupled to the eye. Because their wavefront aberrations may be altered by the optics of the eye, especially by accommodation, some researchers question the ability of their modulation transfer functions (MTF) to predict changes in contrast sensitivity functions (CSF) through them. We measured the CSFs of visually normal and aphakic subjects through telescopes. We found that MTF appears to be useful for ranking the telescopes, and accommodation appears to improve focus and partly balance wavefront errors. Our results suggest that cascading (multiplying the contrast of the instrumental MTF with the unaided CSF at each spatial frequency) is useful for predicting visually aided CSFs to within 4 dB.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Katz, K. Citek, “Modulation Transfer Functions of Low Power Telescopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 198 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Katz, K. Citek, I. Price, “Optical Properties of Low Power Telescopes,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 58, 320 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  3. D. Loshin, J. White, “Contrast Sensitivity: the Visual Rehabilitation of the Patient with Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1303 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Overington, “Interaction of Vision with Optical Aids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1043 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Overington, S. Gullick, “Evaluation of a Total System—Optics Plus Operator,” Opt. Acta 20, 49 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970), p. 311.
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. P. Barton, “Application of the Optical Transfer Function to Visual Instruments,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optics, Brighton, England, 180 (1972).
  8. N. P. Barton, “MTF Testing and Specification for Afocal Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 160 (1974).
  9. N. Fedorova, G. Fedorova, “Relationship Between MTF and Visual Resolution of a Telescope,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 47, 1 (1980).
  10. M. K. Giles, “Aberration Tolerances for Visual Optical Systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 634 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. K. Giles, “Grating Detectability: a Method to Evaluate Aberration Effects in Visual Instruments,” Opt. Eng. 18, 33 (1979).
  12. P. Mouroulis, “Contrast Sensitivity in the Assessment of Visual Instruments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 202 (1981).
  13. T. L. Williams, B. A. Leach, B. J. Biddles, “A Workshop Instrument for Testing Binocular and Other Sights Using MTF Criterion,” Opt. Laser Technol. 4, 115 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. L. Williams, M. L. Nunn, N. P. Barton, “An Afocal System OTF Test Standard,” Opt. Acta 25, 1097 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. J. Burton, “Effects of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Phase Transfer Function (PTF) on Visual Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 211 (1981).
  16. G. J. Burton, N. D. Haig, “Criteria for Testing of Afocal Visual Instruments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 191 (1981).
  17. N. D. Haig, G. J. Burton, “Effects of Wavefront Aberration on Visual Instrument Performance, and a Consequential Test Technique,” Appl. Opt. 26, 492 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. The Conrac Corp., Raster Graphics Handbook (Van Nostrand, New York, 1985).
  19. I. Ohzawa, Vision Metrics PC Pattern Generator Manual (Vision Metrics, Berkeley, CA, 1986).
  20. T. N. Cornsweet, “The Staircase-Method in Psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Katz, K. Citek, A. Arditi, “An Instrument for Measuring the Modulation Transfer Function of Low Power Telescopes and Telemicroscopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 190 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Keppel, Design and Analysis: a Researcher’s Handbook (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1973), p. 401.
  23. I. Bodis-Wollner, J. M. Camisa, “Contrast Sensitivity Measurement in Clinical Diagnosis,” in Neuro-Ophthalmology, Vol. 1, S. Lessell, J. T. W. Van Dalen, Eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1980), p. 373.
  24. D. A. Owens, “A Comparison of Accommodative Responsiveness and Contrast Sensitivity for Sinusoidal Gratings,” Vision Res. 20, 159 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. J. Ciuffreda, S. C. Hokoda, “Spatial Frequency Dependence of Accommodative Responses in Amblyopic Eyes,” Vision Res. 23, 1585 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. W. N. Charman, “Effect of Refractive Error in Visual Tests with Sinusoidal Gratings,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 33, 10 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  27. W. N. Charman, H. Whitefoot, “Astigmatism, Accommodation, and Visual Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3903 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, N. J. Coletta, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial Contrast Sensitivity: Importance of Controlling the Patient’s Visibility Criterion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1035 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Tomlinson, G. Mann, “An Analysis of Visual Performance with Soft Contact Lens and Spectacle Correction,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 5, 53 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1988

M. Katz, K. Citek, “Modulation Transfer Functions of Low Power Telescopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 198 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Katz, K. Citek, A. Arditi, “An Instrument for Measuring the Modulation Transfer Function of Low Power Telescopes and Telemicroscopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

1985

A. Tomlinson, G. Mann, “An Analysis of Visual Performance with Soft Contact Lens and Spectacle Correction,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 5, 53 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, N. J. Coletta, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial Contrast Sensitivity: Importance of Controlling the Patient’s Visibility Criterion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1035 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Loshin, J. White, “Contrast Sensitivity: the Visual Rehabilitation of the Patient with Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1303 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. J. Ciuffreda, S. C. Hokoda, “Spatial Frequency Dependence of Accommodative Responses in Amblyopic Eyes,” Vision Res. 23, 1585 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

G. J. Burton, “Effects of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Phase Transfer Function (PTF) on Visual Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 211 (1981).

G. J. Burton, N. D. Haig, “Criteria for Testing of Afocal Visual Instruments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 191 (1981).

P. Mouroulis, “Contrast Sensitivity in the Assessment of Visual Instruments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 202 (1981).

1980

N. Fedorova, G. Fedorova, “Relationship Between MTF and Visual Resolution of a Telescope,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 47, 1 (1980).

D. A. Owens, “A Comparison of Accommodative Responsiveness and Contrast Sensitivity for Sinusoidal Gratings,” Vision Res. 20, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

W. N. Charman, “Effect of Refractive Error in Visual Tests with Sinusoidal Gratings,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 33, 10 (1979).
[PubMed]

M. K. Giles, “Grating Detectability: a Method to Evaluate Aberration Effects in Visual Instruments,” Opt. Eng. 18, 33 (1979).

1978

T. L. Williams, M. L. Nunn, N. P. Barton, “An Afocal System OTF Test Standard,” Opt. Acta 25, 1097 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman, H. Whitefoot, “Astigmatism, Accommodation, and Visual Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3903 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

1974

N. P. Barton, “MTF Testing and Specification for Afocal Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 160 (1974).

1973

I. Overington, S. Gullick, “Evaluation of a Total System—Optics Plus Operator,” Opt. Acta 20, 49 (1973).
[CrossRef]

I. Overington, “Interaction of Vision with Optical Aids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1043 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

T. L. Williams, B. A. Leach, B. J. Biddles, “A Workshop Instrument for Testing Binocular and Other Sights Using MTF Criterion,” Opt. Laser Technol. 4, 115 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1962

T. N. Cornsweet, “The Staircase-Method in Psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arditi, A.

M. Katz, K. Citek, A. Arditi, “An Instrument for Measuring the Modulation Transfer Function of Low Power Telescopes and Telemicroscopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, N. P.

T. L. Williams, M. L. Nunn, N. P. Barton, “An Afocal System OTF Test Standard,” Opt. Acta 25, 1097 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barton, “MTF Testing and Specification for Afocal Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 160 (1974).

N. P. Barton, “Application of the Optical Transfer Function to Visual Instruments,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optics, Brighton, England, 180 (1972).

Biddles, B. J.

T. L. Williams, B. A. Leach, B. J. Biddles, “A Workshop Instrument for Testing Binocular and Other Sights Using MTF Criterion,” Opt. Laser Technol. 4, 115 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bodis-Wollner, I.

I. Bodis-Wollner, J. M. Camisa, “Contrast Sensitivity Measurement in Clinical Diagnosis,” in Neuro-Ophthalmology, Vol. 1, S. Lessell, J. T. W. Van Dalen, Eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1980), p. 373.

Burton, G. J.

N. D. Haig, G. J. Burton, “Effects of Wavefront Aberration on Visual Instrument Performance, and a Consequential Test Technique,” Appl. Opt. 26, 492 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Burton, N. D. Haig, “Criteria for Testing of Afocal Visual Instruments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 191 (1981).

G. J. Burton, “Effects of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Phase Transfer Function (PTF) on Visual Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 211 (1981).

Camisa, J. M.

I. Bodis-Wollner, J. M. Camisa, “Contrast Sensitivity Measurement in Clinical Diagnosis,” in Neuro-Ophthalmology, Vol. 1, S. Lessell, J. T. W. Van Dalen, Eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1980), p. 373.

Caruso, R. C.

K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, N. J. Coletta, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial Contrast Sensitivity: Importance of Controlling the Patient’s Visibility Criterion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1035 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, “Effect of Refractive Error in Visual Tests with Sinusoidal Gratings,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 33, 10 (1979).
[PubMed]

W. N. Charman, H. Whitefoot, “Astigmatism, Accommodation, and Visual Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3903 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Citek, K.

M. Katz, K. Citek, “Modulation Transfer Functions of Low Power Telescopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 198 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Katz, K. Citek, A. Arditi, “An Instrument for Measuring the Modulation Transfer Function of Low Power Telescopes and Telemicroscopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Katz, K. Citek, I. Price, “Optical Properties of Low Power Telescopes,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 58, 320 (1987).
[PubMed]

Ciuffreda, K. J.

K. J. Ciuffreda, S. C. Hokoda, “Spatial Frequency Dependence of Accommodative Responses in Amblyopic Eyes,” Vision Res. 23, 1585 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coletta, N. J.

K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, N. J. Coletta, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial Contrast Sensitivity: Importance of Controlling the Patient’s Visibility Criterion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1035 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, “The Staircase-Method in Psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970), p. 311.
[CrossRef]

de Monasterio, F. M.

K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, N. J. Coletta, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial Contrast Sensitivity: Importance of Controlling the Patient’s Visibility Criterion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1035 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedorova, G.

N. Fedorova, G. Fedorova, “Relationship Between MTF and Visual Resolution of a Telescope,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 47, 1 (1980).

Fedorova, N.

N. Fedorova, G. Fedorova, “Relationship Between MTF and Visual Resolution of a Telescope,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 47, 1 (1980).

Giles, M. K.

M. K. Giles, “Grating Detectability: a Method to Evaluate Aberration Effects in Visual Instruments,” Opt. Eng. 18, 33 (1979).

M. K. Giles, “Aberration Tolerances for Visual Optical Systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 634 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullick, S.

I. Overington, S. Gullick, “Evaluation of a Total System—Optics Plus Operator,” Opt. Acta 20, 49 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Haig, N. D.

N. D. Haig, G. J. Burton, “Effects of Wavefront Aberration on Visual Instrument Performance, and a Consequential Test Technique,” Appl. Opt. 26, 492 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Burton, N. D. Haig, “Criteria for Testing of Afocal Visual Instruments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 191 (1981).

Higgins, K. E.

K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, N. J. Coletta, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial Contrast Sensitivity: Importance of Controlling the Patient’s Visibility Criterion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1035 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hokoda, S. C.

K. J. Ciuffreda, S. C. Hokoda, “Spatial Frequency Dependence of Accommodative Responses in Amblyopic Eyes,” Vision Res. 23, 1585 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaffe, M. J.

K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, N. J. Coletta, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial Contrast Sensitivity: Importance of Controlling the Patient’s Visibility Criterion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1035 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, M.

M. Katz, K. Citek, A. Arditi, “An Instrument for Measuring the Modulation Transfer Function of Low Power Telescopes and Telemicroscopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Katz, K. Citek, “Modulation Transfer Functions of Low Power Telescopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 198 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Katz, K. Citek, I. Price, “Optical Properties of Low Power Telescopes,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 58, 320 (1987).
[PubMed]

Keppel, G.

G. Keppel, Design and Analysis: a Researcher’s Handbook (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1973), p. 401.

Leach, B. A.

T. L. Williams, B. A. Leach, B. J. Biddles, “A Workshop Instrument for Testing Binocular and Other Sights Using MTF Criterion,” Opt. Laser Technol. 4, 115 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Loshin, D.

D. Loshin, J. White, “Contrast Sensitivity: the Visual Rehabilitation of the Patient with Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1303 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mann, G.

A. Tomlinson, G. Mann, “An Analysis of Visual Performance with Soft Contact Lens and Spectacle Correction,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 5, 53 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mouroulis, P.

P. Mouroulis, “Contrast Sensitivity in the Assessment of Visual Instruments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 202 (1981).

Nunn, M. L.

T. L. Williams, M. L. Nunn, N. P. Barton, “An Afocal System OTF Test Standard,” Opt. Acta 25, 1097 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ohzawa, I.

I. Ohzawa, Vision Metrics PC Pattern Generator Manual (Vision Metrics, Berkeley, CA, 1986).

Overington, I.

I. Overington, “Interaction of Vision with Optical Aids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1043 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Overington, S. Gullick, “Evaluation of a Total System—Optics Plus Operator,” Opt. Acta 20, 49 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Owens, D. A.

D. A. Owens, “A Comparison of Accommodative Responsiveness and Contrast Sensitivity for Sinusoidal Gratings,” Vision Res. 20, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, I.

M. Katz, K. Citek, I. Price, “Optical Properties of Low Power Telescopes,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 58, 320 (1987).
[PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

A. Tomlinson, G. Mann, “An Analysis of Visual Performance with Soft Contact Lens and Spectacle Correction,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 5, 53 (1985).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

D. Loshin, J. White, “Contrast Sensitivity: the Visual Rehabilitation of the Patient with Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1303 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Whitefoot, H.

Williams, T. L.

T. L. Williams, M. L. Nunn, N. P. Barton, “An Afocal System OTF Test Standard,” Opt. Acta 25, 1097 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Williams, B. A. Leach, B. J. Biddles, “A Workshop Instrument for Testing Binocular and Other Sights Using MTF Criterion,” Opt. Laser Technol. 4, 115 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt.

M. Katz, K. Citek, “Modulation Transfer Functions of Low Power Telescopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 198 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Katz, K. Citek, A. Arditi, “An Instrument for Measuring the Modulation Transfer Function of Low Power Telescopes and Telemicroscopes,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Psychol.

T. N. Cornsweet, “The Staircase-Method in Psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Ophthalmol.

K. E. Higgins, M. J. Jaffe, N. J. Coletta, R. C. Caruso, F. M. de Monasterio, “Spatial Contrast Sensitivity: Importance of Controlling the Patient’s Visibility Criterion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102, 1035 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Loshin, J. White, “Contrast Sensitivity: the Visual Rehabilitation of the Patient with Macular Degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1303 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Physiol. Opt.

W. N. Charman, “Effect of Refractive Error in Visual Tests with Sinusoidal Gratings,” Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 33, 10 (1979).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Optom. Assoc.

M. Katz, K. Citek, I. Price, “Optical Properties of Low Power Telescopes,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 58, 320 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt.

A. Tomlinson, G. Mann, “An Analysis of Visual Performance with Soft Contact Lens and Spectacle Correction,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 5, 53 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

T. L. Williams, M. L. Nunn, N. P. Barton, “An Afocal System OTF Test Standard,” Opt. Acta 25, 1097 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. Overington, S. Gullick, “Evaluation of a Total System—Optics Plus Operator,” Opt. Acta 20, 49 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. K. Giles, “Grating Detectability: a Method to Evaluate Aberration Effects in Visual Instruments,” Opt. Eng. 18, 33 (1979).

Opt. Laser Technol.

T. L. Williams, B. A. Leach, B. J. Biddles, “A Workshop Instrument for Testing Binocular and Other Sights Using MTF Criterion,” Opt. Laser Technol. 4, 115 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

G. J. Burton, “Effects of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Phase Transfer Function (PTF) on Visual Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 211 (1981).

G. J. Burton, N. D. Haig, “Criteria for Testing of Afocal Visual Instruments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 191 (1981).

P. Mouroulis, “Contrast Sensitivity in the Assessment of Visual Instruments,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 274, 202 (1981).

N. P. Barton, “MTF Testing and Specification for Afocal Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 160 (1974).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol.

N. Fedorova, G. Fedorova, “Relationship Between MTF and Visual Resolution of a Telescope,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 47, 1 (1980).

Vision Res.

D. A. Owens, “A Comparison of Accommodative Responsiveness and Contrast Sensitivity for Sinusoidal Gratings,” Vision Res. 20, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Ciuffreda, S. C. Hokoda, “Spatial Frequency Dependence of Accommodative Responses in Amblyopic Eyes,” Vision Res. 23, 1585 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. Keppel, Design and Analysis: a Researcher’s Handbook (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1973), p. 401.

I. Bodis-Wollner, J. M. Camisa, “Contrast Sensitivity Measurement in Clinical Diagnosis,” in Neuro-Ophthalmology, Vol. 1, S. Lessell, J. T. W. Van Dalen, Eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1980), p. 373.

The Conrac Corp., Raster Graphics Handbook (Van Nostrand, New York, 1985).

I. Ohzawa, Vision Metrics PC Pattern Generator Manual (Vision Metrics, Berkeley, CA, 1986).

T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, New York, 1970), p. 311.
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barton, “Application of the Optical Transfer Function to Visual Instruments,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optics, Brighton, England, 180 (1972).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) The MTFs of the Eschenbach (- - -) and Walters (- ⋅ - ⋅ -) telescopes selected for CSF tests, compared with the diffraction limited (——) MTF; (B) MTFs of the telescopes coupled to the compensator; EC(- - -) WC (- ⋅ - ⋅ -). Tests made with a 3-mm exit pupil.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MTFR curves or the ratio of the MTF of the telescope/ compensator systems with respect to the diffraction-limited MTF :EC(- - -),WC(- ⋅ - ⋅ -)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Mean CSFs of five visually normal subjects, with standard error bars indicated, for the unaided (circles), EC (triangles), and WC (squares) conditions; (B) mean CSFRs, with standard error bars, of these subjects; (C) residual differences between the mean CSFRs and MTFRs. The zero line corresponds to predicted CSF based on cascading MTF and CSF. Positive values may be described as a gain in sensitivity, negative values as a loss.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Mean CSFs of three aphakic subjects, with standard error bars indicated, for the unaided (circles), EC (triangles), and WC (squares) conditions; (B) mean CSFRs, with standard error bars, of these subjects; (C) residual differences between the mean CSFRs and MTFRs. The zero line corresponds to predicted CSF based on cascading MTF and CSF. Positive values may be described as a gain in sensitivity, negative values as a loss.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Spatial Frequencies Presented In the Three Conditions of Test

Tables Icon

Table II Summary of Significant F/Ratios for CSFs of Visually Normal Subjects

Metrics